RAILWAY ENGINEERING HANDBOOK PDF
co-ordinating the optional subject 'Railway Engineering Concepts' for Railway Signal Engineers and the Permanent Way Institution for assistance with the. Updated in , the Electric Railway Handbook remains one of the most complete compendiums of electric railway engineering and practice. Richey is still a. Review of Vector Calculus. Chapter 5 gives an overview for the problem of solving partial Figure_Equation 2 Level ir resourceone.info manual - Indian Railway.
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Railroad Track Engineering and Design Course - Michigan Tech University. This “Handbook for Rail Higher Education” is one of the important outcomes of. The text hereafter is not intended to supplant the AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering, the AREMA C&S Manual or other comprehensive texts covering. The purpose of the Rail Office Programs Handbook (Rail Handbook) is to . engineering personnel from the City or County with jurisdictional authority over.
As the train speed increases, the tractive effort from the locomotives decreases and the drawbar pull available to move the train also decreases.
Due to the limited strength of drawbars and coupler knuckles, the number of locomotives or motorized axles that can be used in the head end of a train is restricted. Although rated with a minimum strength of , lb. Grade E knuckles used on some captive services may have an ultimate strength of , lb.
To avoid the risk of drawbar failure enroute, it is recommended to limit the number of motorized axles in a locomotive consist to 18 three 6-axle units. Other resistances due to wind velocity, tunnels or different train marshalling will not be discussed here. Rolling Resistance Rolling Resistance is the sum of the forces that must be overcome by the tractive effort of the locomotive to move a railway vehicle on level tangent track in still air at a constant speed.
These resistive forces include: Rolling friction between wheels and rail that depends mainly on the quality of track.
Bearing resistance, which varies with the weight on each axle and, at low speed, the type, design and lubrication of the bearing. Train dynamic forces that include the effects of friction and impact between the wheel flanges against the gauge side of the rail and those due to sway, concussion, buff and slack-action.
The rail-flange forces vary with speed and quality of the wheel tread and rail, as well as the tracking effect of the trucks.
Air resistance that varies directly with the cross-sectional area, length and shape of the vehicle and the square of its speed. However, LRT projects are not only multidisciplinary, they are interdisciplinary. It is not possible for any one individual to work separately from the other disciplines. General Introduction In the case of the track alignment engineer, he or she will obviously need to work closely with other civil engineers on the project who are responsible for earthworks, drainage, and roadway work and the structural engineers responsible for bridges, walls, and other guideway structures.
The track engineer needs to understand the role each of those other parties has in the project, the basic principles associated with the facilities or systems that they design, how those details relate to the track, and be able to ask intelligent questions when appropriate. This Handbook is designed to give the track designer the background necessary to do just that.
Indeed, the track engineer probably interfaces with more people on the project team than anybody except project management! Enjoy it!
Electric streetcars dominated urban transit in just about every significant American city up through World War II. Also, light rail vehicles may be as massive as transit cars on heavy rail systems. Therefore, for the purposes of this book, it is appropriate to define light rail transit.
The American Public Transportation Association APTA defines light rail transit as An electric railway system characterized by its ability to operate single or multiple car consists along exclusive rights-of-way at ground level, on aerial structures, in subways or in streets, able to board and discharge passengers at station platforms or at street, track, or car-floor level and normally powered by overhead electrical wires.
The track system may also be constructed within exclusive rights-of- way. General Introduction 1.
The streetcar lines in New Orleans are representative of the lower end of this spectrum while the Metrolink system in St. Louis is a good example of the upper end. The focus of the first edition of this Handbook was more toward the stadtbahn end of the LRT continuum, since they were the prototype for nearly all North American LRT projects during the s and s.
However, because of the resurgence of North American streetcar operations during the first decade of the 21st century, it is appropriate for this second edition of the Handbook to provide additional information on the track alignment and trackwork for strassenbahn-type operations.
These differences usually mean that LRT can be constructed at far lower cost than metro rail transit, although the passenger throughput capacity of the latter is also much higher.
This draws a line between the St. The operational characteristics of each route are virtually the same, but only the St. Louis vehicle could actually operate in the street if necessary. It is a very fine distinction, and, while purists may quibble with some of the finer points of this definition, it will suffice for the purposes of this Handbook.
Except for the propulsion system, many of these vehicles and the guideways they run upon closely resemble the Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition stadtbahn end of the LRT spectrum. The second edition of the Handbook will not attempt to cover all of the nuances of the DMU mode; however much of the information contained in the Handbook will be directly applicable to professionals working on a DMU project. This includes freight railroads and passenger railroads such as Amtrak and the commuter rail operations in many cities.
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Track in streets requires special consideration, especially with regard to the control of stray electrical current that could cause corrosion. These embedded tracks also need to provide a flangeway that is large enough for the wheels but does not pose a hazard to other users of the street. Light rail vehicle wheels do not necessarily match those used in freight railroad service. Wheel diameters are usually much smaller, and the wheel tread is often much narrower. Light rail wheel flanges are often shorter and have a radically different contour than railroad wheels.
These variations require special care in track design, especially in the design of special trackwork such as switches and frogs. The compatibility of the vehicle and track designs is a central issue in the development of a light rail system if both components are to perform to acceptable standards.
These issues are discussed at length in this Handbook. This will make operation more reliable and maintenance less expensive.
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Department of Transportation. However, very few rail transit operations are subject to any level of FRA oversight and regulation. The maximum tractive force that can be developed at the rail is equal to the weight on drivers multiplied by the adhesion coefficient of friction of the wheels on the rail.
The primary factors, among others, affecting adhesion are rail condition and speed.
Adhesion decreases as speed increases. As all the wheels on most diesel locomotives are driving wheels, the weight of the locomotives must be about four times the tractive force developed. The HHP high horsepower units for main line service weigh about tons each on 6 axles.
The maximum tractive force is therefore approximately 97, lb. As the train speed increases, the tractive effort from the locomotives decreases and the drawbar pull available to move the train also decreases.
Due to the limited strength of drawbars and coupler knuckles, the number of locomotives or motorized axles that can be used in the head end of a train is restricted.
Although rated with a minimum strength of , lb. Grade E knuckles used on some captive services may have an ultimate strength of , lb. To avoid the risk of drawbar failure enroute, it is recommended to limit the number of motorized axles in a locomotive consist to 18 three 6-axle units.
Other resistances due to wind velocity, tunnels or different train marshalling will not be discussed here.Davis Formula The first empirical formula to compute rolling resistance was developed by W.
Tractive Effort lbs.
Handbook of RAMS in Railway Systems
Though the solution offered may be widely accepted in highway design, the permanence required by the railway environment may not have been yet proven to the railway. He has published over research papers in national and international journals and conference proceedings and has guided several MTech and PhD students.
First, the horizontal alignment defines physically where the route or track goes mathematically the XY plane. Thus greater clearances are required under structures and over grade crossings. This differential deflection may be expressed in differential elevation between tracks, punching of ties, elastic or plastic deformation of the subgrade, or degradation of ballast.
A good rule of thumb is to contact the local highway department as a starting point and continue your investigation to local authorities.