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I was the accuser, God the accused. My eyes were open and I was alone— terribly alone in a world without God and without man. Without The Experience of the Void 23 love or mercy. He returns to the feeling of alienation time and again in his novels and short stories. The alienation that Wiesel describes involves not only a severance from eternity but an integral involvement in history.

Thus, the drama of the New Year in the camps which he describes in Night was not played out in the domain of the divine but in the human arena. Wiesel further undercuts the divine-human encounter of Yom Kippur, the encounter in which the individual stands naked before God and asks that his deeds be examined and that he be judged for life, by choosing to describe Yom Kippur as the day for a selection by the earthly masters, the S. The penitents who had besieged the Lord with prayer the evening before were forced to test their skills on far more attentive masters as they tried to pass an inspection by the S.

Wiesel describes how the S. The drama of the Day of Judgment came true in a manner never envisioned by the tradition. Wiesel describes the arrival of the Day of Atonement, the sacred day of judgment, when he was forced to express his rebellion and alienation in deed as well as in thought. He was forced to question whether he should eat on Yom Kippur, whether one should fast in the camps. He wrestled painfully with the place of tradition and obedience in the world of night.

Wiesel resolved the question by eating. He describes the occasion:. As I swallowed my bowl of soup, I saw in the gesture an act of rebellion and protest against Him. And I nibbled my crust of bread. In the depths of my heart, I felt a great void. The void that Wiesel experienced was precipitated by the gap between his religion and his reality, between the realm of eternity and the realm of history. Throughout Night he underscores his rejection of faith by contrasting the reality of pain with the language of liturgy and with the hopes generated by faith.

Each of the characters Wiesel develops feels the acute anxiety of disappointment.

None survive with their faith intact. Old Rabbis declare their heretical feelings. Akiba Drumer, a formerly pious man, abandons his belief in both God and life.

Mercifully, others die before they can fully lose their faith. He alone must look in the mirror and begin again, if only to tell his tale.

The novel is set in Palestine just prior to the foundation of the state of Israel. Elisha, the protagonist of the novel, is the chosen executioner of a British soldier, Captain Dawson, whose life is to be taken in retaliation for the execution of a young Jewish terrorist. Elisha is a former concentration camp inmate who later became a student of philosophy in order to understand the perennial questions of eternity and to ascribe blame to man and God for the events that so marred his adolescence.

During his period of training, Elisha was forced to undergo a radical change in both his character and aspirations.

International Perspectives

In Night God does not intervene to save His people and enforce His laws. The story Wiesel tells in Dawn details how the establishment of the state of Israel and the new reliance of the Jewish people on their own power involves a rejection of the God of Israel who was expected to reveal himself The Experience of the Void 25 through history.

Although Elisha does not fully understand his confrontation with God, it is primarily this conquest of God through complete self-reliance that is taught him by his terrorist master.

During his instruction Elisha recalls an earlier master who had taught him Kabbalah before the war. Elisha recounts some of his teachings and presents his reaction to it. I remembered how the grizzled master had explained the sixth commandment to me.

Fil d'Ariane

Why has a man no right to commit murder? Because in so doing he takes upon himself the function of God. And this must not be done too easily. Well, I said to myself, if in order to change the course of our history we have to become God, we shall become Him.

How easy that is we shall see. No, it was not easy. People must create in a world functionally devoid of God, a world that does not turn to God for salvation. Wiesel restates this point even more explicitly in a later work with reference to the state of Israel during a situation of war.

Whoever kills, kills God. Each murder is a suicide, with the Eternal eternally the victim. Elisha is convinced that this execution is necessary to insure the foundation of an independent Jewish state in Palestine. It is obvious that in killing another person Elisha has also killed a part of himself, but I am convinced that Wiesel implies far more by this passage than is immediately apparent.

The importance of names for Wiesel can be verified by reference to his use of them in his other works.

The name David reinforces many of the historical and messianic overtones present throughout the novel for the name connotes not merely the legendary king of Israel who captured Jerusalem and made it his capital, but also the Messiah who, according to tradition, will be a descendant of David.

Elisha the prophet was not only the principal successor of Elijah but his faithful companion as well. According to Rabbinic lore, Elisha was both a disciple and a colleague who surpassed his master as a miracle worker by performing sixteen miracles twice the number performed by Elijah. These miracles ranged from crossing the river and healing the leper to reviving the dead. Elisha the heretic was a contemporary of Rabbi Akivah and one of the four rabbis to enter the sacred realm of mystery.

Of the four rabbis, only Akivah emerged unscathed. Ben Zoma went mad, Ben Azzai died, and Elisha lost his faith. According to some Rabbinic traditions, Elisha is depicted as a dualist. According to others, his apostasy was a total denial of the theodicy of Israel.

However, in this novel alone God is not implicated either in life or in death. In Night God was implicated in the anguish of the living as He was in the extermination of the dead. In Dawn God was implicated in the death of Captain Dawson. The execution was in fact the execution of God.

In Le Jour, however, the struggle is no longer The Experience of the Void 27 between man and God or even between man and man.

Wieslaw Kielar - Cinci Ani La Auschwitz

The struggle is within Eliezer, now a newspaper correspondent for an Israeli paper. The battle between life and death is constant in Le Jour. The accident that brought Eliezer to the brink of death was in fact not an accident but rather the occasion chosen subconsciously by the correspondent to dramatize the battle waging within him. Fever and physical pain combine with his emotional suffering and with his sense of fragmentation to battle for death while a pragmatic American doctor struggles to preserve his life.

Men are swallowed up by death which is never satiated. In addition, the miracles performed by the prophet Elisha are symbolically relevant to the story in Dawn. The crossing of the river recalls both the Exodus and the entrance into the promised land and can thus be applied to the foundation of the state of Israel as the return to the promised land.

The healing of the leper can represent the leprous isolation of the Jewish people throughout the Holocaust by the other nations of the world and the end to the isolation that the foundation of the state of Israel seemed to provide. Most powerfully, the revival of the dead can represent the revival of the Jewish people after the catastrophic destruction of the Holocaust.

Which Elisha has been killed? Does the foundation of the state of Israel by violence entail the death of Elisha the prophet who revives the dead? Does the assumption of power by the Jewish people and their own enforcement of justice by violence entail the end of Elisha the heretic who proclaimed there was no justice? Does the foundation of the state of Israel signify an act of deicide, the murder of Elisha, the saving God?

The price for the historical survival of the Jewish people involves the functional death if not the deliberate murder of a saving God. As Elisha learns, deicide is never an easy act to commit. Although he recognizes the necessity of doing without God in order to affect history, this recognition is not without its inner turmoil. Elisha knows that there can be no return to the sacred cosmos of the past, yet in the very depths of his being he never ceases to yearn for a return to such a cosmos.

There were answers to his questions, and even if he did not remember the answers later, he knew that there was a realm where question and answer were one. By the time the narrator undergoes his second experience in surgery, he has become an adult. He was no longer there. I still blush every time I think of the way God makes fun of human beings, his favorite toys.

Wiesel continues to elaborate his negative image of God by citing a concept from Lurrianic Kabbalism and then twisting it into a demonic form. In Lurrianic Kabbalism, God was considered dependent upon humanity in order to become one again. However, God is now depicted as dependent upon humanity solely for entertainment and diversion: Yes, God needs man.

Condemned to eternal solitude, he made man only to use him as a toy, to amuse himself.

Elie Wiesel's Night

The victory of life at the end of the novel is in no way assured. Death ultimately triumphs. Though the correspondent does rage against death and though he does outwit death a second time, the external forces of death and his own desire for death do remain. The ashes of the past will inevitably return to haunt him as they have haunted him before.

All being is being unto death. In Le Jour Wiesel exposes a world in which God is at best absent in the struggle between life and death. At worst, God may even be an ally of the forces of death. Conclusions The questions that preoccupied Wiesel in Night concerning the suffering of the innocent and the absence of redemption are harshly answered in Le Jour. Wiesel explains that there is no reason why the innocent suffer and that the hour of redemption is death.

This is the sad truth that humanity avoids and tries to repress at all costs. Men cast aside the one who has known pure suffering, if they cannot make a god out of him; the one who tells them: I suffered not because I was God, nor because I was a saint trying to imitate Him, but only because I am a man, a man like you, with your weaknesses, your cowardice, your sins, your rebellions, and your ridiculous ambitions; such a man frightens men, because he makes them feel ashamed.

In the beginning as night descended there was hope and faith. In the end when the day arrived there is a vacuum, death. The trilogy of Night, Dawn, and Le Jour marks the transition from a God-infused world to a Godless world, the transition from a world in which redemption can be expected to one in which all that is left is to rage against the dying of the light.

Surely no critic who has carefully read these three volumes can see in them a vision of hope and a restoration of the sacred cosmos of normative Judaism.

JOHN K. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. I pray to the God within me that He will give me the strength to ask Him the right questions. A transport arrives at Birkenau, reception center for Auschwitz.

ROTH mother, and little sister are among them. Separated by the Nazi guards, the boy loses sight of his mother and sister, not fully aware that parting is forever. Father and son stick together. What are you doing here? In ? Forewarning would have made a difference? But forewarning might have counted for nothing, too. The Holocaust, after all, was—and still is—received repeatedly as news too bad to be believed. Soon enough, however, Wiesel and his father learned what to expect. Mengele, the SS medical official whose baton directed life and death.

For ten years after his release, he wrote nothing, sifting and wrestling with the questions that must be asked. Life-affirming covenants with God disappear, replaced by their opposite: promises of death kept all too faithfully by Hitler.

In its images of time and space, in its portrayal of ruined life, the book is a record of death and dying. Beginnings make all the difference in the world. No less so what we make of them. Our aim is to inquire how things stand between God and humankind after Auschwitz, and especially to explore what Christian testimony is possible in that setting.

There would be simpler ways to proceed. The Holocaust could have been ignored.

Wieslaw Kielar - Cinci Ani La Auschwitz[]

We could try even now to forget it, and then faith might be easier. Still, notes of rebellion are real. Faith is strong just to the extent that it can stand aware of, in spite of, even because of facts that count against it.

A tall order. It brings a host of complications. For example, the very honesty that propels a person to keep open eyes trained on the dark undersides of existence may also lead one to conclude that religious paths followed once can be taken no more. Not by his own choosing, Elie Wiesel learned that life can kill trust and hope. Indeed he learned that there are times when it should do so, because the alternative is a self-deception that betrays.

If his death camp experience forced a form of religious rejection upon him, it also revealed that hopes, dreams, even illusions—religious or otherwise—can be life-giving.

To threaten them needlessly is to become a killer. What makes the difference, then, between ways in which people— writers especially—put faith to the test? Everything depends on whether the motive is that of tearing down or building up.

But by what we say and do, we are responsible for shaping options that a person perceives in that area. Religiously speaking, one profound aspect of Holocaust encounters is that they open the options so far, always in the direction of complexity and mystery. That is, the Holocaust forecloses quick spiritual resolutions. It also interrogates other dispositions—atheism and agnosticism, humanism and cynicism—because its range of experience renders everything uncertain except uncertainty itself.

Uncertainty often takes the form of questions. Questions push us back toward beginnings, whether the universe or Night is concerned. Can we encounter God in the questions we ask? ROTH inquiries we put to God and each other?

Day and Night were born; order emerged out of chaos. Other beginnings, recorded in Night millennia later, quiz the Creator about darkness and the void. About darkness it is silent. At the end of the mythical sixth day, all creation is called good. Even darkness may be included. But the original silence is heavy, at least in retrospect from Waste without reason. Suffering without merit. In a word, radical evil stalks what God found good.

To speak of the powers of darkness, as we do, should leave us searching: why are they here? Things are too far out of hand for subservient piety. What does Your greatness mean, Lord of the Universe, in the face of all this weakness, this decomposition, and this decay?

It formed as he witnessed the execution of three fellow-prisoners. The words and scene form a microcosm of the darkness created by the Holocaust. Nevertheless, the image is an enigma. Its meaning is neither single nor announced directly.

Who, what, is dying on that gallows?

One child, all children, and Elie Wiesel among them. A world of faith and possibly all worlds of faith, whether they are oriented toward optimism about humanity or toward trust in God.

Meanings such as those can be seen, but there is more. For instance, what about the God who is dying in the body of a tortured child? The child was beautiful, gentle, weak. He may also have been involved in plans for violent resistance, and certainly he showed himself to be tough and courageous in maintaining silence during interrogation torture.

At most the child could represent a fragment, an aspect of God. And what might that be? The part that transforms the universe. A Holocaust Universe can be the outcome of no God at all. It can also be the result of a God who creates, and it can even be linked to a God who watches over and intervenes in history.

Anything is possible, even these crematories. Night brings that process to no resolution. Night is truth that must be told to honor the dead, to bear witness for them, to convey the message that darkness can extinguish light. ROTH that life can be good, that we must not forsake it, even if it is so maimed for us that looking in mirrors we see corpses that make us want to drop. Always that effort encounters darkness, often so thick that nothing but despondency seems possible. And yet there is always something more.

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He knew both the history of the problem within Jewish tradition and the many possible defenses against the incursion of anomie.