BEGINNING BACKBONE.JS PDF
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Spine is perhaps the most similar to Backbone, but takes an opinionated stance to emphasize completely asynchronous client-server interactions for a faster user experience. Ember, originally a SproutCore rewrite, provides a host of conventions including two-way bindings, computed properties, and auto-updating templates. Backbone favors a pared-down and flexible approach.
Additionally, a growing community of users brings with it a rich ecosystem of plugins, blog articles, and support. The example application The example application is a classic todo item manager.
This is a popular example, and for good reason: The concepts and domain are familiar, and room is left to explore interesting implementa- tions like deferred loading and file attachment. While the example application is based on the content of the book, it represents the finished state of a lot of concepts discussed in the book.
This is a general good practice, and the Rails asset pipeline will properly package the assets for production.
Show all. Table of contents 12 chapters Table of contents 12 chapters An Introduction to Backbone.
Routers and Events Sugrue, James Pages From Start to Finish: Testing Your Backbone. This process is called routing. The Model communicates with the data source e. Once the Model completes its work it returns data to the Controller which then loads the appropriate View.
The View executes presentation logic loops through articles and prints titles, content, etc. In the end, an HTTP response is returned to the browser. This is at odds with the traditional approach to web app development which is very server-centric, requiring a complete page reload to move from one page to the next.
In addition to resulting in a great deal of duplicated content being served back to the user, this approach affects both latency and the general responsiveness of the user experience. A trend to improve perceived latency in the past few years has been to move towards building Single Page Applications SPAs - apps which after an initial page load are able to handle subsequent navigations and requests for data without the need for a complete reload.
This improves usability and responsiveness. SPAs can also take advantage of browser features like the History API to update the address seen in the location bar when moving from one view to another. These URLs also make it possible to bookmark and share a particular application state, without the need to navigate to completely new pages.
The typical SPA consists of smaller pieces of interface representing logical entities, all of which have their own UI, business logic and data. A good example is a basket in a shopping web application which can have items added to it.
This basket might be presented to the user in a box in the top right corner of the page see the picture below : The basket and its data are presented in HTML. There was a time when we used jQuery or a similar DOM manipulation library and a bunch of Ajax calls and callbacks to keep the two in sync.
That often produced code that was not well-structured or easy to maintain. Bugs were frequent and perhaps even unavoidable. The need for fast, complex, and responsive Ajax-powered web applications demands replication of a lot of this logic on the client side, dramatically increasing the size and complexity of the code residing there. Eventually this has brought us to the point where we need MVC or a similar architecture implemented on the client side to better structure the code and make it easier to maintain and further extend during the application life-cycle.
View and is instantiated with an associated Model. In our example, the render method uses a template to construct the HTML for the Todo item which is placed inside an li element. Each call to render will replace the content of the li element using the current Model data. Thus, a View instance renders the content of a DOM element using the attributes of an associated Model.
Later we will see how a View can bind its render method to Model change events, causing the View to re-render whenever the Model changes. So far, we have seen that Backbone. View implements the View. However, as we noted earlier, Backbone departs from traditional MVC when it comes to Controllers - there is no Backbone. Instead, the Controller responsibility is addressed within the View.
Recall that Controllers respond to requests and perform appropriate actions which may result in changes to the Model and updates to the View.
In a single-page application, rather than having requests in the traditional sense, we have events. Events can be traditional browser DOM events e. While in this instance events help us relate Backbone to the MVC pattern, we will see them playing a much larger role in our SPA applications.
Event is a fundamental Backbone component which is mixed into both Backbone. Model and Backbone. View, providing them with rich event management capabilities.
Developing Backbone.js Applications
Note that the traditional controller role Smalltalk style is performed by the template, not by the Backbone. This completes our first encounter with Backbone. The remainder of this book will explore the many features which build on these simple constructs.
Once loaded, a client-side Router intercepts URLs and invokes client-side logic in place of sending a new request to the server. The handlers update the DOM and Models, which may trigger additional events.
Models are synced with Data Sources which may involve communicating with back-end servers. Models The built-in capabilities of Models vary across frameworks. When using Models in real-world applications we generally also need a way of persisting Models.
A Model may have multiple Views observing it for changes. By observing we mean that a View has registered an interest in being informed whenever an update is made to the Model. This allows the View to ensure that what is displayed on screen is kept in sync with the data contained in the model.
Depending on your requirements, you might create a single View displaying all Model attributes, or create separate Views displaying different attributes. In Backbone, these groups are called Collections.
Managing Models in groups allows us to write application logic based on notifications from the group when a Model within the group changes. This avoids the need to manually observe individual Model instances. Collections are also useful for performing any aggregate computations across more than one model. Views Users interact with Views, which usually means reading and editing Model data.
For example, in our Todo application, Todo Model viewing happens in the user interface in the list of all Todo items.
You may wonder where user interaction comes into play here. A Controller makes this decision. It has long been considered bad practice and computationally expensive to manually create large blocks of HTML markup in-memory through string concatenation.Fetch method teams. An approach known as Separated Presentation began to be used as a means to make a clear division between domain objects which modeled concepts in the real world e.
Beginners sometimes also try using setElement to solve this problem, however keep in mind that using this method is an easy way to shoot yourself in the foot. About this book Beginning Backbone. Backbone is mature, popular, and has both a vibrant developer community as well as a wealth of plugins and extensions available that build upon it.
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