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CONTOH SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS PDF

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Prog. Studi: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. Fakutas.: Bahasa dan Seni. Judul Skripsi: Improving Writing Skills of Tenth Grade Students of SMA N 1. Nim.: Program Studi.: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. Fakultas.: Bahasa dan Seni. JudulSkripsi.: THE EFFECT OF USING MIND MAPPING ON. of “SMP Sunan Bonang” Tangerang)”, Skripsi, Jurusan. Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Keguruan,. Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif.


Contoh Skripsi Bahasa Inggris Pdf

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Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris/S Judul Skripsi.:“IMPROVING The written of this skripsi entitled “Improving Students' Speaking Skill in. English Lesson by Using. Jurusan/Prodi: Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris/Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris SI Menyatakan dengan ini sesungguhnya bahwa skripsi/tugas akhir/final project. resourceone.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read Skripsi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris resourceone.info Total.

Without the presence of both elements, the activity being valued will not be performed. Sprint hall states that teacher have long recognize that those motivation or non intellectual factors are critical in the trimming the achievement of their students.

Even if we were to develop an absolute reliable, valid, culture fair measure of intelligence, no totally accurate prediction of academic achievement could be made without considering motivational variables, it applies that motivation is inseparable factor on learning and or at least become one of the most important factor within.

Generally, there are two types of motivation. They are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is initiative or driving from inner mind whereas extrinsic is drivers and initiative are influenced by out side factors.

Extrinsic Motivation It has been stated previously that student study a language because they haven idea of something they wish to achieve. That idea is referred to as motivations. They are integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Integrative motivation for this kind of motivation students need to be attracted by the culture of the target language community, and in the strong from of integrative motivation they wish to integrate or put himself in the exposure Krashen, of that language culture, a weaker from of such motivation would be the desire to know as much as possible about the culture of the language.

Instrumental motivation this term describe a situation in which students believe that mastery of the target language will be instrumental in getting them a better job, position or status. The language is an instrument in their attainment of such a goal. Many other factors have impact upon a students level of instrumental motivation and most of these have something to do with his or her attitudes to the language Numan, Nunan further states that if the parents are every much against the culture of the language this will probably affect his or her motivation in negative way.

If they are very much in favor of the language this might the opposite effect. The students friends will also be in overfull position to affect the attitude. What can The teachers do about instrumental motivation and students attitude them? In relation to this, it is clear that we can not create it since comes into classroom from outside. It is clear too that students have to be prepared to take some responsibility for their own learning b. Intrinsic Motivation It is reasonable that many adult learners have some degree of extrinsic motivation, and it is clear that the attitude of the students can be affective by their friends.

But there can be not doubt that intrinsic motivation plays a vital in most student success or failure as language learners. Many students bring no extrinsic to the classroom. They may even have negative feeling about language learning. For this, Celc states that the intrinsic motivation can be affected by physical conditions, method, the teachers and the success. Physical condition it is clear that the case of physical condition have a great affect in learning and can change a students motivation either positively or negatively, classroom that are badly conditioned and overcrowded can be a greatly motivation, but unfortunately many of them exist in school.

Vitally important will be white board, it is easy visible? Is the surface in good condition? In general teacher are supposed to try to make their classroom as pleasant as possible. Even there the conditions are bad it many to be possible to improve the atmosphere with poster, students work on the walls.

The method by which students are taught must have some effect on their motivation. If they find it boring they will probably become them, motivated, whereas if they have confidence in the method they will and it motivating. But perhaps this is the most area of all to be paid attention. We said earlier that a really motivated student will probably success whatever the method is used Krashen, It is also true that different students are more or less favored to any particular method depending on their expectation.

Girard in Harmer attempted to answer the previous question. He took data on a thousand children between the ages Students were more concerned that classes should be interesting, and thereof the top ten qualities 5,6 and 7 are concerned with the relationship between teacher and the students. Another factor that should be paid attention in relation to motivations are as follows: c. Concept of Personality Personality according to daily definition. In English personality word is derived from Latin namely person, gradually person word personality changed to become one item that give a certain social description which is received by individual from group or society and than the individual will hope to have attitude suitable with social description.

Personality according to psychology.

All expert states that a personality is a dynamic organization of the psychophysics system which were to decide action and feeling person Koswara, ; In similar sence, Dulay et. Research indicates that how low anxiety level and tendency to be out going is, both expression of self confidence, have a positive effect on second language acquisition.

It appears that self confidence people are more willing to take risk, to place themselves in unfamiliar learning situation, to guess or experiment with new from and to make mistakes, all of which to contribute to their increased ability to learn.

Personality Factors Basically, human beings soul can be differentiated into two aspects, namely: ability aspects and personality aspect. Ability aspect consist of achievement, characteristic, adjustment, interest, attitude and motivation Haryono, 1.

There are two kinds of psychological factors expressed by Ellis 9 , namely personality factors and general factors. Personality factor consist of age, intelligence and aptitude, cognitive style, attitude and motivation.

Personality factor is highly idiosyncratic of each individual approach to learning a second language. Here are personality traits which are relevant to this study: a. Interest Factor winkle says that interest is defined to be inclination of subject permanently, for interest some reason given enjoyment to learn something.

An interest is a subjective attitude concern or condition involving a perfection or an idea, an attention, a combination or intellectual and feeling consciousness temporary or permanent, based on the motive curiosity conditioned by experienced.

Interest and good feeling have close relationship. The students who were on bad or good feeling would process lower interest or on the contrary. In describing peoples attitude we can be conceived of them having varying degrees of strength intensity Mupliha, Another assumption on attitude could be expressed by Winkle that action is the ability that has a part in taking action. There are different language in society which language attitude has essential goals in language uses life as Haugen writes that: whenever language in contact, one is likely to find certain prevalent attitude of favor towards or disfavor towards the languages involved.

These can have profound effect on the language. In the final analysis these attitudes are directed at the people who use the language and therefore inter group judgment and stereotypes Kamaruddin, Based on the description above, the writer can draw a conclusion that attitude is all of the human action aroused by several behaviors whether from internal or external response.

Aptitude Factor It is fairly common assumption that there is such thing as a special went, knack, gift, or aptitude for second language learning, which some learner process to a greater extent than other in which it is to large extent responsible for individual differences in second language learning success. Pimsleur dictation three components of language aptitude: 1. Motivation 3. Auditory ability Referring to the statements before, the writer would like to make a definitions about aptitude is the ability of individual in doing something that it has been gotten naturally but is increased through practice regularly.

Motivation Factor One of the main aspect in learning English is motivation, Donald et, al, define that motivation is energy within the person characterized by affective arousal and anticipatory goal reacting cuter in Mupliha, It is expressed by Jannah, 10 that: Motivation is kind of internal drive that encourages someone to pursue a course of action.

If we perceive a goal is sufficiently attractive, we will be strongly motivated to do whatever is necessary to reach that goal. There are two categories of motivation, namely: integrative and instrument motivation.

In integrative motivation students are attracted by the culture of the target in communication, and in strong from of integrative motivation they wish to integrate themselves into that culture, and instrumental motivation is this term describing a situation in which students behave that mastery of the target learning will be instrumental in getting them better job, position or status.

In the same way , two different clusters of attitudes divide two basic types of motivation emphasized by Gardner and Lambert as instrumental motivation referring to motivation to acquire a language as means for attending instrument goals; furthering a career, reading technical material, translation, and so forth an integrative motive is employed when learners wish to integrate themselves within the culture of the second language group, to identify themselves with and become a part of the society.

To clarify the illustration above, there is a little bit a distinction on motivation is delivered by Graham by giving the differences between integrative and assimilative motivation. Integrative motivation is desire on the communicate with, or find out about members of the second language group. Assimilative motivation is the drive to become an indistinguishable contact with the second culture Brown, To clear up some definition above, the writer will take a conclusion that motivation is desire or willingness to do something with appears even internal or external human beings.

And motivation in learning depends on the teacher student interaction. The Factors Affective Intrinsic Motivation We can consider some affecting intrinsic motivation under the heading of physical condition, method, teacher and success, namely: a. Physical Condition It is clear that physical condition has a great effect on learning, and can a student motivation, either positively or negatively.

Method In this case students are taught must have some effects on their motivation. Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence, comprehension, and fluency. Reading skill is the capability of understanding or getting information from reading material.

Strategies According to Gony and Kingsmey the strategy is a process of individual behavior which modified or changed through practice or learning on the other hand. Effect is words indicate things, which arise out of some antecedent, or follow as a consequence. It is intended to provide some theoretical concepts which could support this investigation. Theory of Think aloud In this research, it was decided to implement the think-aloud strategy because it was used as an instructional approach, and also because this strategy helped readers to comprehend more easily what was being read by them.

Afflerbach and Johnston cited by McKeown and Gentilucci , claim that think-aloud serves firstly as a method of measuring the cognitive reading process, then as metacognitive tool to monitor comprehension.

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In that sense, the think aloud is appropriate for this study because through this strategy the students can monitor their comprehension process. Another definition of this strategy is provided by Pressley et al. Through the interactions that think aloud promotes, a better understanding of the texts may emerge in the classroom. Think aloud is also a process in which readers report their thoughts while reading Wade It helps students to reflect upon their own reading process.

Thus, this strategy is useful because students are verbalizing all their thought in order to create understanding of the reading texts. Another illustration about think aloud is provided by Tinzmann in Teacher Vision website , he says that: When students use think out loud with teachers and with one another, they gradually internalize this dialogue [ Therefore, as students think aloud, they learn how to learn, and they develop into reflective, metacognitive, independent learners, an invaluable step in helping students understand that learning requires effort and often is difficult.

This argument encloses all the issues that imply think-aloud in a reading process.

Think aloud are also used to model comprehension processes such as making predictions, creating images, linking information in text with prior knowledge, monitoring comprehension, and overcoming problems with word recognition or comprehension Gunning, in teacher vision. These sub-strategies will be defined in the ensuing sections.

Readers' thoughts might include commenting on or questioning the text, bringing their prior knowledge to bear, or making inferences or predictions.

These comments reveal readers' weaknesses as well as their strengths as comprehenders and allow the teacher to assess their needs in order to plan more effective instruction 2.

Using of Think Aloud How to use this strategy a. Explain that reading is a complex process that involves thinking and sense-making; the skilled reader's mind is alive with questions she asks herself in order to understand what she reads.

Select a passage to read aloud that contains points that students might find difficult, unknown vocabulary terms, or ambiguous wording. Develop questions you can ask yourself that will show what you think as you confront these problems while reading. While students read this passage silently, read it aloud. As you read, verbalize your thoughts, the questions you develop, and the process you use to solve comprehension problems.

It is helpful if you alter the tone of your voice, so students know when you are reading and at what points you begin and end thinking aloud. I know I've heard that term before. I learned it last year when we studied nutrition. Maybe if I reread that section, I'll get the meaning from the other sentences around it: I know I can't skip it because it's in bold-faced print, so it must be important.

If I still don't understand, I know I can ask the teacher for help," e. Have students work with partners to practice "think-aloud" when reading short passages of text.

Periodically revisit this strategy or have students complete the assessment that follows so these metacomprehension skills become second nature. The Nature of Reading Reading is an active cognitive process of interaction with print and monitoring comprehension of establishing meaning which means the brain does not work in reading, the pupils get information by comprehending the massage and the teacher motivate the pupils to read Lado, Furthermore, Gloria 43 States that the definition of reading comprehension is most likely to occur when pupils are reading what they want to read, or at least what they see some good reasons to read.

Lado 56 : Reading in the foreign language consists of grasping meaning in the written language. Practically a. The use of think aloud strategy in reading can make the students are more enjoyable in doing their tasks associated with the reading materials.

The hypothesis of this study was prepared as a tentative answer for the research problem stated previously. In this case the alternative hypothesis as read follow: Scope and Limitation of the Study The scopes of the study are limited to the subject and object investigated.

Object The object of this study is the effect of Think aloud strategy towards students reading skill. Think-aloud have been described as "eavesdropping on someone's thinking. Their verbalizations include describing things they're doing as they read to monitor their comprehension.

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The purpose of the think-aloud strategy is to model for students how skilled readers construct meaning from a text. The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading, solving math problems, or simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students Reading is a kind of activity in translating written symbols into corresponding sound.

Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence, comprehension, and fluency.

Reading skill is the capability of understanding or getting information from reading material. Strategies According to Gony and Kingsmey Effect is words indicate things, which arise out of some antecedent, or follow as a consequence.

It is intended to provide some theoretical concepts which could support this investigation.

The discussion is presented under the following sub headings: Theory of Think aloud In this research, it was decided to implement the think-aloud strategy because it was used as an instructional approach, and also because this strategy helped readers to comprehend more easily what was being read by them.

Afflerbach and Johnston cited by McKeown and Gentilucci , claim that think-aloud serves firstly as a method of measuring the cognitive reading process, then as metacognitive tool to monitor comprehension. In that sense, the think aloud is appropriate for this study because through this strategy the students can monitor their comprehension process.

Another definition of this strategy is provided by Pressley et al. Through the interactions that think aloud promotes, a better understanding of the texts may emerge in the classroom.

Think aloud is also a process in which readers report their thoughts while reading Wade It helps students to reflect upon their own reading process. Thus, this strategy is useful because students are verbalizing all their thought in order to create understanding of the reading texts. Another illustration about think aloud is provided by Tinzmann in Teacher Vision website , he says that: When students use think out loud with teachers and with one another, they gradually internalize this dialogue [ Therefore, as students think aloud, they learn how to learn, and they develop into reflective, metacognitive, independent learners, an invaluable step in helping students understand that learning requires effort and often is difficult.

This argument encloses all the issues that imply think-aloud in a reading process. Think aloud are also used to model comprehension processes such as making predictions, creating images, linking information in text with prior knowledge, monitoring comprehension, and overcoming problems with word recognition or comprehension Gunning, in teacher vision.

These sub-strategies will be defined in the ensuing sections. Readers' thoughts might include commenting on or questioning the text, bringing their prior knowledge to bear, or making inferences or predictions. These comments reveal readers' weaknesses as well as their strengths as comprehenders and allow the teacher to assess their needs in order to plan more effective instruction 2. Using of Think Aloud How to use this strategy a. Explain that reading is a complex process that involves thinking and sense-making; the skilled reader's mind is alive with questions she asks herself in order to understand what she reads.

Select a passage to read aloud that contains points that students might find difficult, unknown vocabulary terms, or ambiguous wording. Develop questions you can ask yourself that will show what you think as you confront these problems while reading. While students read this passage silently, read it aloud. As you read, verbalize your thoughts, the questions you develop, and the process you use to solve comprehension problems.

It is helpful if you alter the tone of your voice, so students know when you are reading and at what points you begin and end thinking aloud. Coping strategies you can model include: I know I've heard that term before. I learned it last year when we studied nutrition. Maybe if I reread that section, I'll get the meaning from the other sentences around it: I know I can't skip it because it's in bold-faced print, so it must be important. If I still don't understand, I know I can ask the teacher for help," e.

Have students work with partners to practice "think-aloud" when reading short passages of text. Periodically revisit this strategy or have students complete the assessment that follows so these metacomprehension skills become second nature. Furthermore, Gloria Lado Reading in the foreign language consists of grasping meaning in the written language.

In this case, reading foreign language is the grasping of full linguistics meaning of what is to read in subject within the common experience of the culture of which the language is a central part. He further maintains that linguistics means to include the denotation conveyed by language to all speakers of it is as opposed to meaning that are receptive only by those have specific background information not known by the other speakers in general.

In other word, there are some purposes of reading such as reading for specific items of information, for general and detail information in a given field, etc.

Learning to read a new language, the pupils must read carefully, some aloud; moreover some questions are also important of the passages, as in the following statement by Berry There must be question on the text, this essential.

It means that the questions on the passage are able to facilitate the pupils understanding of the passage; the children are playing hide and seek in the playground, and the question are 1 who is playing hide and seek in the playground? Psychologists and the reading experts have been conducting extensive research in the nature of reading and the sequential development of language skill.

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Among discoveries of the researchers, as stated by Lewis and Sisk in Gerry Concept of Reading Although, on the world wide level, the format of teaching reading skill may differ according to local circumstances, the English GBPP Stresses the implementation of teaching reading skill in an integrated skill unit. It means that reading is thought integrated with the other language skill.

Such as, teaching vocabulary, grammar, punctuation and the way construct sentences, paragraphs and texts. The development of reading skills mostly occurs in this stage.

To be effective reader, the pupils should be able to 1 scan; 2 skim; 3 read between the lines; 4 read intensively; and 5 deduce meaning from the context. Reading Process In very real sense, reading process is a progress report. It means that a major reason for the lack of forward motion in attempts to develop more effective reading in striation was a common failure to examine and articulate a clear view of the reading process it self.

Knowledge is non-cumulative in improving reading instruction largely because either ignore the reading process and focus on the manipulation of teacher or pupils behaviors of because they related reading as an unknowable mystery. Both views are non-productive at best and the worst seriously impede progress. Furthermore, the effort has been to create a model of the reading process powerful enough to explain and predicate reading behavior and sound enough to be a base on which to build and examine the effectiveness of reading instruction.

This model has been developed using the concepts, scientific methodology, and terminology of psycholinguistics, the interdisciplinary science that is concerned with how thought and language are interrelated. Reading as a Language Skill From the four integrated skills listening, speaking, reading and writing skill , the writer is interested to come up with a more elaborate description about reading skill as what Tarigan cited from Huda calls that reading skill as the third skill that the children have gained after speaking and before writing.

To the same extent reading should be stimulated when the students need to create the sense condition. In other words, the students will be guided to find the real answers of question they have in mind. Purposeful reading is encouraged by creating an interest in content, by trying in the new experience with personal background of the learning, by systematically extending the reading vocabulary Betts. Meanwhile Godman says reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game, consisting of cycle of sampling, predicting, testing and confirming.

H e is satisfied with a meaning which makes sense of the context.

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In this type of reading, control from a teacher is compulsory and it will provide a basis for elucidation of difficulties of structure, and for the extension of vocabulary. In this extent, the activity is not completely controlled by the teacher. Structures in the test will be already familiar to him and new vocabulary will be introduced slowly in such a way that its meaning can be deduced from the context. Skimming techniques will enable them to select the worth reading.

In short, skimming is the skill that helps the students read quickly and selectively in order to obtain a general idea of the material. The procedures for scanning are as follows. First, specific information must be located. Next the clues which will help to find the required information have to be decided, then, find the clues. Finally, read the section containing the clues to get information needed.

In this technique, the students are trained to think of clues to help them find the specific information. These clues may be a word or words, punctuation, alphabetical order, numbers, etc.

From linguistics point of views, reading is recording and decoding process. Not like speaking which just involves an encoding process reading applies decoding process by which a reader must grasp and guess the meaning of written words used in writing scripts, reading the symbols to the oral language meaning Anderson in Tarigan and Suhirman It is true by reading people get to know the other people scientific achievement, or some happening in other region of the country.

Through reading we can improve our skill and enlarge our human development achievement. Because the written passage upon which the questions are based presents a sustained discussion of a particular topic. There are six types of reading comprehension questions. These types focus on these aspects.Indonesia students seem poor due to the limited number of native speakers available in the teaching English to low motivated learns.

Hurlock, Elizabeth B. Statement of Problem. Significance of the Study. Communicating in the Classroom. During the students are writing the text, they can use top-down technique in predicting the content of the text based on understanding of picture series Brown,