RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD LDS PDF
Note to students: You are not required to read any of the suggested materials that are not available in your language. Lesson 1: The Ancient Church. Gordon B. Note: The textbook Religions of the World (Spencer J. Palmer and others ) is An older edition can also be accessed for free in ePub and PDF formats at. Note: You are not required to read any materials that are not available in your language. Lesson 1: The Ancient Church. Gordon B. Hinckley, “Four Cornerstones.
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Religions of the World: A Latter-day Saint View. Religions of the World: A Latter- day Saint View. Section and Issue PDF (Download). $ Download PDF. According to The Doctrine and Covenants, one of the LDS' four sacred texts, . that filled the measure of their creation, and had been saved from other worlds, . to animals and to all living things is one good way of expressing true religion. It is clearly written with concise unbiased overviews of various world religions with excellent commentary following each one, offering an LDS perspective, noting.
We further declare that God has commanded that the sacred powers of procreation are to be employed only between man and woman, lawfully wedded as husband and wife. We declare the means by which mortal life is created to be divinely appointed.
Husband and wife have a solemn responsibility to love and care for each other and for their children. Parents have a sacred duty to rear their children in love and righteousness, to provide for their physical and spiritual needs, and to teach them to love and serve one another, observe the commandments of God, and be law-abiding citizens wherever they live. Husbands and wives—mothers and fathers—will be held accountable before God for the discharge of these obligations.
The family is ordained of God. Marriage between man and woman is essential to His eternal plan. Children are entitled to birth within the bonds of matrimony, and to be reared by a father and a mother who honor marital vows with complete fidelity.
Happiness in family life is most likely to be achieved when founded upon the teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ. Successful marriages and families are established and maintained on principles of faith, prayer, repentance, forgiveness, respect, love, compassion, work, and wholesome recreational activities. By divine design, fathers are to preside over their families in love and righteousness and are responsible to provide the necessities of life and protection for their families.
Mothers are primarily responsible for the nurture of their children. In these sacred responsibilities, fathers and mothers are obligated to help one another as equal partners. Disability, death, or other circumstances may necessitate individual adaptation.
A mission is a defined geographic area of the world that has a Church-assigned mission president and approximately full-time missionaries. At the end of there were 51, full-time missionaries around the world Ensign May, , Most corporations seek to spread their innovation following these stages of diffusion for the purposes of increasing sales and profits.
The LDS Church follows a similar pattern, but its goal is to increase the numbers and quality of converts or adopters of the Mormon faith, rather than multiplying profits. Additionally, the Church is characterized by a centralized organization that is responsible for deciding the locations of missions and the number of missionaries sent to these areas and, according to Brown, there are various methods and patterns of diffusion which typify centralized decision-making structures, meaning that they are not necessarily hierarchical in their spatial spread Crowley shared a thoughtful historical geography overview of the diffusion of old order Amish settlements.
He traced the movement of Amish people to the United States and the establishment of Amish communities in various parts of North America. He compared the number and location of both surviving and defunct settlements.
He also outlined the factors which influenced the Amish to settle in particular regions. The spatial diffusion of Amish communities described is more related to the early colonization efforts of the Mormons in the Great Basin than to the modern spread of Mormonism. The Islam faith is an interesting religion to study because of its great growth and its virtual saturation of many countries in the Middle East.
Hemmasi describes how different types of diffusion affected the spread of Islam through history. These diffusion categories include expansion diffusion, colonization diffusion, and relocation diffusion. Expansion diffusion contains the sub-types of voluntary, forced, and hierarchic. Settlers would begin new communities in dispersed areas in regions conquered by Muslim kingdoms, or in the case of Mormonism, away from Salt Lake City.
Relocation diffusion occurred when Muslims moved to new regions to live without proselyting. This produced isolated pockets of Muslims in Europe, the Caribbean and elsewhere without resulting in many converts among the "host" population.
These include physical barriers such as mountains, oceans, and dense forests, and cultural barriers like language, economic, political, and religious differences. Barriers alter the diffusion of religions so that different regions of the world experience different rates of adoption of the belief system. In the LDS Church, political barriers particularly delay the establishment of missionary work in a country, while additional impediments such as language, culture and physical remoteness can hinder the rate of conversion to the faith after missionary efforts are initiated.
These along with other barriers help explain the spatial conversion rate variability of Mormon proselyting efforts. The barriers which the diffusion of Mormonism faces will be discussed later on. Johnson and Louder both wrote analytical studies using Hagerstrand based models to emphasize the American nature of the Church. This United States orientation makes sense for the sixties and early seventies because the Church had a much smaller international presence then, but much has changed in the geography of Church membership since that time.
Bennion argued that the Church was still a strongly western United States institution in , with nearly 80 percent of its U. The study compared worldwide Church population projections with present gross national product GNP per capita figures of nations with large LDS populations. The research showed the magnitude of the church's ongoing shift to a population increasingly made up of members in developing countries, and it emphasized the fact that the most successful diffusion of Mormonism in the 21st century occurred in the less-developed realm.
Arrington wrote a short but comprehensive overview of the historical events which led to the international growth of the LDS Church.
The paper described international missionary endeavors ranging from the first efforts with American Indian nations in to the tremendous growth of the Church in Mexico during the 's. Moss et al compiled a description of the worldwide expansion of the Church by region. They divided the world into regions and gave detailed accounts of missionary work and Church expansion in the areas through different time periods. Throughout the various chapters they emphasizes the positive influence that the following factors, among others, have had on numbers of converts to the LDS faith: This paper will fill a substantial gap in the literature by applying spatial diffusion concepts to describe and model the geographic growth of this religious movement at the international level.
This will in turn provide a basis for more in-depth diffusion studies of other large worldwide religions. The spatial patterns are guided by a number of factors which affect both the rate of diffusion and the degree of penetration in a country. To help organize these factors in an understandable manner, I have developed a framework which will guide the remainder of the study.
This model stems in part from the comparison of functional and spatial perspectives of diffusion described by Brown The functional perspective of this model is the supply, demand, and temporal portions, while the spatial perspective is represented by the spatial box on the bottom of the figure. Figure 1: The general authorities direct the affairs of the missionary program and decide when and where new missions will be established.
They include the number of members who relocate to foreign countries for military, business, or governmental purposes, the supply of missionaries available for service periods ranging from one to two years, the number of members in a country who actively participate in sharing the Mormon religion, the extent of the international transportation network, and the financial resources available for use by the Church to support the missions and desired proselytization strategies e.
The foundation of the more seasoned expatriate members can help support these membership increases. Those who join the Church in foreign countries become part of the supply side themselves because all members are strongly encouraged to share their faith with those around them.
Although much of the missionaries living expenses are paid by themselves, their families, or their home congregations, the Church still incurs great expenses in supporting missionary headquarters around the globe, paying for missionary travel, translating and printing Church literature in foreign languages, and supporting missionaries from less developed countries.
As the amount of money that the Church devotes to its missionary programs increases, the potential supply of Mormonism to more remote locations also grows. This is because increasing distance from Salt Lake City and the United States, where the bulk of Mormons are, increases the cost of diffusing Mormonism. Therefore, conditions within the USA can greatly affect the supply of missionaries. The United States government can sometime limit the number of missionaries by military conscription during wars like the Korean and Vietnam.
Periods of economic troubles in this nation may also decrease the number of U. Mormons who can afford to serve a full-time mission. Additionally, the Church in raised the standards required for missionaries, which was probably one factor in the decrease of the total number of missionaries from over 60, in to less than 52, in Ballard , LDS Church News 17 Apr , One possible view is that more religious freedom, less per capita income, larger proportions of Christians and greater political stability all exert a positive influence on the demand for Mormonism.
Higher population growth rates also tend to increase the demand for Mormonism, because there will be more second generation adopters of the LDS religion i. Thus, the LDS Church has been successful in Latin American countries that are predominantly Catholic, and meet many of these other criteria for higher demand.
These places have also experienced significant growth in Pentecostals, Seventh-Day Adventists and members of other evangelizing faiths, some of which have grown faster than the LDS Church in these countries Clawson , The growth among these newly introduced faiths has prompted responses in the Catholic Church to this religious competition. An increase in demand usually encourages a growth in supply, while a well-advertised supply can create a measurable amount of demand.
The Restored Gospel and World Religions (Religion 390R)
For optimal diffusion rates however, high amounts of both supply and demand are required. The variable effect that both supply and demand can have on the diffusion rate in a country is entitled "Innovation Diffusion Rate".
A few possible scenarios are represented of how a specific rate of LDS diffusion in a country may result. When there is no supply and a large demand for Mormonism, substitute LDS type churches are sometimes formed as was the case in Nigeria before Missionaries were first sent there that year and found that a number of successful churches bearing the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" name had been previously organized without official approval from the LDS headquarters in Salt Lake City Deseret News Church Almanac The Swiss mission had been operating since , so the change was not because of political difficulties.
Instead this shift may be attributed to the low conversion rates that these areas have experienced over the last several decades Van Orden This combining of missions likely means a decrease in the supply of Mormonism e. Many of these areas have experienced relatively slow diffusion or growth rates. However, the supply side of missionaries, media programs, etc. The interactions of both the supply and demand of Mormon innovations create a specific rate of diffusion within each country as shown in the Innovation Diffusion Rate box of Figure 1.
The greater the rate, the faster the religion will spread throughout a nation.
In the figure, the spatial patterns exhibited by LDS diffusion within a country are shown only as hypothetical stages, and are after Hagerstrand who placed the three regularities of diffusion, the S-shape curve for diffusion through time, the hierarchy effect and the neighborhood effect, into an interrelated framework Brown His framework also parallels the main hypothesis of this thesis: Consequently, some countries may not even follow an outlined pattern.
However, I demonstrate that most of the countries with large Mormon populations have exhibited similar spatial characteristics in their growth during the modern period. Before exploring these spatial patterns, a look at the data and the methodology which will be employed to guide this process is in order. The Church data include the locations and dates of establishment of Church congregations and missions throughout the world, Church histories of countries, and the rates of Mormon membership growth in various nations.
Populations of specific cities, states, and provinces have been obtained from GeoNames. The Deseret News Church Almanac contains a brief overview of Church growth in the different countries, nations, and territories. Leadership in stakes, wards, and branches is by a lay clergy of stake presidents, bishops of wards, and branch presidents Ludlow, Although stakes and missions are more regional in nature and include greater areas than their component parts of wards and branches, they are easier to locate and their dates of creation are readily available.
Additionally, the wards and branches of the world are component parts of stakes and missions so one still gets an accurate feel for the overall Mormon distribution by using the stakes and missions as diffusion locators.
So stakes necessarily must be the unit of analysis.
Spencer J. Palmer
There are some 2, stakes around the world, with about half being are outside of the United States. The Almanac contains the location of stakes and missions in that geographic area and the date each stake or mission was created, and the LDS Church News also publishes the most recent changes. Additionally, various editions of the Almanac have contained total membership numbers and short overviews of the history of the Church in different countries see also Otterstrom , which will be used throughout the paper.
Finally, Moss et al and Van Orden also have valuable detailed data on how the Church was introduced and grew in different nations. I first offer an overview of the international diffusion of the LDS Church from to the present, including giving LDS membership figures for countries with over 10, Mormons. By , these two regions had almost 40 percent of the world's Mormons, second only to the United States in numbers of LDS members Almanac Although the United States has the greatest number of Mormons of any nation, its LDS diffusion patterns will not be discussed because the focus of this research is on international areas.
Furthermore, I outline detailed accounts of the spatial diffusion patterns of Mormonism within Brazil, Peru, and Mexico to explore how this growth relates to my diffusion model. The maps illustrate the spatial patterns of growth exhibited within the context of each country's unique geography and will visually complement the discussion on this diffusion in the body of the paper.
To aid in the analysis, I have created tables showing the spread of stakes by city population over the same five year increments and in the same countries which were used in the mapping exercise.
In June , about two months after the Church was organized, Samuel H. Smith Joseph Smith's brother began a missionary journey which signaled the beginning of the diffusion of the Church Almanac In England, the missionaries spread their labors from their initial efforts near Preston to other areas in the country as well as in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland Arrington , By the end of LDS Church membership in foreign countries "approximated 10, in England, 1, in Wales, 2, in Scotland, 40 in Ireland, 2, in the Society Islands, and an additional 4, scattered worldwide" Arrington , Many of the converts from the British Isles and elsewhere emigrated to America's Mormon settlements during the next several decades.
This pattern continued throughout the century, giving much strength to the Church. Some 20 other international missions were organized during the nineteenth century in widely spread locations such as Samoa, South Africa, the Society Islands, Mexico, and in numerous European nations Almanac By the end of there were , Mormons, 40 stakes, 20 missions including those in the United States , and over missionaries serving around the world Almanac The only stakes which existed outside of the United States by were the Juarez Mexico and Alberta Canada Stakes, which consisted mainly of Mormon colonizers who relocated there from the Intermountain West.
The only stake created away from the continent was the Oahu Stake in Hawaii, which was formed in The Church reached its first million members in President David O. McKay, the LDS prophet beginning in , reemphasized the importance of missionary activities.
He traveled around the world to visit the members in many lands, and to encourage them to further build up the Church so that independent stakes could be established in their nations Van Orden Between those three nations there were just over 2, Mormon members in Almost 60 years later there were over 1.
Additionally there has been significant growth throughout much of South America. In all of South America there were approximately 3. Mexico has the most LDS members of any country in the world after the United States, and has the largest population of any country in the region. Mexico received the earliest lasting Mormon missionary efforts in Middle America, beginning in in some northern areas of the country.
Table 2 outlines the methods by which Mormonism first made its way into the more populous nations in the region, as well as the dates the first branches and missions were organized in the country also see Table 1. This diffusion of Mormonism into Middle America occurred in a variety of ways, not unlike that experienced in South America compare Tables 2 and 3. It does appear, however, that more of the countries in Middle America were first introduced to the LDS Church by missionaries than in South America, where expatriates from the United States and Germany played a greater role.
However, the importance of the likes of Rey L. Pratt in Mexico , John F. O'Donnal in Guatemala , and others from the Mormon colonies in northern Mexico in establishing Mormonism in Mexico and Central America cannot be overstated.
Rey L. Pratt was the Mexican Mission president from until , and John F.
This development marked the beginning of a rapid increase of foreign stakes and missions worldwide. Over the ensuing 50 years more and more stakes were formed internationally as Church membership grew substantially. During the 51, plus missionaries mostly young men and women under 25 years of age baptized an average of 23, converts into the Church every month LDS Church News April 17, If past trends were followed during , the majority of the new converts were citizens of countries other than the United States, and more particularly of nations in the developing world Otterstrom , Parley P.
Pratt, an early Mormon leader, along with his wife and another missionary made an attempt to proselytize in Chile during the end of and the beginning of However, their efforts ended without one single convert Moss et al At first, the majority of converts were German immigrants.
In , missionary work spread from Buenos Aires to the city of Joinville in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Joinville was home to many German immigrants about 90 percent of the population were German at the time. In , missionaries were sent to Rosario, Argentina, and in to Porto Alegre, Brazil, another dominantly German city Moss et al Missionary work continued steadily, and by there were and Mormons in Argentina and Brazil respectively Moss et al The population is most dense along the coasts, especially near the huge metropolises of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Sao Paulo, the largest city in South America, was the site for the creation of the first stake in South America in , even though missionary work first started among the Germans in the southern states of Brazil Figure 2 and Appendix 1. This underscores the hierarchical diffusion of Mormonism that has occurred across the country.
Three of the new cities with stakes, including the country's second largest city of Rio de Janeiro, have over one million inhabitants. Curitiba and Porto Alegre are the largest cities in southern Brazil in the regions where the earliest missionary labors in Brazil were concentrated, so their role as headquarters for stakes early on is not surprising.
The other three stakes were centered in cities with over populations over , Additionally, all three of these cities, Campinas, Santos, and Sao Bernardo, are within kilometers of Sao Paulo, which may help explain the relatively early formation of stakes there notwithstanding their smaller size. It is especially interesting to note the formation of the Recife Mission in and the subsequent creation of numerous stakes in the dominantly black northeast. As another indication of LDS growth in that region, the Church built a temple in Recife in and has announced temples in Manaus and Fortaleza to go along with the existing temples in Sao Paulo, Campinas, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre.
At the end of there were over stakes and approximately 1. Additionally, there are now 27 missions in the country. Twenty-eight stakes are centered in Sao Paulo proper, while a total of 97 stakes are located in cities including Sao Paulo with populations over one million.
Many of the rest of the stakes are concentrated around Sao Paulo, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre and Curitiba, manifesting a certain degree of contagious "infilling" which occurs as the Church grows and spreads in and around a metropolitan area see Figures 3 and 4.
Additionally, distance makes a difference too as the relatively late organization of stakes in large cities such as Belem, Manaus, and Teresina may be partially explained by the fact that they are all faraway from the population centers of the south and are also isolated from the coastal metropolises of Fortaleza and Recife in the northeast.
Missionary work success came later in these cities. In the future, the stakes in Brazil will most probably continue to be concentrated in and around the largest cities. However, the trend of an increasing number of stakes being located in more remote and smaller cities will most likely continue. It has more area than the states of Texas and California combined, and greater than 29 million people. Lima, as a primate city, is home to a similar proportion 41 percent of its country's 90 stakes as another dominant city, Santiago, Chile to the south see Appendix 2 and Figure 5.
Peru's stakes are headquartered in only 32 cities, owing to the dominance of Lima and the multiple stakes in several other large communities. However, Trujillo, the second largest city, only has seven stakes compared with the 37 of Lima. Lima was the first city in the country to have a stake center in Nine years later, Lima had seven stakes of its own, while Trujillo to the north was the only other city to have a stake.
By stakes had begun to spread up the Pacific coast, out to Iquitos in the Amazon, and south to Arequipa and Tacna, as well as increasing in the Lima area. All of these new stakes developed in cities, which now have over , inhabitants. By the other large cities of Cuzco and Ica had stakes, while the smaller Huacho and Mantaro stakes made their appearance.
The less-populated Huacho gained a stake at the end of the five year interval in , which makes it somewhat less anomalous from a hierarchical standpoint.
Additionally, the largest urban areas Lima, Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Chimbote, Piura, Iquitos, and Cuzco all added at least one stake between and This seems to indicate the result of contagious diffusion process at work within the realms of the larger cities. Lima was the site of the country's first mission in The five current missions in Lima are indicative of its large size, and its success as a site for Mormon missionary work.They will become gods[,][…] will be united eternally with their righteous family members and will be able to have eternal increase.
Other church programs and departments include LDS Family Services , which provides assistance with adoption , marital and family counseling , psychotherapy , and addiction counseling ; the LDS Church History Department, which collects church history and records; and the Family History Department, which administers the church's large family history efforts, including the world's largest family history library and organization FamilySearch.
Retrieved from " https: The LDS church states that more than million copies of the Book of Mormon have been distributed as of By there were some stakes in the country with 80 Kimball, Spencer W. New York. Further, we warn that the disintegration of the family will bring upon individuals, communities, and nations the calamities foretold by ancient and modern prophets. However, they tend to disagree to varying degrees with the LDS Church concerning doctrine and church leadership.
But, prospective missionaries are encouraged to contribute the cost of their missions to this fund themselves when possible.
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