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THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE BOOK

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The Anglo-saxon Chronicle Book

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The Anglo Saxon Chronicle book. Read 31 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Ol. . Buy The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles New Ed by Michael Swanton (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on. FREE UK Delivery on book orders dispatched by Amazon over £ Only 11 left in stock . Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Old English Books). King Alfred the Great.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle by J. A. Giles and J. Ingram

Previous owners include William Camden [20] and William L'Isle ; the latter probably passed the manuscript on to Laud. The version the scribe copied on folios 30—70 [23] is similar to the version used by the scribe in Peterborough who wrote [E], though it seems to have been abridged.

It includes the same introductory material as [D] and, along with [E], is one of the two chronicles that does not include the "Battle of Brunanburh" poem. The manuscript has many annotations and interlineations, some made by the original scribe and some by later scribes, [7] including Robert Talbot.

The Anglo Saxon Chronicle

This manuscript was almost completely destroyed in the fire at Ashburnham House , where the Cotton Library was housed. The original [A2] introduction would later be removed prior to the fire and survives as British Library Add MS , f. In the entry for it includes the phrase "he came to Winchester"; hence it is thought likely that the manuscript was written at Winchester. There is not enough of this manuscript for reliable relationships to other manuscripts to be established.

Until the death of Anselm of Canterbury they are in English; all but one of the following entries are in Latin. After , the annals are in various contemporary hands.

In addition, Parker included a manuscript called Hist. The entry for , describing how Cynewulf took the kingship of Wessex from Sigebehrt , is far longer than the surrounding entries, and includes direct speech quotations from the participants in those events. It seems likely that this was taken by the scribe from existing saga material.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The chronological summary to Bede 's Ecclesiastical History was used as a source. The Chronicle gives dates and genealogies for Northumbrian and Mercian kings, and provides a list of Wessex bishops; these are likely to have had separate sources.

The entry for records a battle fought by Cenwalh that is said to have been fought "at Easter"; this precision implies a contemporary record, which survived and was re-used by the Chronicle scribe.

As the Chronicle developed, it lost its list-like appearance, and such notes took up more space, becoming more like historical records. Many later entries, especially those written by contemporaries, contained a great deal of historical narrative under the year headings.

The actual name of the fortress was probably "Wihtwarabyrg", "the stronghold of the inhabitants of Wight", and either the chronicler or an earlier source misinterpreted this as referring to Wihtgar.

In addition to dates that are simply inaccurate, scribes occasionally made mistakes that caused further errors. For example, in the [D] manuscript, the scribe omits the year from the list on the left hand side.

The annals copied down are therefore incorrect from to , which has two entries.

A more difficult problem is the question of the date at which a new year began, since the modern custom of starting the year on 1 January was not universal at that time. The entry for in [E] begins at Christmas and continues throughout the year; it is clear that this entry follows the old custom of starting the year at Christmas.

Some other entries appear to begin the year on 25 March, such as the year in the [C] manuscript, which ends with Edward the Confessor 's marriage on 23 January, while the entry for 22 April is recorded under There are also years which appear to start in September.

It has been argued that the Chronicle should be regarded as propaganda , produced by Alfred's court and written with the intent of glorifying Alfred and creating loyalty. An example can be seen in the entry for , which describes Egbert 's invasion of Northumbria.

According to the Chronicle, after Egbert conquered Mercia and Essex , he became a " bretwalda ", implying overlordship of all of England. Then when he marched into Northumbria, the Northumbrians offered him "submission and peace".

An Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Northumbrian chronicles incorporated into Roger of Wendover 's 13th-century history give a different picture: "When Egbert had obtained all the southern kingdoms, he led a large army into Northumbria, and laid waste that province with severe pillaging, and made King Eanred pay tribute. And he admitted this before all the men who were gathered there, although the words shot out against his will.

And here came a raiding ship-army from Norway ; it is tedious to tell how it all happened.

It has sometimes been argued that when the Chronicle is silent, other sources that report major events must be mistaken, but this example demonstrates that the Chronicle does omit important events. There is no evidence in his work of any of the entries in [E] after , so although his manuscript may actually have been [E], it may also have been a copy—either one taken of [E] prior to the entries he makes no use of, or a manuscript from which [E] was copied, with the copying taking place prior to the date of the last annal he uses.

Henry also made use of the [C] manuscript. The manuscript of the chronicle translated by Geoffrey Gaimar cannot be identified accurately, though according to historian Dorothy Whitelock it was "a rather better text than 'E' or 'F'".

Gaimar implies that there was a copy at Winchester in his day the middle of the 12th century ; Whitelock suggests that there is evidence that a manuscript that has not survived to the present day was at Winchester in the mid-tenth century.

If it survived to Gaimar's time that would explain why [A] was not kept up to date, and why [A] could be given to the monastery at Canterbury.

His account is often similar to that of [D], though there is less attention paid to Margaret of Scotland , an identifying characteristic of [D]. He had the Mercian register, which appears only in [C] and [D]; and he includes material from annals — which only appears in [C]. It is possible he had a manuscript that was an ancestor of [D].

An Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

He also had sources which have not been identified, and some of his statements have no earlier surviving source. It is likely he had either the original from which [E] was copied, or a copy of that original. He mentions that the chronicles do not give any information on the murder of Alfred Aetheling , but since this is covered in both [C] and [D] it is apparent he had no access to those manuscripts.

On occasion he appears to show some knowledge of [D], but it is possible that his information was taken from John of Worcester's account. He also omits any reference to a battle fought by Cenwealh in ; this battle is mentioned in [A], [B] and [C], but not in [E]. He does mention a battle fought by Cenwealh at Wirtgernesburg , which is not in any of the extant manuscripts, so it is possible he had a copy now lost.

Without the Chronicle and Bede 's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum the Ecclesiastical History of the English People , it would be impossible to write the history of the English from the Romans to the Norman conquest ; [46] Nicholas Howe called them "the two great Anglo-Saxon works of history".

Instead they were incorporated in later works, and it is thought likely that the Chronicle contains many of these. The history it tells is not only that witnessed by its compilers, but also that recorded by earlier annalists, whose work is in many cases preserved nowhere else. It is just as important a source for the early development of English.

History of editions and availability[ edit ] An important early printed edition of the Chronicle appeared in , by Edmund Gibson , an English jurist and divine who later became Bishop of Lincoln. Titled Chronicon Saxonicum, it printed the Old English text in parallel columns with Gibson's own Latin version and became the standard edition until the 19th century.

Gibson used three manuscripts of which the chief was the Peterborough Chronicle. Some volumes are still projected, such as a volume focusing on the northern recension, but existing volumes such as Janet Bately's edition of [A] are now standard references. Taylor Cambridge, Classen and F.

James Ingram London, , with additional readings from the translation of Dr. Giles London, The translation that follows is not a translation of any one Chronicle; rather, it is a collation of readings from many different versions. Tiberius A vi. Tiberius B i.

Tiberius B iv. Domitian A viii. Domitian A ix. Caligula A xv. This electronic edition contains primarily the translation of Rev. James Ingram, as published in the Everyman edition of this text. Excerpts from the translation of Dr.Tiberius B iv.

Contains side by side translations of all nine known texts. Entries stop mid-sentence and continue pages later, and while it's all noted as you go, it doesn't make it any less of a chore to get through. The Introduction includes an account of the manuscript and a linguistic analysis of the E-text. The following is a summary of the relationships that are known. Shortly after this it went to Canterbury, where interpolations and corrections were made. The interpolated material relating to Peterborough is clearly distinguished from the rest of the text.