EEG 2014 PDF
Juli Gesetz für den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz - EEG ) Nicht-amtliche Lesefassung des EEG in der ab 1. 01/08/ - PDF -. Act on the Development of Renewable Energy Sources ( Renewable Energy Sources Act - RES Act ) Unofficial translation of the RES Act in the version in force as of 1 August Introduction. Download (PDF, 1MB). November (PDF: KB, in englischer Sprache) hat die Kommission das Verfahren abgeschlossen. Sie stellt darin fest, dass das Vergütungs- und.
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Aug 1, URL: resourceone.info eeg,property=pdf,bereich=bmwi,sprache=en. 1. Jan. EEG Ausfertigungsdatum: Vollzitat: "Erneuerbare-Energien- Gesetz vom Juli (BGBl. I S. ), das durch Artikel 1. The Renewable Energy Sources Act or EEG (German: Erneuerbare-Energien- Gesetz) is a series of German laws that originally provided a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme to encourage the generation of renewable electricity. The EEG specified the transition to an auction system for most "Chapter 6 – The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG)" (PDF).
An additional 'early starter bonus' was introduced for geothermal projects put into operation before New measures allowed grid operators to temporarily limit wind turbine output in times of network congestion, with compensation payable to the plant owner for lost remuneration.
The government launched its national Energy Concept in September The growth in photovoltaics had exceeded all expectations.
As a result, the support costs had skyrocketed. The feed-in rate itself was dependent on the system size and the proportion of demand that was consumed on-site. Free-standing systems were excluded from using agricultural land.
It also modified the flexible cap to better control the growth of photovoltaics. The new EEG sought to advance the dynamic expansion of renewable electricity generation, control the rising costs associated with the scheme, and enhance market and grid integration, while adhering to the principles of a feed-in system. The revised system includes a market premium scheme, the market premium was intended to prepare renewables for the market and to eventually lower their dependence on explicit policy measures.
The new act included measures for the grid integration of photovoltaic systems. Grid operators could now limit the feed-in of photovoltaics in times of grid overload, with the plant operators receiving compensation for their loss of revenue.
A new ordinance required the retrofitting of photovoltaic systems to avoid the The system services bonus for onshore wind was extended and the repowering bonus was improved. Offshore wind gained through improved early starter provisions. The biomass tariff system itself was greatly simplified, with now four size categories and two fuel categories.
The tariffs for geothermal energy were raised and the start of the degression postponed until , albeit at an increased rate. Electricity storage facilities were fully exempted from grid charges and are to be supported by a special research program. As a result, the number of exempt firms rose from in to about in The exempted electricity load rose from This measure was aimed at preventing abuse through contracting.
The market premium is the difference between the EEG tariff and the average spot market price. An additional management premium reimbursed administration costs and mitigated against market risks.
An additional flexibility premium was introduced for gas storage at biogas facilities. The details of the market premium were to be provided in a following governmental directive, following parliamentary approval. PV Act [ edit ] Despite the cutbacks in photovoltaic support, photovoltaic installations continued to boom. For the first time, cost control became the "determining factor" in the political debate over the EEG. The merit order effect occurs when preferentially dispatched wind and photovoltaic generation displaces more expensive fossil fuel generation from the margin — often gas-fired combined cycle plant — thereby driving down the cleared price.
This effect is more pronounced for photovoltaics because their midday peak correlates with the maximum generation requirement on the system.
Both tones gave rise to a negative deflection approximately ms after tone onset, resembling an auditory evoked potential N component e.
This deflection was pronounced on channels L1 to L3 on the left side and R 1 to R3 on the right and was diminished or absent on the other channels. Channels R7 and R8 showed a polarity-reversed pattern of an otherwise similar morphology. This pattern was not or to a much lesser extend visible at the homolog channels from the left ear. More prominent than the N was a positive deflection in response to target tones, with maximum amplitudes at approximately ms. Morphology, condition effect and latency of this deflection strongly resembled the typical P ERP component cf.
In a similar manner to the N, the P was pronounced for channels located above the reference sites shown in white in Fig. Below the reference an opposite polarity waveform emerged, which was most pronounced at channels L6 and R6.
Visual inspection of the ERP results for the morning Fig. Negative voltage is plotted upwards.
Blue: standard condition; red: target condition. A Grand averaged ERPs from the morning session. B Grand average ERPs from the afternoon session.
Full size image Parameterization of the ERPs involved calculation of time window means for each channel and eight consecutive ms bins, resulting in a 16 channels times eight time bins matrix.
Figure 5 left shows the amplitude difference between ERPs for target and standard conditions, averaged over morning and afternoon recording sessions. As also indicated by Fig. In order to quantify the test-retest reliability of the condition effect Pearson correlations were calculated. This was done for the target to standard ERP difference for all channels and time bins, and the results are illustrated in Fig.
The pattern of significant time bins corresponded partly with the topography of the condition effect Fig. Time bins reflect the mean signal over ms bins, electrode labels indicate positions as illustrated in Fig. A Image representation of the ERP voltage difference between targets and standards. Full size image The Session morning, afternoon by Condition target, standard 2-way repeated measurements ANOVA was repeatedly conducted for the ms time bins from to ms and each electrode as dependent variable.
This was done to test whether the predicted significant ERP condition effect could be verified statistically and whether a possible interaction with Session would emerge. Only the main effect of Condition remained significant after Bonferroni correction. In order to evaluate the single-trial EEG quality a classification analysis was conducted.
For each subject a linear classifier shrinkage-LDA was trained on the difference between target and standard trials using 80 features 16 electrodes, 5 consecutive time bins from to ms.
Classifier training was limited to the morning data and a 5-fold cross-validation allowed for the interpretation of classifier performance for the morning data. Subsequently this classifier was evaluated on the afternoon data. As shown in Fig. The average accuracy was The classification results were also above chance-level for all subjects individually not shown.
Figure 6: EEG single-trial classification results plotted as percent accuracy correct.
A black horizontal line indicates the statistical chance-level. A Group mean classification results for the morning training data am and the afternoon testing data pm when 16 channels were used for classifier training and testing.
B Single-subject colored lines and group average bold black line classification results for decreasing number of channels, from 16 to one. Channel selection and classifier training was performed on the morning session data, shown are the evaluation results for the afternoon session data. Full size image Adopting an iterative channel selection procedure cf.
On each iteration step the least discriminative channel was removed and the resulting classifier was evaluated on the afternoon data. As can be seen in Fig. Evaluation of the single subject results revealed individual differences. While some individuals optimal classification results were only achieved using all channels, others showed very similar, if not better classification performance for fewer channels.
Discussion To acquire brain activity in naturalistic settings the recording setup should be as unobtrusive as possible and hidden from view to other people. To achieve this we combined a lightweight mobile EEG amplifier with a smartphone for signal recordings and developed a concealed behind-the-ear electrode array. Well-known EEG oscillations and ERP patterns, such the eyes closed alpha effect and the P component elicited in response to task-relevant events, could be recorded with this setup.
The cEEGrid, which is a wearable flexible printed electrode array, enables the acquisition of good quality multi-channel EEG signals over many hours, without significant user discomfort or distraction from daily life routines. In combination with the miniaturized EEG amplifier and an off-the-shelf smartphone used for stimulus presentation and signal acquisition the setup used in this study fits into a trouser pocket, a desirable feature for various different EEG applications.
In a recent study 13 we complemented and replicated previous research by showing that miniaturized EEG electrodes are sufficient for the collection of good quality ERPs This study showed that electrodes located in and around the ear allowed the recording of ERPs in a standard brain computer interface BCI paradigm.
Specifically, despite overall smaller amplitudes, we found a comparable P condition effect size for an above the ear channel approximately 10—20 position T8, referenced to an electrode in the concha when compared to a traditional scalp EEG channel 10—20 scalp position Pz, referenced to mastoid. While a shorter distance between two electrodes forming a bipolar channel increases the common mode and thereby reduces measured amplitudes, the same effect holds for undesired influences, such as far-field noise, resulting in comparable signal-to-noise levels for large distance and small distance channels.
The present data fit well to this previous interpretation of rich spatio-temporal detail captured by in an around the ear EEG. Accordingly, we provide further evidence for the value of behind and around the ear EEG 5 , 13 , 14 , Compared to the setup used by these authors, the cEEGrid array the clear advantage of providing a better and well defined spatial sampling, which facilitates the identification and separation of overlapping brain signals and artifacts The present data show a clear spatial pattern for the P reminiscent of the spatial P pattern we reported before We expect that, for an optimal orientation of the recording electrodes relative to the electrical moment of a dipolar generator, the loss in information may be negligible.
This prediction could be best tested by comparing cEEGrid and scalp EEG effects for a number of experimental paradigms known to draw on cortical generators from different locations.
In addition, such a study design would allow a comparison of the wearing comfort of the cEEGrid and the traditional EEG cap. We designed the cEEGrid for good quality long-term signal acquisition, repeated use, good user comfort and low visibility.
German Renewable Energy Sources Act
Practical experience with the cEEGrid confirmed that it is very convenient to use. Skin preparation and array application time as well as array removal and cleaning are marginal compared to scalp EEG.
Despite these desirable features further improvements could be implemented. The electrode application time could be further reduced by the use of a hydrogel membrane directly attached to the electrode 16 , 17 , 18 , 20 , 31 , which would also help to further stabilize impedances over longer periods of time.
Future versions could also reduce visibility further by use of translucent material, a smaller adherent, smaller electrodes and variable or individualized array sizes and shapes. The latter aspect would be helpful in order to achieve better wearing comfort in individuals with unusual ear anatomy. Regarding repeated use, several of the datasets reported in the present study were acquired with previously used grids.
Modifications in the design could be easily tailored towards the production of either very cheap, disposable arrays or more sturdy arrays that could be used repeatedly. To achieve a high level of portability we used a small amplifier in combination with an off-the-shelf smartphone running an Android OS for signal acquisition and sound presentation.
Though this setup was functional in general and is very promising for further experiments, some limitations nevertheless apply. This provides a significant limitation for the acquisition of time-resolved ERPs. In the current study, we used ms bins for the statistical analysis and an offline correction procedure to synchronize ERPs.
For future mobile EEG systems better, real-time capable operating systems for smartphones are desirable.
We are not aware of any previous study reporting long-term stable electrode skin impedances using miniaturized electrodes and a conventional electrolyte gel. Adhesive electrode paste such as EC2 is routinely used in 24 h epilepsy monitoring and enables stable impedances 32 , but usually this setup comes with head bandages and poor user comfort. Use of EC2 gel with the cEEGrid may help to prolong stable impedances and thus increase recording durations even further.
The green power privilege was also modified. The renewables targets remained unchanged and are identical to those specified in the Energy Concept.
Original Research ARTICLE
In , after numerous complaints, the European Commission opened an in-depth state aid investigation into the EEG surcharge exemptions for energy-intensive companies and into the green power privilege. Despite the cutbacks in photovoltaic support, photovoltaic installations continued to boom. For the first time, cost control became the "determining factor" in the political debate over the EEG.
This was despite the fact that the merit order effect had been depressing electricity spot prices. The merit order effect occurs when preferentially dispatched wind and photovoltaic generation displaces more expensive fossil fuel generation from the margin — often gas-fired combined cycle plant — thereby driving down the cleared price.
This effect is more pronounced for photovoltaics because their midday peak correlates with the maximum generation requirement on the system. The merit order effect also lowers the revenues for conventional power plants and makes them less economically viable. A study finds that "in the case of the year , the volume of the merit order effect exceeds the volume of the net support payments for renewable electricity generation which have to be paid by consumers".
If new additions exceed this corridor, the degression rises by 1. The self-consumption privilege was removed for new installations, as grid parity was already met: The residual electricity could either be self-consumed or sold on the electricity market.
The act is available in English. In turn they receive a market premium from the grid operator to compensate for the difference between the fixed EEG payment and the average spot price for electricity. The purpose of this Act is to enable the energy supply to develop in a sustainable manner in particular in the interest of mitigating climate change and protecting the environment, to reduce the costs to the economy not least by including long-term external effects, to conserve fossil energy resources and to promote the further development of technologies to generate electricity from renewable energy sources.
The EEG also contains statutory targets for the share of renewable energy in gross final electricity consumption the targets are additional to those set out in the government's Energy Concept statement :. The level of remuneration is still prescribed under the EEG until However the way that new installations receive their remuneration has changed. Most plant operators must now directly market their output, for which they get an additional market premium payment instead of an explicit feed-in tariff.
This premium is the difference between the average monthly wholesale price at the EEX energy exchange and the fixed remuneration stated in the EEG. From — onwards, defined remuneration rates will be replaced by competitive bidding, also known as auctions or tenders.
Those investors offering the lowest prices will then receive support. The flexible cap mechanism for expansion corridors was replaced with set annual targets for the addition of wind, photovoltaic, and biogas capacity. The government hopes these new corridors will lead to a better coordination between renewables and the use and expansion of the transmission network , as well as improving planning security for conventional generators. The target corridor for photovoltaics is set at 2. Photovoltaic installations beyond this upper bound will not receive funding under the EEG.
The remuneration for photovolatic installations is reduced 0. Onshore wind retained its annual target of 2. However the target now excludes repowering, effectively extending the growth cap. The management premium and the bonus paid to wind farms providing stabilizing features Systemdienstleistungen are now being phased out.
From onwards, the onshore wind tariff is reduced quarterly, depending on whether new capacity tracks the prescribed target. For offshore wind, the new act defines a target of 6. Offshore wind farms that entered service before can choose between a fixed payment for 8 years or a reduced payment for 12 years. After this period, the basic reward is reduced still further, depending on the distance from shore and the depth of the sea. The biomass target is set at 0.
Only biogas plants that use biowaste and liquid manure will receive more than the standard remuneration, depending on their capacity. Tariffs are to be reduced by 0. The BMWi also stated that the competition was high and that prices fell from round to round. It added that small bidders were able to win tenders. These results will be used to develop auctions for other renewable electricity generation technologies.
These figures confirm a falling trend from auction to auction. The following explains some of the process prior to the final legislation. The reform is being driven by three guiding principles, namely the need: The government believes that the new auction system will control costs.
The new system also accords with the desire of the European Commission for renewables support to be market-based. To this end, a suite of complex calculations Referenzertragsmodell are being developed to ensure that bids are comparable and payments are fair.
It replaces prescribed feed-in tariffs with an auction system for the majority of renewable technologies. It repeats the deployment corridors specified in the EEG to control the uptake of renewable electricity over the next decade and to ensure that future renewable energy targets are honored. This corridor will be maintained by auctioning only a defined capacity each year. Each technology — photovoltaics, onshore wind, offshore wind, and biomass — will get an auction design tailored to its needs.
As indicated above, the auction system was piloted in for ground-mounted photovoltaic facilities. As a result of this trial, the Economics and Energy Ministry BMWi abandoned ' uniform pricing ' in favor of ' pay-as-bid '. Starting in , there will be between three and four auctions per year for photovoltaics and onshore wind. Participants will submit single sealed bids and will have to provide a substantial security deposit to ensure good faith. Bids are tied to projects and locations and cannot normally be transferred.
The lowest bids will win until the capacity under auction is met. A ceiling price is to be notified in advance. Special rules apply for citizen energy projects: Onshore wind investors will also have to get prior approval for their projects under the Federal Immission Control Act Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes or BlmSchG , the federal law regulating the harmful effects of air pollution, noise, vibration and similar phenomena. Citizens cooperatives Genossenschaft participating in wind energy tenders have special dispensations.
Wind energy auctions will be held more often in the beginning, with three in and four in , in order to quickly establish a price level.
The annual capacity for onshore wind farms will be set at 2. In order to better synchronise the development of the grid with renewables growth, the addition of onshore wind will be restricted to specified 'grid congestion zones' where high inputs of renewable electricity cannot be accepted because of network congestion. These areas are to be identified by the Federal Network Agency.
The new rules on funding offshore wind farms will apply to those projects that commence operation in or later. From , the government will specify the sites for future wind farms and investors will then compete for the right to build at those locations. This centralised Danish model is designed to ensure competition and to make project approvals, site planning, and network connections more cost effective and better integrated.
Wavelet-based study of valence–arousal model of emotions on EEG signals with LabVIEW
Between and a transitional auction model will be used and wind farms that have been planned and approved but not built will compete in two rounds of tenders for a restricted amount of capacity. In , only wind farms in the Baltic Sea will be considered, due to a shortage of network connections at the North Sea. Biomass projects will also participate in the new auction system.
Biomass facilities will only receive remuneration for half their runtime in order to incentivize their use during times of high electricity prices. Hydroelectricity, geothermal, and mine, landfill, and sewage gas are excluded from the auction system because of the prospect of insufficient competition. In January , in response to the official proposals, Greenpeace Germany cautioned that a complete overhaul of the successful EEG would endanger climate protection targets.
Estimates for suggest that almost half the renewable energy capacity in Germany is owned by citizens through energy cooperatives Genossenschaft and private installations. That support may lag if the EEG reforms favor large companies over cooperatives and individuals.
In November , the CDU revealed that it is considering scrapping the EEG, although it remains undecided as to whether it will make this an election issue for The technologies that make up the largest share of the EEG surcharge are: Three percent is retained for past and future forecast errors and thereby provides a liquidity reserve.
The structure and development of feed-in tariffs over the course of the EEG is a complex topic. This section is simply intended to give an indication. The table below summarizes photovoltaics remunerations from August to January As of [update] , under the EEG mandate, the Federal Network Agency Bundesnetzagentur publishes the currently installed PV capacity with adjusted feed-in tariffs monthly as a downloadable spreadsheet.
The development of the EEG has been the subject of political science analysis. A study finds that "the regulatory framework is formed in a 'battle over institutions' where the German parliament, informed and supported by an advocacy coalition of growing strength, backed support policies for renewables sourced electricity against often reluctant governments and the opposition from nuclear and coal interests". A thesis finds that two broad coalition of actors faced each other off over the development of the EEG legislation: The economic coalition wanted unassisted market competition to prevail and preferred large-scale facilities.
When the EEG was proposed in the lates, the incumbent energy companies markedly underestimated the technological potential of renewables, believing them to be suitable only for niche roles. They were not alone, almost all politicians and scientists of the time did so too. Concurrent lobbying over the nuclear phase-out Atomausstieg also diverted industry attention away from the EEG negotiations. Notwithstanding, the success of the EEG can be traced a small dedicated group of parliamentarians who forged an alliance between various business groups, unions, environmental NGOs , and other idealistic interest groups.
Yet despite expectations, renewable generation came to account for As history shows, the environmental coalition prevailed till at least, underpinning the development of the EEG legislation, the nuclear phase-out, and the German Energiewende more generally. Earlier versions of the EEG could be interpreted as inhibiting free trade and that granting renewable energy preferential dispatch may still be illegal under the proposed treaty.
This change is defined under the EEG and subsequent legislation. Various studies have found that a fixed feed-in tariff scheme provides financial certainty and is more cost effective and less bureaucratic than other forms of support, including investment or production tax credits, quota-based renewable portfolio standards RPS , and auction mechanisms. Well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity.
When the avoided external costs are compared to the compensation that renewable energy operators were paid for electricity from renewable energy, a study finds that the reduced environmental impacts and related economic benefits far outweigh the additional costs required to compensate the producers of electricity from renewable sources.
A economics study by RWI Essen was hugely critical of the high levels of feed-in support afforded photovoltaics. The study argues that the European Union Emission Trading Scheme EU ETS was sufficient to drive the transition towards a low-carbon economy , that the EEG does nothing intrinsic to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and that the electricity produced represents one of the most expensive greenhouse gas abatement options on offer.
In June economist Claudia Kemfert from DIW Berlin contended that the new auction system, introduced with the EEG and being refined under the proposed EEG , will not reduce costs, but will rather undermine planning security and increase the risk premium applied by investors. In addition, the auction system will lead to deployment corridors being missed as companies holding tenders delay construction for whatever reason.
The positive impact on the environment globally is less clear. Thus, countries like China or the US have an incentive to produce more, and the net effect on the climate is zero. This effect is known as the green paradox.
One challenge that lies ahead is integrating the electricity generated by decentralized renewable energy into the existing electricity grid structure. The grid was built to suit the centralized energy system of the then four main energy companies, namely, E.
The need for grid reinforcement from north to south is commonly recognized. But not all experts agree that a substantial build-out of the grid is necessary. Claudia Kemfert believes the large amount of coal-fired generation on the system is part of the problem. Kemfert said "our studies and models show that grid extension does no harm, but it's not strictly necessary The EEG specifies technology-specific deployment corridors see table which will be tracked by the new auction system.
Environmental NGOs and renewable energy advocates argue that these corridors are insufficient to meet Germany's climate protection goals. A report by Volker Quaschning of HTW Berlin concludes that Germany will need to accelerate its renewables uptake by a factor of four or five to reach the lower Paris Agreement global warming target of 1.
Moreover, this target will require the energy sector to be carbon free by Informed consent was obtained from all participants. The tariffs also differentiated between scale larger plants received less and electricity yield wind turbines in low-wind areas received more.
As history shows, the environmental coalition prevailed till at least, underpinning the development of the EEG legislation, the nuclear phase-out, and the German Energiewende more generally. Only about 40 companies complied under the previous rules, mostly from the chemical, steel, and metals industries. The feed-in rate itself was dependent on the system size and the proportion of demand that was consumed on-site.
A new ordinance required the retrofitting of photovoltaic systems to avoid the A study finds that "the regulatory framework is formed in a 'battle over institutions' where the German parliament, informed and supported by an advocacy coalition of growing strength, backed support policies for renewables sourced electricity against often reluctant governments and the opposition from nuclear and coal interests".
We complemented the EEG system with a mobile virtual reality device that allowed us to implement a less restricted but at the same time well-controlled experimental paradigm. Biogas Journal. A clear peak in the alpha frequency range was evident in most channels and alpha power clearly varied in magnitude across channels.