NONVOLATILE MEMORY TECHNOLOGIES WITH EMPHASIS ON FLASH PDF
Presented here is an all-inclusive treatment of Flash technology, including Flash memory chips, Flash embedded in logic, binary cell Flash, and. NONVOLATILE MEMORY. TECHNOLOGIES WITH. EMPHASIS ON FLASH. A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding and. Using NVM Devices. Edited by. Nonvolatile Memory Technologies with Emphasis on Flash: A Request Full-text Paper PDF. Citations . Present and Future Non-Volatile Memories for Space.
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Request PDF on ResearchGate | Nonvolatile Memory Technologies with Emphasis on Flash: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding and Using NVM. Nonvolatile Memory Technologies with Emphasis on Flash: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding and Using Flash Memory Devices [Joe Brewer, Manzur. Presented here is an all-inclusive treatment of Flash technology, including Flash memory chips, Flash embedded in logic, binary cell Flash, and multilevel cell.
Micheloni, A. Marelli, and R. Springer, , vol. Dong, N.
NONVOLATILE MEMORY TECHNOLOGIES WITH EMPHASIS ON FLASH
Xie, and T. Wang, T. Courtade, H. Shankar, and R.
Tewksbury and J. Brewer and M. Gill, Eds. The Statistics Portal. Bez, E.
Translation of «nonvolatile memory» into 25 languages
Camerlenghi, A. Modelli, and A. Hasler and T. Cai, E. Haratsch, O. Mutlu, and K. Zuolo, C. Zambelli, R. Micheloni, D. Bertozzi, and P. Wang and W.
Huang, G. Wu, X. He, and W. Hu, E.
Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology
Eleftheriou, R. Haas, I. Iliadis, and R. Agarwal and M. Guo, Z. Chen, D.
Wang, Z. Shao, and Y. Cha and S. Paolucci, C. Compagnoni, A. Spinelli, A. Lacaita, and A. Mohan, S. Sankar, and S. Cai, G. Figure 3b shows an enlarged section of figure 3a in which the IDS is shown together with the voltage pulses applied to the cantilever purple and actuating electrode green. The only limitation in the endurance rate is the number of switching cycles of the MEM cantilever.
The typical endurance rate of a flash memory is 10— thousand cycles 4 , 5. On the other hand, MEMS switches are known to have more than million switching cycles 25 , It can therefore be expected that the CNT memory device presented here can have endurance rates more than 1, times better than flash memory devices.
Figure 3: Endurance operation. Full size image Multinary bit programming The possibility of multinary bit programming for the side-floating gate device has also been investigated. Conventional flash memories have been developed from the single level cell bit 1 or zero memory to the multi-level cell by controlling the tunnelling time of electrons through the insulating barrier 27 , The quantity of charges on the floating gate of the CNT-FET, however, can simply be controlled by adjusting the applied bias voltage to the cantilever and, consequently, the charge level on the gate can affect directly the current flow in the CNT channel.
Figure 4a shows IDS controlled by different cantilever bias voltages. The time duration of the applied pulse on the actuating electrode was fixed at ms for each bit level. Retention times for the intermediate programmed states have not been determined but are longer than s. The average IDS versus cantilever voltages are plotted in Figure 4b.
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The error bars indicate the standard deviation of measurement data points during s for each intermediate state. For this memory device, multi-level programming is realized by a simple change of voltage on the cantilever. Therefore, the controllability is much easier and the density of multi-level bits can be much higher than for flash memories. Figure 4: Multinary bit programming test for the side-floating gate device. Several programmable states can exist for one device.
The error bars indicate the standard deviation of measurement data points for each intermediate state. Full size image Operation speed Finally, the speed of the presented memory device is much faster than for flash memories, as the programming and erasing operation speeds correspond to the mechanical switching speed of the cantilever. There is no intrinsic time delay due to the tunnelling current as in the flash memory.
The spring constant and the resonance frequency of the cantilever are determined by the physical dimensions width, length and thickness and Young's modulus of the cantilever material. The maximum speed of the cantilever, in principle given by the resonance frequency, governs the device speed. Measurements were performed to determine the resonant frequency and the switching speed of the cantilevers.
The resonant frequency was found to be 8. The actual time required to switch the cantilever on was found to be ca ns with ca ns for switching off. The detailed resonance frequency and switching speed measurements on the cantilever are described in the Methods section and the results are shown in the Supplementary Figures S4 and S5.
The switching times are much faster than the speed of conventional flash memories. More systematic investigations on the resonance frequency and switching characteristics are on-going.
It would be relatively straightforward to decrease the size of the cantilever to increase the switching speed even more. For example, three terminal relays 21 and vertical memory cells based on actuated individual CNTs have been demonstrated 23 and have switching speeds of at least an order of magnitude higher 29 , although the reproducible fabrication of CNT cantilevers and the problems of stiction at the nanoscale are still challenging. However, in the device presented here, oxide durability is not an issue as the charges are transferred directly to the floating gate via the metallic cantilever.
The endurance rating is determined by the number of switching cycles of the MEM cantilever, and it is known that RF MEMS switches can typically endure approximately three orders of magnitude more cycles than flash memories.
Moreover, the MEMS switch is electrostatically activated and does not consume any current. Therefore, near-zero power is required for each switching operation. The detailed comparison of energy consumption for our device and conventional flash memories is described in Supplementary Discussion.
Methods Device fabrication Highly doped p-type Si wafers with nm-thick oxide grown by low-pressure chemical vapour deposition CVD were used in our experiment.
On top of this, a matrix of alignment markers with 5 nm Ti per 75 nm Mo and catalyst islands with 10 nm Al2O3 per 0. Source, drain and actuating electrodes were fabricated by depositing 0. The oxide layer is required to avoid electrical contact between the cantilever and the actuating electrode.
Two types of floating gate were fabricated; one is a top-floating gate Supplementary Fig. S1b and the other is a side-floating gate Supplementary Fig. These floating gates function as data storage capacitors for the non-volatile memory cell. Finally, the MEM cantilever, having an air-gap of nm, was fabricated above the actuating electrode and the floating gate as shown in Supplementary Figure S1d.
Finally, the device was lifted-off and dried in a critical point drier. Dose variation technique to produce the MEM cantilever To reduce the fabrication steps for making the suspended cantilever structures, we used the dose variation exposure technique, which controls the amount of dose precisely and develops selectively multi-layered resists 33 , Then, double layers of copolymer MMA 8.
The resists were developed for 20 min in a mixture of methyl isobutyl ketone and isopropanol in a ratio of Cr was used to prevent oxidation of the Al layer and to reduce the residual stress in the cantilever Supplementary Fig. Finally, the structure was lifted-off in acetone overnight and dried using a critical point drier Supplementary Fig.
Supplementary Figure S2f shows the field-emission scanning electron microscope images of a point contact structure that prevented any sticking problems for the MEMS device. The pull-in voltage Vp of the cantilever was tested by increasing a positive voltage on the actuating electrode while keeping the cantilever grounded. Most of the devices showed a pull-in voltage, Vp within the range of 14—18 V.
Mechanical resonance frequency and switching speed test The resonance frequency test was carried out by using the optical interferometer method The schematic of the measurement set up is shown in Supplementary Figure S4a. The ac signal was applied through the actuation electrode located under the suspended micro cantilever structure. The change of the reflected laser signal from the cantilever on mechanical resonance was detected by the high-speed photo receiver. The mechanical resonance frequency of the cantilever was detected to be 8.
Supplementary Figure S5a shows the schematic measurement set up. A square shape input signal with amplitude of 13 V was applied between the cantilever and actuation electrode and the output signal at the drain electrode was monitored with the oscilloscope.
Note that for this experiment, a new three terminal micromechanical system, which has no floating gate was prepared so that we could measure the time at which contact was made between the cantilever and the drain electrode taking the place of the floating gate. The dimension of the cantilever and the fabrication procedure is the same as for the floating-gate devices presented in the main paper.The idea for the early book was mine and Bill Brown bore the bulk of the editorial work in pulling it together.
You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Nonvolatile Memory Technologies with Emphasis on Flash. This is referred to as destructive readout DRO. CS This is illustrated in the inset of Fig.
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