HOLY BOOK OF BUDDHISM
List of Holy Books in Buddhism - Every religion has a set of holy books central to its teachings. These are highly revered, widely read by the. Holy texts. Stone inscriptions of the World's largest book at Kuthodaw, Myanmar. Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and. This guide shows you how to find online versions, commentary and historical context of scriptures for Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism. The Buddhist canon consists of the Sutras: the words and teachings of the Buddha. The Tripitaka (Pali Canon), Mahayana Sutras.
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The first five hundred years after Buddha's Parinibbana (death), there was no written record of teaching. It was an oral tradition. The oral. Buddhist Holy Books. Buddhism is a religion known for its rich spiritual teachings, beliefs, practices and traditions. It has been over years since Buddhism. The sacred book of Buddhism is called the Tipitaka. It is written in an ancient Indian language called Pali which is very close to the language that the Buddha.
The primary focus of this holy text is to liberate the mind especially when a person may be in challenging times as often seen in the torments of death. The Tibetan Book of the Dead explores the religious experiences a person explores in different stages, and these includes while dying, that moment of death, what happens during the day interval between death and rebirth, and what Buddhist followers should expect at the rebirth stage.
The Mahayana Sutras are sacred recitations that are used as meditation form among the adherents of Buddhism. It is estimated that the first Mahayana sutras were compiled as early as the first BCE. Religious scholars also have this wide belief that Mahayana Sutras were not composed independently, meaning that other scriptures could have been used as inspiration while preparing them. Mahayana sutras emphasize the importance of a Buddhist follower connecting with the Buddha nature as this is one way to which proper and desirable holistic spiritual living can be arrived at as described by the Lotus section of the Mahayana sutra.
The Heart Sutra is also the other important piece of sacred text as embodied in the Mahayana text. New sutras were added to the collection in both the intervals between these.
The Gandavyuha Sutra is thought to be the source of a sect that was dedicated specifically to Vairocana , and that later gave rise to the Mahavairocana-abhisambodhi tantra.
The Mahavairocana-abhisambodhi became one of the two central texts in Shingon Buddhism and was included in the Tibetan canon as a tantra of the carya class. The Avatamsaka Sutra became the central text for the Hua-yen Jp.
Kegon school of Buddhism, the most important doctrine of which is the interpenetration of all phenomena. The Sandhinirmocana Sutra c 2nd Century CE is the earliest surviving sutra in this class and according to some Gelugpa authorities the only one. This sutra divides the teachings of the Buddha into three classes, which it calls the "Three Turnings of the Wheel of the Dharma. Moreover, the first two turnings are considered, in this system of classification, to be provisional while the third group is said to present the final truth without a need for further explication nitartha.
These texts teach that every being has a Tathagatagarbha: variously translated as Buddha nature , Buddha seed, Buddha matrix. It is this Buddha nature, Buddha Essence or Buddha Principle, this aspect of every being that is itself already enlightened, that enables beings to be liberated.
One of the most important responses of Buddhism to the problem of immanence and transcendence. The Tathagatagarbha doctrine was very influential in East Asian Buddhism, and the idea in one form or another can be found in most of its schools. The well-known Lankavatara Sutra , composed sometime around the 4th century, is sometimes included in thevijnapti-matra group associated with the Yogacara teachings , however D.
Suzuki sees the Lankavatara as clearly pre-dating and distinguished from Yogacara. The Lankavatara Sutra was influential in the Chan or Zen schools. Both seem to have been finalised by about the 5th century, although some parts of them are considerably older. Among them was the Ajitasena Sutra. The Ajitasena Sutra appears to be a mixture of Mahayana and pre-Mahayana ideas. It occurs in a world where monasticism is the norm, which is typical of the Pali Suttas; there is none of the usual antagonism towards the Shravakas also called the Hinayana or the notion of Arahantship, which is typical of Mahayana Sutras such as the White Lotus, or Vimalakirti Nirdesha.
In Buddhism , a shastra is often a commentary written at a later date to explain an earlier scripture or sutra. Central to much of Mahayana philosophy are the works of the Indian scholar Nagarjuna. Unlike the Da zhidu lun, it was studied and transmitted in both the East Asian Buddhist and the Tibetan Buddhist traditions.
Their authorship remains disputed by modern scholars however. Asanga's brother Vasubandhu wrote a large number of texts associated with the Yogacara including: The 9th Century Indian Buddhist Shantideva produced two texts: It is notably a favorite text of the fourteenth Dalai Lama. The text begins with an elaborate ritual worship section, but goes on to expound the six perfections. The 9th chapter is a critique of various views on perfect wisdom from the Madhyamika point of view. Shantideva also produced the Shikshasamuccaya , which is a compendium of doctrines from a huge range of Mahayana Sutras — some of which no longer exist and therefore are known only through his quotes.
While it is traditionally attributed to Ashvaghosha , most scholars now hold it is a Chinese composition. The early period of the development of Chinese Buddhism was concerned with the collection and translation of texts into Chinese and the creation of the Chinese Buddhist canon. This was often done by traveling overland to India , as recorded in the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions , by the monk Xuanzang c.
Another important school of Chinese Buddhism is Huayan , which focused on developing their philosophical texts from the Avatamsaka Sutra. An important patriarch of this school is Fazang who wrote many commentaries and treatises. Zen Buddhism developed a large literary tradition based on the teachings and sayings of Chinese Zen masters.
One of the key texts in this genre is the Platform Sutra attributed to Zen patriarch Huineng , it gives an autobiographical account of his succession as Ch'an Patriarch, as well as teachings about Ch'an theory and practice.
Scriptures & Texts
Another key genre is that of compilations of Zen master biographies, such as the Transmission of the Lamp. Buddhist poetry was also an important contribution to the literature of the tradition. After the arrival of Chinese Buddhism in Japan, Korea and Vietnam; they developed their own traditions and literature in the local language. The Tibetan Buddhist canon includes a number of Nikaya -related texts from the Mula- Sarvastivada school, as well as Mahayana sutras.
However, it is the specifically Vajrayana texts that most strongly characterise it. They are considered to be the word of the Buddha Buddhavacana , and the Tibetan Kangyur contains translations of almost tantras. The texts are typically concerned with elaborate rituals and meditations. These form a large subgroup that appeared between the 2nd and 6th centuries.
The Kriya tantras focus on ritual actions. Each centres on a particular Buddha or Bodhisattva , and many are based on dharanis.
Also included in this category are some Mahayana texts such as the Heart Sutra and, in some editions, versions of some texts found in the Pali Canon. Carya tantras. This is a small class of texts that probably emerged after the 6th century and are entirely centred on the worship of the Buddha Vairocana.
The Shurangama Sutra and the Shurangama Mantra from which it called the Shitatapatra Ushnisha Dharani comes can be included in this category. Anuttara tantras. The most advanced class of tantra is the Anuttarayoga tantra , which focus on mental transformation and less on ritual actions. These are sometimes further divided into the so-called Father Tantras and Mother Tantras. Anuttaratantra is known in the Nyingma school as Mahayoga. This school also has a collection of tantras of its own, not found in the other Tibetan schools.
Textual evidence suggests that some of these texts are in fact Shaivite Tantras adopted and adapted to Buddhist purposes, and many similarities in iconography and ritual can be seen in them. A sadhana is a tantric spiritual practices text used by practitioners, primarily to practice the mandala or a particular yidam , or meditation deity. Vajrayana adepts, known as mahasiddha , often expounded their teachings in the form of songs of realization. The Dohakosha is a collection of doha songs by the yogi Saraha from the 9th century.
Terma are Tibetan Buddhist texts, hidden to be rediscovered at a later date. Padmasambhava and Yeshe Tsogyal wrote and hid most termas , although texts have also been hidden by figures such as Machig Labdron.
The best known terma text is probably the Bardo thodol , or 'Awakening in the Bardo State', also known as the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The person who finds a terma text is known as a terton. The Blue Annals Standard Tibetan: Namtar , or spiritual biographies, are another popular form of Tibetan Buddhist texts, whereby the teachings and spiritual path of a practitioner are explained through a review of their lifestory.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Holy texts. See also: This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Further information: Early Buddhist Texts. Pali literature.
Main article: Vimalakirti Sutra. Avatamsaka Sutra. Tathagatagarbha doctrine. Buddhist Tantras. If some of the material is so old, it might be possible to establish what texts go back to the beginning of Buddhism and may include the substance of the Buddha's teaching, and in some cases, maybe even his words. De Jong, According to the Vijnaptimatra, the world is nothing but ideas, there are no realities behind them; but the Cittamatra states that there is nothing but Citta, Mind, in the world and that the world is the objectification of Mind.
The one is pure idealism and the other idealistic realism. A Living History , J. Elaborations on Emptiness: Uses of the Heart Sutra.
A Concise History of Buddhism. The Buddha speaks of Amitabha Sutra: A General Explanation. Retrieved April 13, Brill, , Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana Korean.
Retrieved July 6, Translated from the Pali.He spent the rest of his life teaching others about how to achieve this spiritual state.
Sutras come in many sizes. There is a Pali canon, the earliest of the canons, which consists of the Tripitaka. The basic premise is a radical non-dualism, in which every and any dichotomist way of seeing things is denied: so phenomena are neither existent, nor non-existent, but are marked by sunyata, emptiness, an absence of any essential unchanging nature.
One of the most important responses of Buddhism to the problem of immanence and transcendence. Just as it is with many religions of the world, Buddhism makes use of scriptures and texts to connect the followers with the central deity in Buddhism. Learn all about the Tenach and Jewish commentaries in the links below.