MINTZBERG ON MANAGEMENT PDF
PDF | The aims of this paper are (1) to briefly review major focus of management components published before Mintzberg's Model of Managing. organizations-managers who do it, specialists who advise them on it, familiar with the cuisine wish to save their appetites for the new dishes, professors who. While plenty is written about leadership these days, Dr. Mintzberg, who is the In that research, Dr. Mintzberg studied what managers actually.
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SYNOPSIS This paper discusses via critical analysis the ideas of Henry Mintzberg, the Canadian theorist and Cleghorn Professor of McGill University, on the. Mintzberg's thesis on the nature of managerial work was adopted as Mintzberg sets out the stark reality of what managers do: 'If there is a single theme that. Widely known for his numerous articles and books on almost every management topȬ ic, Henry Mintzberg is one of the most popuȬ lar management thinkers of.
Basic parts of an organization Mintzberg added that there should be a maximum of these six basic parts of any organization.
Strategic apex includes senior management Middle line links strategic apex to operating core Operating core handles operational processes Technostructure includes analysists of various sorts Support staff supports and offers services to the organization Ideology includes company's norms and values Managerial roles Though every manager is different, Mintzberg noted that everyone should practice and master each of these interpersonal, informational and decision-making roles.
Interpersonal: Figurehead. A figurehead is responsible for social, ceremonial and legal matters. They represent their company in a professional manner.
All managers must be leaders, communicating with, inspiring and coaching their team. Workers should be able to look to their manager for support and guidance. Liaisons are responsible for networking outside of their company and relaying necessary information.
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Informational: Monitor. A monitor seeks information within and outside of their company to assess their company's operations and identify issues that need to be approached or changes that need to be made.
Disseminators should then relay valuable information internally to employees and delegate assignments accordingly. Managers should also relay information externally, acting as a spokesperson for their brand. Decision-making: Entrepreneur.
Acting as an entrepreneur, managers should inspire change and innovation. Disturbance Handler — When an organization or team hits an unexpected roadblock, it's the manager who must take charge.
You also need to help mediate disputes within it. Resource Allocator — You'll also need to determine where organizational resources are best applied. This involves allocating funding, as well as assigning staff and other organizational resources.
Negotiator — You may be needed to take part in, and direct, important negotiations within your team, department, or organization. Applying the Model You can use Mintzberg's 10 Management Roles model as a frame of reference when you're thinking about developing your own skills and knowledge.
This includes developing yourself in areas that you consciously or unconsciously shy away from. First, examine how much time you currently spend on each managerial role. Do you spend most of your day leading?
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Managing conflict? As entrepreneur, the manager seeks to improve his or her unit, to adapt it to changing conditions in the environment.
In the monitor role, the president is constantly on the lookout for new ideas; when a good one appears, he or she initiates, in the context of the entrepreneur role, a development project that he or she may supervise or else delegate to an employee perhaps with the stipulation that the manager must approve the final proposal. There are two interesting features about development projects at the chief executive level.
First, these projects do not involve single decisions or even unified clusters of decisions. Rather, they emerge as a series of small decisions and actions sequenced over time. Apparently, chief executives prolong each project so that they can fit it bit by bit into their busy, disjointed schedule and so that they can gradually come to comprehend the issue, if it is a complex one.
Second, the chief executives I studied supervised as many as fifty of these projects at the same time. Some projects entailed new products or processes; others involved public relations campaigns, resolution of a morale problem in a foreign division, integration of computer operations, various acquisitions, and so on. The chief executives appeared to maintain a kind of inventory of the development projects they themselves supervised -- projects at various stages of development, some active and some in limbo.
Like a juggler, they seemed to keep a number of projects in the air; periodically, one comes down, is given a new burst of energy and is sent back into orbit. At various intervals, they put new projects onstream and discard old ones. While the entrepreneur role describes the manager as the voluntary initiator of change, the disturbance handler role shows the manager involuntarily responding to pressures.
Here change is beyond the manager's control: A strike looms, a major customer has gone bankrupt, a supplier reneges on a contract. It has been fashionable, I noted earlier, to compare the manager to an orchestra conductor, as Peter F. Drucker wrote in The Practice of Management: The manager has the task of creating a true whole that is larger than the sum of its parts, a productive entity that turns out more than the sum of the resources put into it.
One analogy is the conductor of a symphony orchestra, through whose effort, vision and leadership individual instrumental parts that are so much noise by themselves become the living whole of music.
But the conductor has the composer's score; he is only interpreter. The manager is both composer and conductor. Now consider the words of Leonard R. Sayles, who carried out systematic research on the manager's job. The manager In effect, every manager must spend a good part of time responding to high-pressure disturbances.
No organization can be so well run, so standardized, that it has considered every contingency in advance. Disturbances arise not only because poor managers ignore situations until they reach crisis proportions, but also because good managers cannot possibly anticipate all the consequences of the actions they take.
The third decisional role is that of resource allocator. To the manager falls the responsibility of deciding who will get what in the organizational unit. Perhaps the most important resource the manager allocates is his or her own time.
Access to the manager constitutes exposure to the unit's nerve center and decision-maker. The manager is also charged with designing the unit's structure, that pattern of formal relationships that determines how work is to be divided and coordinated. Also, in his or her role as resource allocator the manager authorizes the important decisions of the unit before they are implemented.
By retaining this power, the manager can ensure that decisions are interrelated -- all must pass through a single brain. To fragment this power is to encourage discontinuous decision-making and a disjointed strategy. I found that the chief executives of my study faced incredibly complex choices. They had to consider the impact of each decision on other decisions and on the organization's strategy. They had to ensure that the decision would be acceptable to those who influenced the organization, as well as ensure that resources would not be overextended.
They had to understand the various costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of the proposal. They also had to consider questions of timing. All this was necessary for the simple approval of someone else's proposal. At the same time, however, delay could lose time, while quick approval could be ill considered and quick rejection could discourage a subordinate who had spent months developing a pet project.
One common solution in approving projects seems to have been to pick the person instead of the proposal. That is, managers authorize those projects presented to them by people whose judgment they trust. But they cannot always use this simple dodge. The final decisional role is that of negotiator.
Studies of managerial work at all levels indicate that managers spend considerable time in negotiations: The president of the football team is called in to work out a contract with the holdout superstar; the corporation president leads his or her company's contingent to negotiate a new strike issue; the foreman argues a grievance problem to its conclusion with the shop steward.
As Leonard Sayles puts it, negotiations are a "way of life" for the sophisticated manager. The negotiations are duties of the manager's job, perhaps routine, they are not to be shirked.
They are an integral part of the job, for only the manager has the authority to commit organizational resources in "real time," and only he or she has the nerve center information that important negotiations require. They form a gestalt, an integrated whole.
No role can be pulled out of the framework and the job be left intact. For example, a manager without liaison contacts lacks external information.
As a result, he or she can neither disseminate the information subordinates need nor make decisions that adequately reflect external conditions. In fact, this is a problem for the new person in a managerial position, since he or she cannot make effective decisions until the network of contacts has been built up.
Herein lies a clue to the problems of team management. Two or three people cannot share a single managerial position unless they can act as one entity. That means they cannot divide up the ten roles unless they can very carefully reintegrate them.
The real difficulty lies with the informational roles.
Unless there can be full sharing of managerial information -- and, as I pointed out earlier, it is primarily oral -- team management breaks down. A single managerial job cannot be arbitrarily split, for example, into internal and external roles, for information from both sources must be brought to bear on the same decisions.
To say that the ten roles form a gestalt is not to say that all managers give equal attention to each role. I believe, first and foremost, that this description of managerial work should itself prove more important to managers than any prescription they might derive from it.
That is to say, the managers' effectiveness is significantly influenced by their insight into their own work. Their performance depends on how well they understand and respond to the pressures and dilemmas of the job. Let us take a look at three specific areas of concern. For the most part, the managerial logjams -- the dilemma of delegation, the data base centralized in one brain, and the problems of working with the management scientist -- revolve around the oral nature of the manager's information.
There are great dangers in centralizing the organization's data bank in the minds of its managers. When they leave, they take their memory with them. And when subordinates are out of convenient oral reach of the manager, they are at an informational disadvantage. The manager is challenged to find systematic ways to share his or her privileged information. A regular debriefing session with key subordinates, a weekly memory dump on the dictating machine, the maintaining of a diary of important information for limited circulation, or other similar methods may ease the logjam of work considerably.
Time spent disseminating this information will be more than regained when decisions must be made. Of course, some will raise the question of confidentiality.
But managers would do well to weigh the risks of exposing privileged information against having subordinates who can make effective decisions. If there is a single theme that runs through this description, it is that the pressures of his job drive the manager to be superficial in his or her actions -- to overload him- or herself with work, encourage interruption, respond quickly to every stimulus, seek the tangible and avoid the abstract, make decisions in small increments, and do everything abruptly.
Here again, the manager is challenged to deal consciously with the pressures of superficiality by giving serious attention to the issues that require it, by stepping back from tangible bits of information in order to see a broad picture, and by making use of analytical inputs. Although effective managers have to be adept at responding quickly to numerous and varying problems, the danger in managerial work is that they will respond to every issue equally and that means abruptly and that they will never work the tangible bits and pieces of informational input into a comprehensive picture of their world.
In dealing with complex issues, the senior manager has much to gain from a close relationship with the management scientists of his or her own organization. They have something important that he lacks -- time to probe complex issues. An effective working relationship hinges on the resolution of what a colleague and I have called "the planning dilemma. A successful working relationship between the two will be effected when the manager learns to share his or her information and the analyst learns to adapt to the manager's needs.
For the analyst, adaptation means worrying less about the elegance of the method and more about its speed and flexibility. The manager is challenged to gain control of his or her own time by turning obligations to advantage and by turning those things he or she wishes to do into obligations. The chief executives of my study initiated only 32 percent of their own contacts and another 5 percent by mutual agreement. And yet to a considerable extent they seemed to control their time.
There were two key factors that enabled them to do so. First, managers have to spend so much time discharging obligations that if they were to view them as just that, they would leave no mark on their organizations. The unsuccessful manager blames failure on the obligations; the effective manager turns obligations to his or her own advantage. A speech is a chance to lobby for a cause; a meeting is a chance to reorganize a weak department; a visit to an important customer is a chance to extract trade information.
Second, managers free some of their time to do those things that they -- perhaps no one else -- think important by turning them into obligations. Free time is made, not found, in the manager's job; it is forced into the schedule.
Hoping to leave some time open for contemplation or general planning is tantamount to hoping that the pressures of the job will go away. The manager who wants to innovate initiates a project and obligates others to report back to him or her; the manager who needs certain external information establishes channels that will automatically keep him or her informed; the manager who has to tour facilities commits him- or herself publicly to doing so. No job is more vital to our society than that of the manager.
It is the manager who determines whether our social institutions serve us well or whether they squander our talents and resources. It is time to strip away the folklore of managerial work so that we can begin the difficult task of making significant improvements in its performance. Would you like to tell us about a lower price?
If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Henry Mintzberg revolutionized our understanding of what managers do in The Nature of Managerial Work, his landmark book. Now in this comprehensive new volume, Mintzberg broadens his vision to explore not only the function of management, but also that of the organization itself and its meaning for society. A treasury of the dynamic and iconoclastic ideas that have made him a mentor to an entire younger generation of leading management thinkers, Mintzberg on Management presents the collective wisdom of this influential scholar -- in strategy, structure, power, and politics -- the gestalt of organizational theory.
Known as the guru of bottom-up management, Mintzberg broke with convention by actually going inside companies to witness the business of business.
Revealing how strategy is really formulated, he shows here that successful strategy is rarely, if ever, born in solitary contemplation; rather, the elements usually come together in the heat of battle.
In addition, Mintzberg identifies the keys to outstanding management. He begins by describing the good manager who successfully combines interpersonal, informational, and decision-making roles.
However, effectiveness in management, Mintzberg demonstrates, depends not only on a manager's embodiment of these necessary qualities, but also his or her insight into their own work. Performance depends on how well he understands and responds to the pressures and dilemmas of the job. As Mintzberg illustrates, it is often the case that job pressures can drive a manager to be superficial in his actions -- to overload himself with work, encourage interruption, respond quickly to every stimulus, avoid the abstract, make decisions in small increments, and do everything abruptly.
The effective manager surmounts the pressures of superficiality by stepping back in order to see a broad picture, and making use of analytical inputs.
Keeping his focus on how real companies work, Mintzberg challenges traditional assumptions and answers from the grass roots level such essential questions as "How do organizations function and structure themselves?
How do their power relations develop and their goals form? As solid and reality oriented in its approach as his classic The Nature of Managerial Work, this volume promises to have comparable sweeping influence on managers in all fields.
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FREE Shipping. Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Simply Managing: Henry Mintzberg. Profiles of Successful and Innovative Public Servants. The History of Management Thought. The Structuring of Organizations.
An Introduction to Theory and Practice. Ben Horowitz.The case of a German leader comes to mind in this context. This book can help you identify where your organization is and give you some ideas on how to position yourself. I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? The third decisional role is that of resource allocator.
Arrived quickly. They form a gestalt, an integrated whole. Some of those actions involve leadership directly -- for example, in most organizations the manager is normally responsible for hiring and training his or her own staff. Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. An Overview of Strategic Management, comprising Strategy Formulation and Strategy Implementation The above pictorial representation of the key stages in strategic management overviews how key theorists, including Henry Mintzberg, approached and advocated the design and management of strategy by businesses in order to reach optimal choices and decisions.
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