ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PDF
Environmental Impact Assessment Task Force. Environmental Rome, FAO. 41 p. (available at ftp://resourceone.info). R&D in Environmental Impact Assessment for. Sustainable Development. Prof. Dr . Mohamed Saber. National Research Center. Egypt. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can broadly be defined as a study of the a) Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Trans-boundary.
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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Course Curriculum for. Tertiary Level Institutions in Pakistan. National Impact Assessment Programme. determine the necessary of EIA and how far each assessment should be. When these Monitoring of Project Implementation and Its Environmental Impacts. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | The widespread experience of environmental impact assessment (EIA) as an anticipatory environmental management tool has generated a considerable.
With this background, the Environmental Information Centre EIC has been set up to serve as a professionally managed clearing house of environmental information that can be used by MoEF, project proponents, consultants, NGOs and other stakeholders involved in the process of environmental impact assessment in India.
EIC caters to the need of creating and disseminating of organized environmental data for various developmental initiatives all over the country. EIC stores data in GIS format and makes it available to all environmental impact assessment studies and to EIA stakeholders in a cost effective and timely manner.
So that we can manage that in different proportions such as remedy measures etc. In Malaysia, Section 34A, Environmental Quality Act,  requires developments that have significant impact to the environment are required to conduct the Environmental impact assessment.
In Nepal, EIA has been integrated in major development projects since the early s. In the planning history of Nepal, the sixth plan —85 , for the first time, recognized the need for EIA with the establishment of Environmental Impact Study Project EISP under the Department of Soil Conservation in to develop necessary instruments for integration of EIA in infrastructure development projects.
However, the government of Nepal enunciated environment conservation related policies in the seventh plan NPC, — To enforce this policy and make necessary arrangements, a series of guidelines were developed, thereby incorporating the elements of environmental factors right from the project formulation stage of the development plans and projects and to avoid or minimize adverse effects on the ecological system.
In addition, it has also emphasized that EIAs of industry, tourism, water resources, transportation, urbanization, agriculture, forest and other developmental projects be conducted. The process institutionalized the EIA process in development proposals and enactment, which makes the integration of IEE and EIA legally binding to the prescribed projects.
This had no legal force and only related to the activities of government departments. Section 88 of the Act specifies that the AEE must include "such detail as corresponds with the scale and significance of the effects that the activity may have on the environment".
While there is no duty to consult any person when making a resource consent application Sections 36A and Schedule 4 , proof of consultation is almost certain required by local councils when they decide whether or not to publicly notify the consent application under Section As of , the state authority responsible for conducting the State EIA in Russia has been split between two Federal bodies: The two main pieces of environmental legislation in Russia are: In , the parliament committee on ecology in conjunction with the Ministry for Natural Resources and Environment, created a working group to prepare a number of amendments to existing legislation to cover such topics as stringent project documentation for building of potentially environmentally damaging objects as well as building of projects on the territory of protected areas.
There has been some success in this area, as evidenced from abandonment of plans to construct a gas pipe-line through the only remaining habitat of the critically endangered Amur leopard in the Russian Far East. The government's decision to hand over control over several important procedures, including state EIA in the field of all types of energy projects, to the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Control had caused a major controversy and criticism from environmental groups that blamed the government for giving nuclear power industry control over the state EIA.
Not surprisingly the main problem concerning State EIA in Russia is the clear differentiation of jurisdiction between the two above-mentioned Federal bodies. The National Environmental Act, requires environmental impact assessment for large scale projects in sensitive areas. It is enforced by the Central Environmental Authority. The new law of Ukraine on evaluation of impact on surroundings prescribes the requirements of environmental safety, rational use of national resources, minimizing of harmful impact on surroundings in the process of making managerial decisions about planned activity.
The designing of the conclusion of evaluation of impact is a result of its conducting. The key moment of the law on evaluation of impact on surroundings is a substitution of conclusion of state environmental experise on the conclusion of evaluation of impact on surroundings.
Business entity is forbidden to conduct or to start its planned activity without the conclusion of impact on surroundings. Federal or federalized actions expected to subject or be subject to significant environmental impacts will publish a Notice of Intent to Prepare an EIS as soon as significance is known.
Certain actions of federal agencies must be preceded by the NEPA process. NEPA requires that plausible statements as to the prospective impacts be disclosed in advance. The purpose of NEPA process is to ensure that the decision maker is fully informed of the environmental aspects and consequences prior to making the final decision.
An environmental assessment EA is an environmental analysis prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act to determine whether a federal action would significantly affect the environment and thus require a more detailed Environmental Impact Statement EIS. This is because the EA was originally intended to be a simple document used in relatively rare instances where an agency was not sure if the potential significance of an action would be sufficient to trigger preparation of an EIS.
But today, because EISs are so much longer and complicated to prepare, federal agencies are going to great effort to avoid preparing EISs by using EAs, even in cases where the use of EAs may be inappropriate.
Likewise, even the preparation of an accurate EA is viewed today as an onerous burden by many entities responsible for the environmental review of a proposal. Federal agencies have responded by streamlining their regulations that implement NEPA environmental review, by defining categories of projects that by their well understood nature may be safely excluded from review under NEPA, and by drawing up lists of project types that have negligible material impact upon the environment and can thus be exempted.
The Environmental Assessment is a concise public document prepared by the federal action agency that serves to:. The Environmental Assessment includes a brief discussion of the purpose and need of the proposal and of its alternatives as required by NEPA 2 E , and of the human environmental impacts resulting from and occurring to the proposed actions and alternatives considered practicable, plus a listing of studies conducted and agencies and stakeholders consulted to reach these conclusions.
The action agency must approve an EA before it is made available to the public. The EA is made public through notices of availability by local, state, or regional clearing houses, often triggered by the purchase of a public notice advertisement in a newspaper of general circulation in the proposed activity area. The EA becomes a draft public document when notice of it is published, usually in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the proposal.
There is a day review period required for an Environmental Assessment 30 days if exceptional circumstances while the document is made available for public commentary, and a similar time for any objection to improper process. Commenting on the Draft EA is typically done in writing or email, submitted to the lead action agency as published in the notice of availability.
An EA does not require a public hearing for verbal comments. The preparation of an EIS then generates a similar but more lengthy, involved and expensive process. The adequacy of an environmental impact statement EIS can be challenged in federal court. Major proposed projects have been blocked because of an agency's failure to prepare an acceptable EIS. One prominent example was the Westway landfill and highway development in and along the Hudson River in New York City.
Route 95 through Las Vegas. The case was settled prior to the court's final decision. Some of those state laws such as the California Environmental Quality Act refer to the required environmental impact study as an environmental impact report.
This variety of state requirements produces voluminous data not just upon impacts of individual projects, but also in insufficiently researched scientific domains.
Legislation covering Environmental Impact Assessment
For example, in a seemingly routine Environmental Impact Report for the city of Monterey, California , information came to light that led to the official federal endangered species listing of Hickman's potentilla , a rare coastal wildflower. Environmental threats do not respect national borders.
International pollution can have detrimental effects on the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, aquifers , farmland, the weather and biodiversity. Global climate change is transnational.
Environmental Impact Assessment
Specific pollution threats include acid rain , radioactive contamination , debris in outer space , stratospheric ozone depletion and toxic oil spills. The Chernobyl disaster , precipitated by a nuclear accident on April 26, , is a stark reminder of the devastating effects of transboundary nuclear pollution. Environmental protection is inherently a cross-border issue and has led to the creation of transnational regulation via multilateral and bilateral treaties.
However, as there is no universal legislature or administration with a comprehensive mandate, most international treaties exist parallel to one another and are further developed without the benefit of consideration being given to potential conflicts with other agreements.
There is also the issue of international enforcement. An example is the failure of many international fisheries regimes to restrict harvesting practises. As per Jay et al. There is growing dissent about them as their influence on decisions is limited.
Improved training for practitioners, guidance on bestpractice and continuing research have all been proposed. EIAs have been criticized for excessively limiting their scope in space and time. No accepted procedure exists for determining such boundaries.
This boundary is determined by the applicant and the lead assessor, but in practice, almost all EIAs address only direct and immediate on-site effects. Development causes both direct and indirect effects. Consumption of goods and services, production, use and disposal of building materials and machinery, additional land use for activities of manufacturing and services, mining and refining, etc.
The indirect effects of development can be much higher than the direct effects examined by an EIA. Proposals such as airports or shipyards cause wide-ranging national and international effects, which should be covered in EIAs. Broadening the scope of EIA can benefit the conservation of threatened species. Instead of concentrating on the project site, some EIAs employed a habitat -based approach that focused on much broader relationships among humans and the environment.
As a result, alternatives that reduce the negative effects to the population of whole species, rather than local subpopulations, can be assessed. Thissen and Agusdinata  have argued that little attention is given to the systematic identification and assessment of uncertainties in environmental studies which is critical in situations where uncertainty cannot be easily reduced by doing more research.
In line with this, Maier et al. In such a way decisions can be made with confidence or known uncertainty. These proposals are justified on data that shows that environmental assessments fail to predict accurately the impacts observed. Tenney et al. The gathered evidence consisted of comparisons between predictions in EIAs and the impacts measured during, or following project implementation. In explaining this trend, Tenney et al.
Impact Assessment - directory of references/resources
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Law and the Environment Environmental Law Pollution control law Environmental impact assessment Air quality law Water quality law Waste management law Environmental cleanup law Natural resources law Species protection Water resources law Mining law Forestry law Fisheries law Game law Reference materials Environmental journals International environmental agreements Environmental laws by country Environmental lawsuits Environmental ministries Supranational environmental agencies Related topics Administrative law Bankruptcy law Earth jurisprudence Energy law Environmental crime poaching Environmental justice Insurance law International law Land law Land use Law of the sea Property law Public trust doctrine Wild law v t e.
This article uses abbreviations that may be confusing or ambiguous. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. Please improve this article if you can. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: National Environmental Policy Act.
Environmental impact statement. Sustainable development portal. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Guide to Best Professional Practices. Chapter 5. International Association for Impact Assessment. Archived from the original PDF on A new approach based on Fuzzy logic Environmental Impact Assessment review Paul John Swaigen, ed.
Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental Rights in Canada. Toronto, Ontario: Environmental Approvals in Canada. Environmental Assessment Law in Canada.
Water Law in Canada. Information Canada. Basics of Environmental Assessment. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency. Environmental Law and Litigation. Archived from the original on 24 November Archived from the original on Allan McFee 9 May As It Happens. CBC Radio.
CBC Radio 1. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 21 June China Features. Retrieved Archived from the original on March 28, Press Releases. October 26, Archived from the original on January 19, Retrieved October 27, Archived PDF from the original on CS1 maint: Central Environmental Authority.
Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 1 November Eric Firado. Archived from the original on 1 December National Environmental Policy Act, P.
Approved January 1, It may also be necessary to undertake an appropriate assessment under the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations if the proposed development is likely to have a significant effect on a European site.
See also How should applications requiring both an environmental impact assessment and assessment under the Habitats Regulations be considered? In considering the sensitivity of a particular location, regard should also be had to whether any national or internationally agreed environmental standards eg air quality are already being approached or exceeded. Other changes or extensions to Schedule 1 development, which when considered with the development as a whole ie as changed or extended , may result in significant adverse effects on the environment, or which meet the thresholds or criteria set out in column two of paragraph 13 of Schedule 2, are Schedule 2 development and should be screened.
Changes or extensions to Schedule 2 development, which when considered with the existing development as a whole, may result in significant adverse effects on the environment, or which meet the thresholds or criteria set out in column two of Schedule 2, are also Schedule 2 development and require screening.
If it is considered that the change or extension will not lead to other significant adverse effects, taking into account the effects on the development as a whole, screening should not be required where the change or extension does not meet the criteria or thresholds in Schedule 2.
This is likely to be the outcome in the vast majority of cases involving a minor change or extension to an existing development for example, the majority of permitted developments, such as development within the curtilage of a dwelling house, minor operations, temporary buildings and uses, small business use or minor infrastructure development such as that carried out within the boundaries of airports and other large site operations.
In some cases, repeated small extensions may be made to existing development. An expansion of the same size as a previous expansion will not automatically lead to the same determination on the need for an Environmental Impact Assessment because the environment may have altered since the question was last addressed.
The applicant is responsible for the preparation of the Environmental Statement. In order to ensure the completeness and quality of the Environmental Statement, the applicant must ensure that it is prepared by competent experts and that it is accompanied by a statement from the developer outlining the relevant expertise, or qualifications of such experts, sufficient to demonstrate that this is the case.
Paragraph: Reference ID: Revision date: 28 07 See previous version What information should the Environmental Statement contain? The Environmental Statement must contain the information specified in regulation 18 3 and must meet the requirements of regulation 18 4. It must also include any additional information specified in Schedule 4 to the Regulations which is relevant to the specific characteristics of the particular development or type of development and to the environmental features likely to be significantly affected.
The applicant does not need to consult anyone about the information to be included in an Environmental Statement. However, local planning authorities will often possess useful local and specialised information and may be able to give preliminary advice on those aspects of the proposal that are likely to be of particular concern to the applicant. It may also be helpful to an applicant preparing an Environmental Statement to obtain relevant environmental information from the statutory consultation bodies as is provided for in regulation 17 of the Regulations and also to consult any appropriate non-statutory bodies that also have relevant information.
The Environmental Statement should be proportionate and not be any longer than is necessary to assess properly those effects. Where, for example, only one environmental factor is likely to be significantly affected, the assessment should focus on that issue only.
Impacts which have little or no significance for the particular development in question will need only very brief treatment to indicate that their possible relevance has been considered. Where alternative approaches to development have been considered, the Environmental Statement should include a description of the reasonable alternatives studied which are relevant to the proposed development and its specific characteristics and provide an indication of the main reasons for the choice made, including a comparison of the environmental effects see regulation 18 3 d.
The Environmental Statement may, of necessity, contain complex scientific data and analysis in a form which is not readily understandable by the lay person.
The main findings must be set out in accessible, plain English, in a non-technical summary, to ensure that the findings can more readily be disseminated to the general public, and that the conclusions can be easily understood by non-experts as well as decision-makers see regulation 18 3 e.
Paragraph: Reference ID: Revision date: 28 07 See previous version Does an applicant have to obtain a formal opinion from the local planning authority on the scope of an Environmental Statement? An applicant is not required to consult anyone about the information to be included in an Environmental Statement. There is no right to seek a formal scoping opinion once a planning application has been submitted.
When making a request for a scoping opinion, the applicant must, as a minimum, provide the information set out in regulation 15 2. A request for a scoping opinion may be made at the same time as a request for a screening opinion. A local planning authority must request additional information if it considers that it has not been provided with sufficient information to adopt a scoping opinion see regulation 15 3. The local planning authority must consult the consultation bodies and the applicant before providing a scoping opinion regulation 15 4.
It must provide its opinion within 5 weeks or longer if agreed in writing with applicant of receiving a request. The opinion should be proportionate, tailored to the specific characteristics of the development and the main environmental features likely to be significantly affected. Regulation 28 sets out the requirements for making the scoping request and opinion available to the public.
Paragraph: Reference ID: Revision date: 28 07 See previous version Can an applicant request a scoping direction from the Secretary of State? If a local planning authority fails to adopt a scoping opinion within the appropriate time period, the person who requested the scoping opinion may ask the Secretary of State to make a scoping direction.
Regulation 16 sets out the procedure for requesting a scoping direction. Paragraph: Reference ID: Revision date: 28 07 See previous version Does the applicant need to comply with a scoping opinion or direction? Where a scoping opinion or direction has been issued, an Environmental Statement must be based on the most recent scoping opinion or direction issued, so far as the proposed development remains materially the same as the proposed development which was subject to the opinion or direction.
The Environmental Statement must include the information that may reasonably be required to enable the local planning authority or Secretary of State to come to a reasoned conclusion on the significant effects of the proposed development on the environment. Therefore, where it becomes evident during the assessment process, for example, when undertaking a baseline survey, that a particular environmental factor is absent or unlikely to be significantly affected by a proposed development, there should be no need for further assessment of that factor even though it was identified in the scoping process.Not surprisingly the main problem concerning State EIA in Russia is the clear differentiation of jurisdiction between the two above-mentioned Federal bodies.
The same is effectively true in Egypt Ahmad and Wood, If a local planning authority fails to adopt a scoping opinion within the appropriate time period, the person who requested the scoping opinion may ask the Secretary of State to make a scoping direction.
All developments in, or partly in, such areas should be screened. NEPA requires that plausible statements as to the prospective impacts be disclosed in advance. Monitoring and auditing of impacts As in the developed world, monitoring has been a missing step in EIA in developing countries. Spooner in Donnelly et al.
However, there remains much to be achieved in the implementation of SEA in developing countries Donnelly et al.
The first is under Division 5. In addition, the applicant must also submit: one further copy of the Environmental Statement for onward transmission by the local planning authority to the Secretary of State; a note of the name of everybody to whom the applicant has already sent, or intends to send, a copy of the Environmental Statement and the date on which the Environmental Statement was so served, where relevant; and sufficient further copies of the Environmental Statement as are needed to allow the local planning authority to send one to each of the consultation bodies who have not received a copy directly from the applicant.