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Enoch, or Second Book of Enoch is a pseudepigraphic text in the apocalyptic genre dating from . The Second Book of Enoch, also known as The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, is most noted for its description of multiple heavens and accounts. THE Book of the Secrets of Enoch cannot fai l to be of interest to students of Apocalyptic li teratur e and of the ori gi ns of Chri stianit y. It is with a view to help s. The Book of the Secrets of Enoch has, so far as is j^et known, been preserved only in Slavonic. It will suit our convenience to take advantage of this fact, and call.

The Book Of The Secrets Of Enoch

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The Book of the Secrets of Enoch. Also known as Slavonic Enoch or 2 Enoch. Index. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Enoch was the great-grandfather of Noah. The Book of Enoch chapter "And after that my great-grandfather Enoch gave me all the secrets in the book and in. The Book of the Secrets of Enoch: Translated From the Slavonic (Classic Reprint) [William Richard Morfill] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Countenance was changed: Be of good cheer: II; x. In LXX Gen. The conjunction of Be of good cheer and Chapters I. Now, my children, I say unto you: See exegetical note in loc. Bless the Lord with the firstlings of your flocks and the firstlings of your children, and blessings shall be upon you for ever ; and do not depart from the Lord.

Be not afraid is found iu Matt. Know whither I am going, xiv. Turn not aside mentioned though not named in Eth. Walk En. Keep his judge rived from LXX. For Tai'SaS Mass. Worship vain gods: LXX, Syr. Cain, and therefore wrongly appears 5 ; Is- ii. As however B omits it both turn from these vain things unto the here and in Ivii. A confusion of Enoch, son the earth. And now, my children, let no one seek me till the Lord hring-s me back to vou. For the fear of Him A reads His own paths.

Make confident your hearts in mentum: A very great sea: Placed me on the clouds. Levi 2 this sea En. This corresponds to the firma- IV. Rulers of the orders of the ment in Asc. For a full but divergent in firmamentum et ibi vidi Samuia- account of these see Eth. The angels. In the postea me ascendere fecit supra firma- Eth. Uriel is the sole ruler of the Chapters II. And the treasuries of the clouds from which they come forth and into which they enter.

And the men took me and brought me to the ' B om. There I saw, Sok. And their robes are like, B. In Eth. Accord- V. Job xxxviii. These treasuries are Weber, p.

Treasuries of the clouds: Levi VI. Treasuries of the dew: In the Beie.

And I felt great pity for them. For second A Sok. The darkness and Took counsel of their judgement: For phraseology cf. These angels here to pits of darkness to be reserved wished to form a kingdom of their unto judgement. Weber, p. Their the angels that ' kept not their first prince Satanail: This emendation is neces- darkness unto the judgement of the sary. When the angels of the fifth great day,' Jude 6.

They appear heaven rebelled they were cast down to be referred to also in Test. The angels ask Enoch to ovpavw eial -navra to. Ob- to draw up a petition that they might serve that the angels who sinned with find forgiveness. On the other hand to the watchers of heaven. Who knows whither I go, or what awaits me: And in the midst there is the tree of life, in that place, on which God rests, when He comes into Paradise. A reads There, I looked below and I sa'w gardens. These words belongto verse 6.

After this A adds and the gardens have all kinds of fruits ; Sok. B omits veese 4.

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A garden: The tree of life This is reproduced in heaven. All the trees. Pauli rant: Mosis p. All kinds wpaiov, tv ai i-navfiraviTo to in'evfj. There is a modification of this Kev. Mosis ed. In the midst the p. This is the source of lypses. Pauli ed. Levi iS. See also Iren. The 8 Tlie Book of the Secrets of Enoch.

And they go down to the Paradise of Eden, between corruptibility and incorruptibility. Pauli from its root ; B omits ; A and Sok. This is clearly a corrupt addition. See quotation from Apoc. Pauli in explanatory notes, - Two, A and Sok. See note 9 on p. The different conceptions of the heavenly earthly Paradise is said to be be- and the earthly Paradise.

The lattei- tween corruptibility and incor- seems to have been the older: The heavenly Paradise is referred either in corruptibility or incorrupti- to in Eth. Another Apoc. These four streams are taken Nicodeiui ii. Preparedfor the righteous: Chapters VIII.

For them this place is prepared as an eternal inheritance. And there are all sorts of tortures in that place. See note on Eth. Turn away their eyes from unrighteousness: Execute righteous judgement: Give bread to the hungry, and clothe the naked: Assist the orphans who are oppressed: Luke i. Eternal in- heritance: Northern region. To the modern mind it may seem strange that a division of heaven should be assigned to the wicked, but this idea presented no difficulty to the Jews and early Christians.

Thus in the 0. Satan can p' esent himself in heaven. Job i. In Rev. Satan is cast out of heaven with his angels, and the sphere of his activity and residence is now limited to the earth, Kev. The old idea of wickedness being in heaven reappears in Test. Levi 3, where however it is limited to the second heaven see also Test. Isaac , ; Test. Jacob ; but it was subsequently banished from Christian and Jewish thought. See Introduction.

Darkness and. Petri 1 2 tuvoi oKoruvw: Pauli, p. And I said: A reads thirst and freezing, B ; and murkiness. There is no light there: Pauli p. Fiery river. This idea appears first in Eth. It seems however to have been applied early to that purpose, as here, and in the form of a lake of fire in Rev. In Clem. Ahraham, p.

Fire on all sides, and on all sides cold and ice. This seems to be drawn from Eth. Angels terrible and without pity, carrying savage weapons. Angels of destruction are mentioned in the 0.

A class of destroying angels may be referred to in Ecclus.

II ; Ixiii. I , a class of evil angels whose sole func- tion is to punish is mentioned and the conception is evidently a familiar one, though here found for the first time in Jewish literature. This idea appears in the N. Of these the angel mentioned in ix. In Matt.

These angels of destruction or punishment are fre- quently referred to in Latin literature. Levi 3 at Swdfieis. These angels of pimishment are placed in the third heaven as in our text, Cf. Tlie words angels terrible and without pity, carrying savage weapons seem to have been before the writer of Test. Abraham A. Who when they mig-ht feed the hungry, allow them to die of famine ; who w'hen they might clothe them, strip them naked.

Prepared the fourth heaven was called P12t for those who do not honour God. Vitium sodo- Jerusalem, the temple, the altar, and inificum. Petri Michael who offered daily sacrifice. James' ed. The following quotation iJk rwv 0to- Lev. Fourth heaven. Comings and goings. Phoenixes and chalka- Ixxii-lxxviii.

The sun has alight dri. Their chariot on which each ture. The phoenix, wliich according goes like a wind: The phoenix is men- Have no rest day or night: There T amiiavra. There is nothing are many references to it among corresponding to these verses in Eth. Herod, ii. En, Ixxv. And in their shape they resemble a lion in their feet and tail and in the head a crocodile, Sok.

The fable regarding it is recounted as sober fact by I Clem, ad Corinth, xxv ; Tertullian, de Besurrect. Ixxxiv ; and the Apostolic Constitutions v. Origen, contra Celsum iv. To those who believed the fable we should add Eiifinus Comment, in Symh. The phoenix in that poem is an attendant of the sun, 'satelles phoebi ' ver. This poem belongs pro- bably to the fourth century. The voice of the phoenix was celebrated for its sweetness: Pseudo - Lactantius, de Phoenice 46 ' miram vocem': I and xii.

On the two different legends in the Talmud about the origin of the phoenix see Hamburger, E. On the qurs- tiiin generally see Lightfoot, and Gebhai'dt and Harnack on i Clem. I ; Eckermann in Ersch und Grueher sect. Kunst i. They are classed with the Cherubim in Eth. The idea of flying serpents was a familiar one from the O. It was not unfamiliar to the rest of the ancient world: In the 0. What relation these seraphim bear to those in Is.

The analogy of the animal-like forms of the Cherubim in Ezek. Twelve flying spirits and twelve wings to each angel who accom- panies the chariot. The serpent was anciently a symbol of wisdom and healing among the Greeks, the Egyptians Brugsch, Jlel.

Heze- kiah's destruction of the 'brazen serpent ' as associated with idolatry may have caused the symbol to bear almost without exception an evil significance in later times, so that at last it beciime a de. We are therefore inclined to identify these Chalkadi-i with the Seraphim or heavenly crea- tures of Isaiah vi.

These Chalkadri, we should add, sing in xv. The idea here appears in a developed form and is no doubt in- debted for its enlargement to Egyptian mythology. The Seraphim first appear in conjunction with other orders of angels in Eth.

Here their original character seems already to have been forgotten almost as wholly as in modern days, and they are regarded merely as a special class of angels ; whereas in Eth.

In the N. However, though the N. SeeCheyne'a Prophecies of Isaiah, i. Feet and tails of lions. The feet of the Cherubim in Ezek. Their size nine hundred measures. In Bochart's Hierozoicon iii. Aelian, for instance, speaks of one feet long, while an Arabian writer describes one of 8, paces in length. In the Talmud there is frequent mention of angels and creatures of a like monstrous size. Each with twelve. As the ordinary angels in xi. It would seem more natural to read this verse immediately after xi.

Bringing heat and dew. Contrast Chapters XII. A adds to rest. Tliese are the six 3. Goes under the earth. This gates mentioned in the next verse, is undoubtedly corrupt, as the sun For an account of the sun's six eastern does not go under the earth but gates and six western see Eth.

See xiv. The rest of the chapter is Unceasingly: The account seems XIII, 1. The gates by which the to be derived originally from Eth. And so the whole year, A. Opposite to the circuit of the Eastern gates. By which the sun passes, Sok.

Four seasons: The account of two of these seasons is found in Eth. Three hundred and sixty-five, and the quarter of a day. I have shown in my edition of the Eth. Ixxii -Ixxxii. According to the Eth. In our text, however, the sun revolves through the fourth heaven, xi ; xxx.

Dur- ing the night while he passes through the fourth heaven he is v: The reason why the sun is obliged to surrender his crown in passing through the fourth heaven before God is presumably that which is given in the Apoc.

Tis- chend. Eve is there represented as seeing the. She thereupon asks: A reads but the crown of his splendour is in heaven before the Lord: Goes under the earth, A. After night A adds and reaches half his course under the earth. And places on it again the crown, B. B reads this arrangement of the gates by which he enters and goes out the two angels showed me ; these gates the Lord made for the computation and his yearly record of the sun.

See xii. Every pu i dtr' avTcjy. Seven complete bird. We should expect 'all these hours in the night. This is coiTupt. Or are we to take it length of the night varied witli the sea- that the early song of birds at sun- son.

In the Eth. And the men sho'wed me all the movements of these two, B ; A om. For 31 A reads 1. Twelve great gates. These are the same as the gates of the Hence in ver. Tlien in ver. We have thus and a quarter days. The Chapter XV I. The fourth part of one day is neglected during- three years and the fourth year completes it exactly. B omits verse 5. Twenty-nine days. This should be ' tvventy-niiie and a half days. They arose obviously from a marginal gloss.

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The writer in tliis chapter does not get beyond the Metonic cycle, whereas the great cycle of years is produced by multiplying together the Metonic cycle of nineteen years, and the Solar cycle of twenty-eight years. This great cycle is called the Dionysian or Great Paschal Period. As it includes all the variations in respect of the new moons and the dominical letters, it is consequently a period in which Easter and all the movable and un- movable feasts would occur on the same day of the week and month as in the corresponding year of the pre- ceding cycle.

This cycle was first proposed by Victorius of Aquitaine, circ. It is obvious that any reference to such a cycle here is an intrusion. Explanation of leap year. Hope- lessly corrupt. This seems to imply that her light is not borrowed from the sun as it is taufiht in the Eih.

I was delighted at hearing it. B reads, So their circle goes as it were round the heavens and their chariot. The wind goes with it, urging its course and the flying spirits draw on the chariots. And so wonderful and strange is the singing of these angels that it amazes every mind.

The purpose for which they are armed is moon has its attendant six-winged given in Test. This verse third heaven: Serving the Lord with year. Levi 3 gives of the functions of months, the solar and lunar years can the inhabitants of the fourth lieaven: Fifth heaven. Our XVII. An armed host. The text and Test. And their countenances were withered, and their lips are always silent. And I said to the men who were with me: And they said to me: Great and they were huge limbed, A. According to the latter the inhabitants are oi dyfeXoi ol pepovres rai dnoKpiaeis roh a.

Again, in Clem. This Apocalypse is extant iu Thebaic in a fragmentary condition, but these fragments do not contain the passage just quoted. These are theWatcher. The Grigori. These are the angels v. See vi. These Watchers rebelled against God before the angels were tempted to sin with the daugh- ters of men. In other words, we have here the agents of the original revolt in heaven, the Satans ; and their leader is naturally named Sata- nail.

These existed as evil agencies before the fall of the angels ; for in Eth. See Eth. The myth here, however, varies somewhat from that in Eth. The leaders in the Eth. Ixix, however, we have an account which harmonizes with our text. There we see that the superior angels had rebelled before the creation of Adam ; that they had tempted Eve and brought about the fall of the angels in the days of Jared. Thus, in Eth. This is practically the view of portions of the Talmud, See Weber, pp. Quoted in Test.

And they acted lawlessly in all times of this ag-e, and wrought confusion, and the giants were born, and the strangely tall men, and there was much wickedness. And on account of this God judged them with a mighty judgement. And they lament for their brethren, and they will be punished at the great day of the Lord. And I said to the Grigori: The text cannot mean that all the watchers rebelled, but only that it was from the class of the watchers that the rebels proceeded.

It is, of course, just possible that the writers' scheme may differ from the conception we have given above, and be as follows.

The rebellious watcliers, with their prince Satanai , are confined to the fifth heaven. The subordinate angels who followed them are imprisoned in the second heaven, whereas the watchers who went down to earth and sinned with women are imprisoned under the earth. Tliis view is very attractive, but is open to more diffi- culties of interpretation than the one we liave followed. The MSS. In XXX. Accordinof to Eth.

Entered into dealings on. Mount lermon: They will be punished: There is a confusion in this verse. In vii. Enoch has seen the rebellious watchers being tortured in the second heaven ; whereas he says here that he Chapters XV HI. And I have prayed for them, but God has con- demned them to be under the earth, till the heaven and earth are ended for ever. And they listened to my rebuke. I have account in the Asc. There is no prayed for them: Even so their iive heavens, and emphasizes no less singing is still marked with sadness.

The account of the sixth of tlie sixtli heaven cf. The heavenly bodies are that of Test. Levi 3, with that of under Uriel iu Eth. Ix, it is subordinate phim, Ophannim, and Chajjoth, and spirits that are over these natural other angels of service in the seventh objects. Levi 3 in agreement ix. It is Raphael with this vei-se rejiresents the in- in Eth.

Six-winged habitants of the sixth heaven as ol creatures: With this description of heaven. Chapters XIX. All the fiery and bright host of the incorporeal archangels, B. After brightness A Sok. For nine A I have read ten with Sok. For unto their midst A reads after them.

In the tenth heaven, in the tenth heaven is God. In the Hebrew language it is called Avarat. For Chag. But this account can well compare for grandeur with anj- of the above. Lordships, and principali- ties, and powers. So exactly Col. Watchfulness of many eyes seems to be derived from Ezek. These are the Ophan- niiii, Eth. These are the ten orders of angels mentioned in ver. Was afraid and trembled: The Lord All the heavenly hosts These hosts consist of the ten troops mentioned in ver.

According to Maimonides in the Mishne Thora S. I ; Jesode Thora C. In the Berith menucha the list is different: But the nearest parallel is to be found in the nine orders of Dio- nysius the Areopagite, i. These are reproduced in Dante, Far. Lord God of Sabaoth! A transposes these words after for ever. B adds "Woe is me, O Lord! Leave not nor depart depart. Be of good cheer, be not afraid, of the holy — leave not by night nor See i. Chapters XX. And I saw the ninth heaven, which in the Hebrew is called Kukhavim, where are the heavenly homes of the twelve signs of the zodiac.

In the tenth heaven Aravoth, I saw the vision of the face of the Lord, like iron burnt in the fire, and brought forth and emitting sparks, and it burns. So I saw the face of the Lord ; but the face of the Lord cannot be told. It is wonderful and awful, and very terrible. And who am I that I should tell of the unspeakable being of God, and His wonderful face? And it is not for me to tell of His wonderful knowledge and various utterances ; and the very great throne of the Lord not made with hands.

And how many stand around Him, hosts of cherubim and seraphim. And moreover their never-ceasing songs, and their unchanging beauty, and the unspeakable greatness of His beauty, who can tell? In Sok.

And His face was very glorious, marvellous and terrible, threatening, and strange. This xiv. J 7, where the path of the stars verse is clearly an interpolation. It is above the throne of God, and as is not found either in B or Sok. The term in the eighth or ninth.

Some ground for this heaven. The rest of ver. Enoch, be not afraid: And the Lord said to Michael: I have with some hesi- the blessed. II ; vii. He 4 Ezra ii. I Eth. As being the angel cannot find this name anywhere else, set over Israel, Eth.

Give a reed to Enoch. These naturally the chief captain. Joannis Apocryplms Thilo, Cod. Jlfosis ed. Holy oil. This oil is described in ver. Raiment of my et sedens scripsit sexaginta septeni glory.

These are the garments of libros. Chapters XXII.

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And Vretil " said to me: After hours Suk. After creature Sok. So a' so in ] ievious verse. This verse would not tial Physics in Eth. And so I ceased and I had 5. Every soul was created. The Platonic doctrine of tlie pre-existence of the soul is here taught. We find that it had already made its way into Jewish thought in Egypt ; cf. Wisdom of Solomon, viii. This doctrine was accepted and further de- veloped by Philo. According to him the whole atmosphere is filled with souls.

De Gujuut. This doctrine of the pieexistence of the soul was according to Josephus, Bell. It became a prevailing dogma in later Judaism. These souls were conceived of as actually living beings. Accoi-d- ing to Bereshith rahha c. Weber, pp. See XXX. And the Lord spake to me: My mysteries nor their explanations nor My boundless and inexplicable plans in creation, B. I went about in the light as one of the invisible. From the non-exist- rendering of en raiv fj-rj ovtojv.

This ent. Here creation ex nUiHo seems will harmonize with xxv. Visible to be taught. In Philo, on the other things from the invisible: In one passage, however, the word of God, so that what is seen where the absolute creation of the hath not been made out of things which world is taught, we have an actual do appear.

In Gen.

Probaldy, how- waste. Not even to My ever, from the non-existent is a angels: And I planned to lay the foundations and to make the visible creation. And lo! And I said unto him: And I made for Myself a throne, and sat upon it, and I said to the light: Here the formation of mit der Bildung eines Eies aus dem the world from pre-existing elements TJrgewasser, aus dem das Tageslicht, is taught, as in the Book of Wisdom die unmittelliare Ursache des Lebens xi.

There came forth yivfdis. This exactly agrees tls TO ilvat. This is in the main the with the ancient Egyptian myth as teaching of the Talmud. See Weber, described in preceding note. The word does not on Die Qeburt des Lichtes. There occur elsewhere that I am aware of.

In came forth the great world. This this and tlie two subsequent verses we should refer to the world of the hea- have an adaptation of an Egyptian vens, as the earth is dealt with in the myth. We have here a modifi- next chapter. I made for cation of the egg theory of the uni- Myself a throne. Tliis throne was verse. See Clem. This Aegypter, p. According to the monu- the LXX of Prov. And there was nothing- higher than the light, and as I reclined, I saw- it from ]My throne.

And I said to him: God at the creation when he e. The title is very corrupt. Formation, but not and the darkness: And thus I made firm the waters, that is, the depths, and I surrounded the waters with light, and I created seven circles and I fashioned them like crystal, moist and dry, that is to say, like glass and ice, and as for the waters, and also the other elements, I showed each of them their paths, viz.

And I separated between the light and the darkness ; that is to say, between the waters here and there. And I said to the light: Out of the waves I made firm and great stones, and out of the stones I heaped together a dry substance, and I called the dry substance earth. And in the midst of the earth I appointed a pit, that is to say an abyss. I gathered the sea into one jilace, and I restrained it with a yoke. On it God showed to Enoch all His wisdom and power: B is fragmentary and trans- posed, and reads: Seven stars: I called the dry substance earth.

I give thee an eternal portion and thou shalt not move from thy established position,' So I made fast the firmament and fixed it above the water. This I called the first day of the creation. And from the brightness of My eye the lightning received its wonderful nature.

And fire is in the water and water in the fire, and neither is the one quenched, nor the other dried up. And from the stone I cut the mighty fire. I made an everlasting separation between the earth and the sea, and the waters cannot burst forth. And I made fast the firmament, and fixed it above the waters.

The day is Monday, the fiery creations. B omits a nature. A supports text, but that for ten thousand it read of the ten. B adds and all the starry hosts, and the Cherubim, and the Seraphim, and the Ophannim, I cut out of fire. Job xxvi. Firma- of the third in xxx. This verse we have already seen, must have should be read immediately after xxix, been differently placed originally, and together with that chapter should Hence, if we recall the fact that in be restored before xxviii.

This is clear Jubilees ii. It patristic tradition, the creation of the is impossible in its present position. This chap, is clearly dis- evidently on the ground of Job located from its original position xxxviii. There is no mark of perfect harmony with itself and Jewish time attached to it. The work of the tradition by placing xxix, followed first day is given in xxv-xxvii ; that immediately by xxviii. D 3 36 Tlie Book of the Secrets of Enoch.

From the fire I made the. One of these. This is clearly Satan. The rank below him is probably the watchers. But however we interpret the text we are beset with difficulties. There are conflicting elements in the text. Make his throne higher than the clouds. If this is genuine we must take clouds in the sense of heavens. Satan was one of the highest angels before his fall: Satan and Sammael can not be distinguished in Rabbinic writings. On the attempt of Sam- mael to found a kingdom see Weber, The following passage from the Book of Adam and.

Eoe, I. He was flying in the air continu- ally. This view seems to have been generally received amongst the Jews. Eisenmenger, ii. According to the Stoics, on the other hand, the abode of the blessed was under the moon. De An. For other authorities see Meyer on Eph. Satan, one of the archangels xviii. In verse i A atlds Tuesday as title before On the third day.

The Book of Enoch Including the Book of the Secrets of Enoch

A adds "Wednes- day as title of 2'"-']. Therefore Satan, or the Satans for it is the name of a class Weber, , were cast down from heaven, xxix. As for bis followers, the watchers of the fifth heaven, they were cast down to the second and there kept imprisoned and tortured, vii. Some, however, of the Satans or Watchers went down to earth and married the daugliters of men, xviii. From these were born giants, xviii.

Thereupon tiiese watchers were im- prisoned under the earth, xviii. To return to the Satans, however, when man was created, Satan envied him and wished to make another world, xxxi.

Out of envy he tempted Eve to her fall, xxxi. Moun- tains. This is corrupt. Weshouldhave a reference here probably to non-fruit- bearing trees, as in Jub. Every seed that is sown. This phrase is found in Jubilees, ii. Also in Jub. The cosmology of 2 Enoch corresponds closely with early medieval beliefs about the metaphysical structure of the universe.

Though it may have been influential on the shaping of those beliefs, the text was lost after several centuries; it was recovered and published at the end of the nineteenth century. The full text is extant only in Church Slavonic , but Coptic fragments have been known since The Old Bulgarian version itself represents a translation from an original in Greek. Scholars generally attribute 2 Enoch to an author representing an unidentified Jewish sect, while others regard it as the work of first-century Christians.

There is also an unrelated 3 Enoch. The numbering of these texts has been applied by scholars to distinguish the texts from one another.

These Old Bulgarian materials did not circulate independently, but were included in collections that often rearranged, abbreviated, or expanded them. Typically, Jewish pseudepigraphical texts in Slavic milieux were transmitted as part of larger historiographical, moral, and liturgical codexes and compendiums, where ideologically marginal and mainstream materials were mixed with each other. The first editors [5] [6] [7] considered the longer version to be the original.

Since , Schmidt [8] and many authors [3] challenged this theory, and considered the shorter recension to be more ancient. Vaillant [9] showed in that the additional parts found only in the longer version use more recent terms. Other scholars [10] suggest that both of them preserve original material, and posit the existence of three or even four recensions. Two different ways of numbering verses and chapters are used for 2 Enoch: The best family of manuscripts [11] are copies of the compilation of rearranged materials from Chapters 40—65 found in a 14th-century judicial codex titled The Just Balance Merilo Pravednoe.

The main manuscripts of the longer version are designated R, J, and P. The Semitisms, such as the words Ophanim , Raqia Arabot , and others, found in various parts of the text, point to the possibility of a Semitic original behind the Greek version.

In , four fragments in Coptic from Chapters 36—42 were identified. They follow the short recension and are related to Manuscript U. The date of the text can be deduced solely on the basis of the internal evidence, since the book has survived only in the medieval manuscripts even if a reference to 2 Enoch could be found in Origen 's De Principis i, 3: The crucial arguments for the early dating of the text have very largely been linked to the themes of the Temple in Jerusalem and its ongoing practices and customs.

Scholarly efforts have been, in this respect, mostly directed toward finding hints that the Sanctuary was still standing when the original text was composed. Scholars note that the text gives no indication that the destruction of the Temple had already occurred at the time of the book's composition. Critical readers of the pseudepigraphic would have difficulty finding any explicit expression of feelings of sadness or mourning about the loss of the sanctuary.

Affirmations of the value of animal sacrifice and Enoch's halakhic instructions, found in 2 Enoch 59, also appear to be fashioned not in the "preservationist", mishnaic -like style, but rather as if they reflected sacrificial practices that still existed when the author was writing his book. The author tries to legitimize the central place of worship, through reference to the place Ahuzan , which is a cryptic name for a Jewish temple. Scholars have also previously noted in the text some indications of the ongoing practice of pilgrimage to the central place of worship.

These indications could be expected in a text written in the Alexandrian Diaspora. In his instructions to the children, Enoch repeatedly encourages them to bring the gifts before the face of God for the remission of sins, a practice which appears to recall well-known sacrificial customs widespread in the Second Temple period.

Further, the Old Bulgarian apocalypse also contains a direct command to visit the Temple three times a day, an inconsistency if the sanctuary had been already destroyed. The Second Book of Enoch, also known as The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, is most noted for its description of multiple heavens and accounts of battles between angels and devils. This account is thought to have been known by and to have influenced the apostle Paul who described his experience of being taken up to the third heaven 2 Corinthians Enoch describes the ten heavens this way: The first heaven is just above the firmament Genesis 1: In the second heaven, Enoch finds darkness: In the third heaven, he sees both paradise represented as the garden of eden also guarded by angels as in 2 Corinthians The fourth heaven is the place of the movements of the Sun and of the Moon, which are described in detail.

There is also on this level a heavenly choir comprising soldier angels whose singing is wonderful and marvelous. In the fifth heaven, Enoch finds some Grigori: They were in a state of limbo, having not yet been condemned, and Enoch convinced them to repent. In the sixth heaven, he sees the angels in charge of governing the cosmos and people.

In the seventh heaven, Enoch, now guided by Gabriel, is allowed to enter and sees the Lord on his throne face to face but only from a distance.The theological universe of 2 Enoch is deeply rooted in the Enochic mold of the Jewish Apocalyptic literature of the Second Temple period. In the seventh heaven Zarathustra sits on a golden throne.

But with an uncanny persistence, the Book of Enoch found its way back into circulation two centuries ago. The five planets were known to Israel in O. A growing number of scholars recognize the antiquity of 2 Enoch, including also 2EM, and support a pre CE dating for its original composition.