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During the s, even certain political leaders found it expedient to join religious leaders in advocating more state respect for religion. This was however a very isolated incident and only involved one particular Sheikh of the order. Throughout the s, there were numerous trials of Ticani and other Sufi leaders for antistate activities.
The demand for restoration of religious education in public schools began in the late s. The government initially responded by authorizing religious instruction in state schools for those students whose parents requested it. Under Democrat Party rule during the s, religious education was made compulsory in secondary schools unless parents made a specific request to have their children excused.
Religious education was made compulsory for all primary and secondary school children in Inevitably, the reintroduction of religion into the school curriculum raised the question of religious higher education.
The secular elites, who tended to distrust traditional religious leaders, believed that Islam could be "reformed" if future leaders were trained in state-controlled seminaries.
To further this goal, the government in established a faculty of divinity at Ankara University to train teachers of Islam and imams. In the Democrat Party government set up special secondary schools İmam Hatip schools for the training of imams and preachers. Initially, the imam hatip schools grew very slowly, but their numbers expanded rapidly to more than during the s, when the pro-Islam National Salvation Party participated in coalition governments. Following the coup, the military, although secular in orientation, viewed religion as an effective means to counter socialist ideas and thus authorized the construction of ninety more İmam Hatip high schools.
During the s and s, Islam experienced a kind of political rehabilitation because right-of-center secular leaders perceived religion as a potential bulwark in their ideological struggle with left-of-center secular leaders.
According to the Hearth, Islam not only constitutes an essential aspect of Turkish culture but is a force that can be regulated by the state to help socialize the people to be obedient citizens acquiescent to the overall secular order. After the military coup, many of the Hearth's proposals for restructuring schools, colleges, and state broadcasting were adopted. The result was a purge from these state institutions of more than 2, intellectuals perceived as espousing leftist ideas incompatible with the Hearth's vision of Turkey's national culture.
Islam Liberal 101 Akmal Sjafril
The state's more tolerant attitude toward Islam encouraged the proliferation of private religious activities, including the construction of new mosques and Qur'an schools in the cities, the establishment of Islamic centers for research on and conferences about Islam and its role in Turkey, and the establishment of religiously oriented professional and women's journals.
The printing of newspapers, the publication of religious books, and the growth of innumerable religious projects ranging from health centers, child-care facilities, and youth hostels to financial institutions and consumer cooperatives flourished. When the government legalized private broadcasting after , several Islamic radio stations were organized. In the summer of , the first Islamic television station, Kanal 7 , began broadcasting, first in Istanbul and subsequently in Ankara.
Islamist intellectuals are harshly critical of Turkey's secular intellectuals, whom they fault for trying to do in Turkey what Western intellectuals did in Europe: substitute worldly materialism, in its capitalist or socialist version, for religious values. Kheng, Cheah Boon.
Malaysia: The Making of a Nation. Kim, Khoo Kay. Selangor: Pelanduk, Kurzman, Charles. New York and Oxford: Oxford University, Liow, Joseph. Singapore: Institute of Defence and Strategis Studies, Lubis, Nina Herlina.
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Lukito, Ratno. Jakarta: Logos, Minhaji and Amirul Hadi, Yogyakarta Titian Ilahi Press, Madjid, Nurcholish.
Martin, Richard C. Milner, Anthony. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Muzani, Saiful. Noor, Farish A. Othman, Mohammad Redzuan.
Kuala Lumpur: UM Press, Pranowo, M. Reid, Anthony. Singapore: ARI, Riddel, Peter G. Singapore: Horizon Books, Hong Kong, Roff, William.
The Origins of Malay Nationalism. New Have: Yale University Press. Safi, Omid.
Saleh, Fauzan. Leiden: Brill, Salleh, Muhammad Syukri.
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