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NBC 2016 PDF

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You may download resourceone.info (born digital file) or nationalbuildingpdf (scan of the printed document). Images are all also available as. You may download resourceone.info (born digital file) or nationalbuildingpdf (scan of the printed document. This is the second of two volumes. Download NBC resourceone.info DOWNLOAD PDF - MB. Share Embed Donate. Report this link.


Nbc 2016 Pdf

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NBC Volume 2 NBC VOL December 13, | Author: Madhavpokale | Category: Project DOWNLOAD PDF - MB. Share Embed Donate. NBC resourceone.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE. OF INDIA VOLUME 1. BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS. Hkkjrh; ekud C;wjks. Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the.

In this method, the network of project activities identified through WBS is developed incorporating their logical relationships and interdependencies. The two available approaches for network diagramming techniques are arrow diagramming method ADM and precedence diagramming method PDM. The project schedule is prepared in terms of calendar dates of start and finish of activities with available floats. The network schedule shall also be presented in the form of linked bar chart or in tabular format.

For details on network preparation and analysis, reference shall be made to good practices [7 3 ]. Network schedule shall be prepared for all disciplines and they shall be integrated into a master control schedule. This shall be done taking into consideration direct cost and indirect cost of the project.

The format, terminologies and terms and conditions should be as per the standard engineering practices. In case of any special item or condition, the same shall be described clearly to avoid any ambiguity. The intent or need for functional and physical characteristics, defined in the pre-construction stage outputs through specifications, drawings and consolidated project brief is realized through various construction project management functions described in 4. It shall need the compliance of the following: The project management functions briefly described below may be employed for effective management of construction project during its different stages as applicable.

Some of the processes may, however, overlap more than one function. Scope management includes the processes of scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, scope monitoring, and change control.

Scope planning, scope definition and scope verification are associated with the preconstruction phase of the project. The work break down structure of the project shall be the basic tool for defining the scope baseline. Scope control should aim to identify factors influencing scope change, determine the impact of scope changes and establish the system for scope change approval and revision of scope baseline.

Accordingly, a detailed scope management plan should be drawn to lay down all the necessary practices including technical and organizational interfaces. For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 4 ]. Project manager is charged with the responsibility to help structure and develop contract to suit the specific needs of the project.

One of the fundamental issues in construction projects, managed through project managers, is to determine what needs may be met by procuring products, services and works from external agencies and what should be accomplished by the project team.

This decision is best arrived at the earlier stages of the project so that the opportunities of procurement initiation at earlier stages is not lost and reviewed at each of the subsequent life cycle stages of the project. Such decisions should draw inputs from the time, cost, quality and scope management processes. Various procurement routes should be analysed on their suitability to both time and cost criteria of project.

As a strategy for procurement, a project procurement management plan should be developed to document: In addition, specifications, quality standards, performance data at work locations, etc, which are part of project scope statement, should be described. Inventory management plays an important role in the procurement management process.

Provision of establishment of suitable dispute redressal system should be inbuilt to take care of any disputes that may arise. For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 5 ]. Time management essentially involves the following processes: Work breakdown structure should be used as a tool to prepare the project schedule by defining the project scope and identifying and listing of the activities in the work packages. For the quantum of work involved in the activities, the activity durations are estimated based on the standard productivity norms for different trades of work.

Past-documented experience and expertise should also be used for determination of the activity durations with the construction technology adopted and manpower and equipment resources used. Based on the construction methodology proposed with the consideration of project specific constraints, the sequencing and interdependencies of the activities are determined and the graphical representation of activities in the form of network should be prepared.

Incorporating the calendar dates, the baseline schedule may be finalized with the incorporation of milestones for subsequent schedule monitoring and control processes. During the construction stage, schedule monitoring involves methods of tracking and comparing the actual schedule with the baseline schedule and schedule control activities should ensure to remove deficiencies and slippages corrected to acceptable levels.

Project scheduling and monitoring is a dynamic process and periodic schedule updating should be done for effective monitoring and control process. In the process, the status of each activity should be examined. For completed activities, actual durations utilized, are incorporated; and for activities in progress, balance to complete revised durations and estimated finish dates are determined and incorporated.

If the actual schedule lags behind the baseline schedule, various options should be considered to control and bring back the schedule to acceptable levels. The possible control actions, which may be considered, are: For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 6 ]. The major processes involved in the cost management are: The resource planning involves determination of various types of resources, such as appropriate technology, workforce, materials, equipment and infrastructure facilities, their quantum and their requirements during different stages of the project.

Preliminary cost estimate with defined scope of work is required for obtaining the project sanction. Detailed item wise cost estimates with bill of quantities and specifications should be made for tendering and subsequent project execution.

Most of the cost optimization techniques through value engineering studies are achieved during the preconstruction stage of the project.

Value engineering is a useful technique for application in cost management. It is a systematic multi-disciplinary effort directed towards analyzing the functions of project or item for the purpose of achieving the best value at the lowest overall life cycle project cost. It is an established technique for determining value based decisions rather than cost reduction based on change in specifications.

Suitability of construction techniques, selection of equipment for specific purposes, considering alternative materials and other design changes are some of the areas of application of value engineering. During construction stage, the efforts are more on control mode for adherence to the budgeted cost. For the purpose of cost control during execution, the time based cost baseline of the project which forms the basis for the measurement and monitoring of cost performance, should be generated.

The cost baseline is generated by allocating the overall cost estimate to individual project activities based on the project schedule. Using the cost baseline, the cost control, which comprises the following, should be exercised: For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 7 ].

Quality is the key determinant of requirements which is expressed through drawings and specifications. Main function of quality management is to achieve quality objective of satisfying requirements through performance evaluation of construction processes and ensure that they are directed towards overall quality. Quality management during construction stage assumes that the design and specifications comprehensively incorporate requirements of users and other stakeholders.

Prior to 14 setting out for the construction, the client should completely understand the implications of changes to the design and specifications during the construction stage, which may affect quality. Although quality is an all-encompassing concept which also has bearing on time and cost aspects, the specific scope of quality management may be limited to its key functions of quality planning, quality assurance and quality control. Quality planning refers to the identification of relevant quality standards and determining how to satisfy them.

Quality assurance activities include consistent evaluation of project performance to provide confidence that the project satisfies the relevant quality standards. Quality control monitors project results related to the compliance to quality standards and identifying means to eliminate non-conformity. On-site operations constitute most of the construction processes. Scope of quality management for on-site operations may be categorized broadly in three distinct stages.

In the receiving stage, materials and supplies are inspected and tested for conformance to the specified standards. Planning being an integral part of the quality management, may also consider efficient site layout and its management for on-site operations. In addition to time and cost implications of the site management, the quality performance improves by efficient organization of activities by way of providing adequate and appropriate conditions for the work processes.

Site management needs to consider construction technology constraints with reference to aspects related to space availability such as permanent services, access to site, temporary services, location of material stores, stacking and storage areas and plants, fencing and other temporary structures.

The various organizations connected with the project should have their own quality management systems. For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 8 ]. Project risk management processes ensure proper planning, identification, analysis, monitoring and control to the best interest of the project. A risk management plan should define lead and support role responsibilities of project team in relation to management, budgeting, risk responsive scheduling, classification of risk activities based on risk break-down structure and explanation of probability and impact for risk context.

Risk response planning determines actions required for reducing impact of risks. Risk responses are established and assigned to appropriate project participants. Suitable risk mitigation measures should be evolved for identified risks. For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 9 ]. It comprises a system that collects, stores, sorts and analyses data to generate and communicate information. It may be a combination of manual and computerized systems.

At the construction stage of a project, there are many agencies involved like client, architect, engineer, project manager, various consultants, material suppliers, construction agencies and sub-contractors. Each agency is divided into top level management taking policy decisions, middle level management monitoring the project and lower level management involved in day to day operations of the project.

Each level of management requires information of varying details, at different periodicities and in different formats. Project progress information flows from lower level to the top level management and policy decisions flow from top level to the lower level management.

MIS integrates the work and information flow within each agency and flow of information between different agencies. In construction stage of the projects, the information may be in the form of data reflecting status of project in terms of actual execution time for each activity, cost incurred, resources used, quality control, material management, bills, organization management and other administrative aspects like disputes that may come up.

This data should be analysed to understand the overall progress achieved and to update schedules of the project. Basic objectives of MIS of a construction project may be summarized as: Total MIS configuration of the construction project may be divided into the following modules: All modules should be interlinked in flow of information and generation of reports.

For large public projects, suitable mechanism may be established for communication of relevant information to public at large.

For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 10 ]. Human resources in a project should be adequately qualified, trained and competent. Quality of construction work depends on the quality of labour resource. For skilled and un-skilled labour, the requirement for technical knowledge, skill and general awareness are varied for different construction processes.

Labourers are required to understand their respective responsibilities especially towards the work.

Therefore, construction management practices should emphasize on development of competence of this critical human resource through training programmes. In each construction project, there are certain work related peculiarities which call for job specific orientation. There should be a clearly defined competence requirement for the workers. Progressively, a formal training or a certified course undertaken should be a preferred selection criterion for the workers.

A periodic review of the performance may be made to establish the nature of training required and methods for imparting training. There is a need to address the motivational aspects, for better performance. For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 11 ]. For prevention and management of accidents, a proper organizational and administrative mechanism is required. Following steps should be taken for achieving the same: Safety Officer shall be appointed in accordance with the concerned provisions of the Building and Other Construction Workers Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service Act, Safety officer who is posted at a medium to major construction site shall: For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 12 ].

For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 13 ]. It ensures that various organizational teams perform in an integrated manner, with their actions coordinated to the mutual interests towards the project.

Integrated management processes provide opportunities for resolving conflicts and competing interests through appropriate tradeoffs. Integration is necessary where processes interact, especially when process responsibilities belong to different organizational groups. Such process interactions need organizational interfaces to be defined and resolved at an overall level.

Integration management may also be required for specific situations when impact of one management function is a cause for concern for other management functions. For example, if there is a time delay in performing a particular construction process, it may often have impact on the cost aspects of not only that process but other processes involving other organizational groups; the rescheduling may affect coordination amongst performing groups in the downstream processes and activities.

For detailed guidelines, reference shall be made to good practice [7 14 ]. Planning aspects evolve out of the objectives of project and requirements of the final completed constructed facility. These objectives could relate to the time constraints, cost considerations, quality standards, safety standards, environmental considerations and health considerations.

Construction practices would, then have to satisfy these objectives during construction phase of the project. Having established objectives of the construction phase, planning determines processes, resources including materials, equipment, human and environmental and monitoring system to ensure that the practices are appropriately aligned.

During the design stage, the site conditions should be fully understood with anticipated difficulties and avoid the risk of subsequent delays and changes after the construction has started.

Such selection is influenced by the local conditions like terrain, climate, vulnerability for disasters, etc. The type of construction, use of materials, construction techniques require special considerations in such areas.

Situations wherein constructions are to be carried out in adverse weather conditions, such as heavy and continuous rain fall, extreme hot or cold weather, dust storms, etc, the practices have to address the relevant aspects. Accordingly, suiting the site conditions, the design and field operations should be adapted or redefined based on considerations, such as the following: Resource planning is a generic expression but the actual process of planning is specific to the resources considered see also 4.

In construction phases, the resources could be categorized as materials, manufactured products, equipment for construction, installation and fabrication, human resources as a part of overall organization, information resources such as reference standards and other practice documents, environmental conditions for work on site, infrastructure facilities and cash flow. Therefore, the resource planning encompasses identification, estimation, scheduling and allocation of resources.

Resource planning needs to establish a control system for controlling consumption monitoring, corrective action and resource reappropriation in the event of favourable deviation. Organizational capability, commitment to the project requirements and other constraints such as time and cost, need to be considered as inputs while planning resources. Non-availability of basic building materials brick, stone, aggregate, etc within reasonable lead would influence the construction practice by alternative materials.

The construction practices also get decided by the local skills of the manpower for construction activities. The equipment selection would also be governed by the site constraints. Source of funding of the project and its timeliness with reference to requirement of cash flow should also merit consideration.

Therefore, as, the resource planning is critical to the project viability itself, the inputs to the resource planning need to be validated appropriately and established for such management.

Resource planning should establish a proper system of data collection so as to facilitate effective resources control mechanism. Resource planning responsibility has to be specifically defined in the overall organizational setup. A well planned site layout would enable safe smooth and efficient construction operations. The site layout should take into considerations the following factors: Adequate stack areas for bulk construction materials. Optimum location of plants and equipment batching plants, etc.

Layout of temporary services water, power, power suppression unit, hoists, cranes, elevators, etc. Adequate yard lighting and lighting for night shifts. Temporary buildings; site office and shelter for workers see 14 with use of noncombustible materials as far as possible including emergency medical aids.

Roads for vehicular movement with effective drainage plan. Construction safety with emergency access and evacuations and security measures. Fabrication yards for reinforcement assembly, concrete precasting and shuttering materials.

Fencing, barricades and signages. During building operations, free access to permanent, temporary or portable first-aid firefighting equipment shall be maintained at all times. This stairway shall be extended upward as each floor is completed. There shall be a handrail on the staircase. Sites of high water table conditions with aggressive chemical contents of subsoil needs special design considerations. Buildings with basement in sites of high water table should be planned with dewatering scheme with appropriate construction sequence.

Duration of dewatering should continue till sufficient dead loads are achieved to stabilize the buoyancy loads with adequate factor of safety. The construction sequence should be planned taking into consideration the following aspects: Employment of trained workers shall be encouraged for building construction activity. Proper sequencing of installation of various services shall be done for ensuring smooth construction activities. However, all requirements regarding structural safety, health safety and fire safety shall be in accordance with this Part.

The emphasis has been primarily on providing essentially required width of metalled surface for the movement of vehicles both motorized and nonmotorized. Footpaths of various widths and heights are required to be provided.

The space between the buildings and the city roads should be treated as valuable and important space allowing for a comfortable and safe use by the pedestrians, hawkers, cyclists including non-motorized vehicle NMV drivers, and adequate space for drainage, utilities, street lighting poles, transformers and trees. If it is a construction of new road, normal operating traffic will not be there but the care has to be taken to avoid and or remove conflicts between workers and construction machineries and construction traffic.

Problem becomes more serious if it is an urban road with significant proportion of vulnerable road users. The road work zones and the traffic around them should be so planned and managed so as to ensure traffic safety, facilitate smooth and efficient flow of traffic and also provide safe working environment for the workers. Temporary works are the parts of a construction project that are needed to enable the permanent works to be built.

Usually the temporary works are removed after use, for example, access, scaffolds, props, shoring, excavation support, false work and formwork, etc. Sometimes the temporary works are incorporated into the permanent works, for example, haul road foundations and crane or piling platforms which may be used for hard standing or road foundations.

The same degree of care and attention should be given to the design and construction of temporary works as to the design and construction of the permanent works. Considering that as temporary works may be in place for only a short while, there is a tendency to assume they are less important, which is incorrect. Lack of care in design, selection, assembly, etc, leaves temporary works liable to fail or collapse. While organizing the temporary works, aspects as given below should be followed: They need to coordinate design, selection of equipment, appointment of contractors, supervision of work, checking completion, authorization to load and removal.

The role of TWC and supervisor should be decided. The coordinator shall have adequate field training for temporary works. The contractor shall ensure that work is allocated and carried out in a manner that does not create unacceptable risk of harm to workers or members of the public. On projects with relatively simple temporary works needs, a TWC may be avoided, however, it shall be ensured that temporary works are properly managed. To select the type, size, number and decide spacing, information is needed about the loads that will act on the props.

This will include the wall above and the additional load from any other floor or roof beams, etc, that enter the wall above or close to the opening. Even with proprietary equipment, the support system shall be worked out. Therefore, additional care should be taken while removing temporary works.

The different types of temporary works can be scaffolding, crane supports, falsework, formwork, and trench support. Detailed knowledge about each type of temporary work is necessary for safe construction. The requirements as given in 7. Proprietary equipment supplier should be identified and approved. It should be ascertained, whether following has been performed: Scaffolding and their erection shall be in accordance with the good practice [7 16 ].

Details of loading are provided by the crane supplier and the base is most commonly designed as a temporary structure, though sometimes a crane base is incorporated into the permanent structure to save on cost and time. The location for a crane should be carefully selected to provide a maximum working radius, and when two cranes are being used on the same site, mast heights and jib lengths shall be considered. Cranes should typically be structured around two rails at their base between 4.

Cranes should not normally be tied down, so sufficient kentledge should be provided so as to ensure that vertical loading from the crane passes through the rails and into the foundation.

This can involve a series of reinforced concrete beams used to support line loads as a result of the crane loading. The design shall ensure that reinforcement at the top of the pile top should not cause problems for positioning the mast base section of the crane.

Tower cranes shall embody all fundamental principles of design in accordance with the good practice [7 17 ] so as to secure reliability and safety in operation. The particular requirements for controls for tower cranes and the arrangement of basic control used for positioning loads shall be in accordance with the good practice [7 18 ].

Falsework shall be designed and erected in accordance with the good practice [7 19 ]. It is easy to produce, although it can be time consuming for larger structures.

National Building Code of Canada 2015

Stay-in-place structural formwork is generally assembled on site using prefabricated fibre-reinforced plastic. It is used for concrete columns and piers and stays in place, acting as permanent axial and shear reinforcement for the structural member.

It also provides resistance to environmental damage to both the concrete and reinforcing bars. Proprietary systems are used to support vertical formwork while concrete cures, consisting of series of tubes and ties. When selecting formwork the type of concrete and temperature of the pour are important considerations as they both effect the pressure exerted on the formwork. Shallow trenches are usually considered to be less than 6 m deep and deep trenches have depth greater than 6 m.

Depending on the dimensions of a trench, excavation can either be carried out by hand or by using a mechanical digger. Water ingress into the trench is often a major issue and ground water table locations and soil strata should be investigated before any extensive excavation takes place. Over short periods of time, for relatively shallow depths most soil types will stand almost vertically without any problems.

Timber trenching is generally used for low risk, narrow trenches, shafts or headings. The system requires at least two struts at each panel for stability which should be considered when access is required for construction work or piping. Trench sheets are the most adaptable of the systems available, and are most commonly used to retain poorer soil. They can support deeper trenches with larger surcharges and provide a continuous support. They require multiple levels of strut support and the slenderness of the sheets can often limit the depth of the trench as they are installed by light machinery and could buckle under large vertical loads.

While making deep excavation near an existing structure, it is necessary that the lateral force caused by the existing structure should be taken care of.

Trench supports shall be provided in accordance with the good practice [7 20 ]. While planning the layout, the requirements of various materials, components and equipment at different stages of construction shall be considered. If piles are high they shall be stepped back at suitable intervals in height.

Piles of materials shall be arranged so as to allow a passageway of not less than 1 m width in between the piles or stacks for inspection or removal. All passageways shall be kept clear of dry vegetation.

Materials shall not be stacked so as to impose any undue stresses on walls or other structures. At such places the stacks shall have suitable warning signs in day time and red lights on and around them at night.

Inflammable materials like kerosene and petrol, shall be stored in accordance with the relevant rules and regulations so as to ensure the desired safety during storage. Stacks shall not be piled so high as to make them unstable under fire fighting conditions and in general they shall not be more than 4. The provisions given in good practice [7 21 ] shall be followed. Explosives like detonators shall be stored in accordance with the existing regulations of The Explosives Act, Each workman shall be provided with suitable equipment for his personal safety as necessary.

All workers shall wear adequate clothing to protect themselves from direct sun-rays and other irritants. Supervisors shall also take care to assign enough men to each such job depending on the weight and the distance involved. Prescribed guidelines in accordance with good practice [7 22 ] shall be followed for handling and usage of asbestos cement products.

National Building Code of India 2016 (Volume 1)

The building or shed for storage should have minimum number of windows and close fitting doors and these should be kept closed as far as possible. Cement received in bags shall be kept in such a way that the bags are kept free from the possibility of any dampness or moisture coming in contact with them. Cement bags shall be stacked off the floor on wooden planks in such a way as to keep them about mm to mm clear above the floor.

The floor may comprise lean cement concrete or two layers of dry bricks laid on a well consolidated earth. A space of mm minimum shall be left around between the exterior walls and the stacks see Fig.

In the stacks the cement bags shall be kept close together to reduce circulation of air as much as possible. This can be removed easily by rolling the bags when cement is taken out for use.

Lumped bags, if any should be removed and disposed of. The height of stack shall not be more than 10 bags to prevent the possibility of lumping up under pressure.

The width of the stack shall be not more than four bags length or 3 m. In stacks more than 8 bags high, the cement bags shall be arranged alternately length-wise and cross-wise so as to tie the stacks together and minimise the danger of toppling over. Cement bags shall be stacked in a manner to facilitate their removal and use in the order in which they are received; a table showing date of receipt of cement shall be put on each stack to know the age of cement.

For extra safety during monsoon, or when it is expected to store for an unusually long period, the stack shall be completely enclosed by a water proofing membrane such as polyethylene, which shall close on the top of the stack. Care shall be taken to see that the waterproofing membrane is not damaged any time during the use.

Cement in gunny bags, paper bags and polyethylene bags shall be stored separately. After taking out the required quantity of cement, the lid of the drum shall be securely tied to prevent ingress of moisture. In case cement is received in silos, the silos shall be placed near the concrete batching plant. Proper access shall be provided for the replacement of silos. Bags shall be removed uniformly from the top of the piles to avoid tipping of the stack.

For information regarding bulk handling of cement see 8. If unavoidable it may be stored in compact heaps having only the minimum of exposed area.

In case quick lime is stored in a covered shed, a minimum space of mm should be provided all-round the heaps to avoid bulging of walls. Unslaked lime shall be stored in a place inaccessible to water and because of fire hazards, shall be segregated from the combustible materials.

It should be stored in a building to protect the lime from dampness and to minimise warehouse deterioration. The building should be with a concrete floor and having least ventilation to eliminate draughts through the walls and roof. In general, the recommendations given in 8. When air movement is reduced to a practical minimum, hydrated lime can be stored for up to three months without appreciable change.

Workers handling cement, who are continually exposed to it, shall, in addition to the above be equipped with hand gloves and dust mask.

Bulk cement stored in silos or bins may fail to feed to the ejection system. When necessary to enter a silo or bin for any purpose, the ejection system employed shall be shut down and locked out electrically as well as mechanically. When necessary for a workman to enter such storage area, he shall wear a life-line, with another workman outside the silo or hopper attending the rope.

Stones shall be stacked on dry firm ground in a regular heap not more than 1 m in height. Veneering stones shall be stacked against vertical support on a firm dry ground in tiers, upto a height of 1.

A distance of about 0. These shall not be dumped at site. In the case of bricks made from clays containing lime Kankar, the bricks in stack should be thoroughly soaked in water docked to prevent lime bursting.

Bricks shall be stacked on dry firm ground. For proper inspection of quality and ease in counting, the stacks shall be 50 bricks long, 10 bricks high and not more than 4 bricks in width, the bricks being placed on edge, two at a time along the width of the stack. Clear distance between adjacent stacks shall not be less than 0. Bricks of each truck load shall be put in one stack. Bricks of different types, such as, clay bricks, clay fly ash bricks, fly ash lime bricks, sand lime calcium silicate bricks shall be stacked separately.

Bricks of different classifications from strength consideration and size consideration such as, conventional and modular shall be stacked separately. Also bricks of different types, such as, solid, hollow and perforated shall be stacked separately.

Blocks shall be unloaded one at a time and stacked in regular tiers to minimise breakage and defacement. The height of the stack shall not be more than 1. Normally blocks cured for 28 days only should be received at site. In case blocks cured for less than 28 days are received, these shall be stacked separately. All blocks should be water cured for 10 to 14 days and air cured for another 15 days; thus no blocks with less than 28 days curing shall be used in building construction.

Blocks shall be placed close to the site of work so that least effort is required for their transportation. Unloading of building bricks or handling in any other way likely to damage the corners or edges or other parts of bricks shall not be permitted. In the stack, the tiles shall be so placed that the mould surface of one faces that of another. Height of the stack shall not be more than one metre. Tiles of different quality, size and thickness shall be stacked separately to facilitate easy removal for use in work.

Tiles when supplied by manufacturers packed in wooden crates shall be stored in crates. The crates shall be opened one at a time as and when required for use. It is preferable to transport these at the site on platform trolleys. Employees required to enter hoppers shall be equipped with safety belts and life-lines, attended by another person. Machine driven hoppers, feeders, and loaders shall be locked in the off position prior to entry, electrically as well as mechanically.

Fly ash in bulk quantities shall be stored in stack similar to fine aggregates, avoiding any intrusion of foreign matter. Fly ash in bags shall be stored in stacks not more than 10 bags high. Various members shall preferably be stored separately in different lengths, and material of equal lengths shall be piled together in layers with wooden battens, called crossers, separating one layer from another.

The crossers shall be of sound wood, straight and uniform in thickness. In case, where separate crossers are not available smaller sections of the available structural timber may be employed in their place. In any layer an air space of about 25 mm shall be provided between adjacent members. The longer pieces shall be placed in the bottom layers and shorter pieces in the top layers but one end of the stack shall be in true vertical alignment. The crossers in different layers shall be in vertical alignment.

The most suitable width and height of a stack are recommended to be about 1. Distance between adjacent stacks is recommended to be at least mm. If such a surface is not available, a platform of planks or old corrugated iron sheets, or a floor of bricks, or a thin layer of lean concrete shall be made so as to prevent the mixing with clay, dust, vegetable and other foreign matter.

Stacks of fine and coarse aggregate shall be kept in separate stock piles sufficiently removed from each other to prevent the material at the edges of the piles from getting intermixed. On a large job it is desirable to construct dividing walls to give each type of aggregates its own compartment.

Fine aggregates shall be stacked in a place where loss due to the effect of wind is minimum. The stacks shall be protected from hot dry winds or direct sun and rain. Heavy weights, such as metal rails or large sections of wood, are recommended to be placed on the top of the stack to prevent distortion or warping of the timber in the stack. In case timber is to be stored for about a year or more, to prevent endcracking in the material, the ends of all members shall be coated with coal tar, aluminium leaf paints hardened gloss oil , microcrystalline wax or any other suitable material.

This applies particularly to planks and formwork for shuttering. All refuse and useless cellulosic materials shall be removed from the site. The ground may then be disinfected by suitable insecticides. The area should have good drainage. Storage under cover reduces the liability to fungal attack. Good ventilation and frequent inspection are important.

Following chemicals have been found suitable at a coverage rate of 24 litre per tonne: A mixture of these compounds yields the best results. The blocks shall be stacked in accordance with 8. These shall be stacked on plane level ground having a floor of bricks or a thin layer of lean concrete.

The roof components such as precast RC joists, prefabricated brick panels, RC planks, channel units, cored units, waffle units, L-panel, single tee and double tee sections, ferrocement panels, etc shall be unloaded as individual components. RC planks, prefabricated brick panels and ferrocement panels shall be stacked against a brick masonry wall in slightly inclined position on both sides of the wall.

Channel units, cored units and L-panels shall be stacked one over the other up to five tiers. The waffle units shall be stacked upside down as individual units.

The RC joists, single tee and double tee sections shall be stacked as individual units one adjacent to the other. The distance between any two adjacent stacks shall not be less than mm.

It is desirable that ends of bars and sections of each class be painted in distinct separate colours.

Steel reinforcement shall be stored in a way as to prevent distortion and corrosion. It is desirable to coat reinforcement with cement wash before stacking to prevent scaling and rusting. Bars of different classification, sizes and lengths shall be stored separately to facilitate issues in such sizes and lengths as to minimise wastage in cut from standard lengths.

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In case of long storage or in coastal areas, reinforcement bars shall be stacked above ground level by at least mm and a coat of cement wash shall be given to prevent scaling and rusting. Structural steel of different sections, sizes and lengths shall be stored separately. It shall be stored above ground level by at least mm upon platforms, skids or any other suitable supports to avoid distortion of sections.

In case of coastal areas or in case of long storage, suitable protective coating of cement wash shall be given to prevent scaling and rusting. Metal and plastic frames of doors, windows and ventilators shall be stacked upside down with the kick plates at the top.

These shall not be allowed to stand for long in this manner before being fixed so as to avoid the door frames getting out of shape and hinges being strained and shutters drooping. During the period of storage of aluminium doors, windows and ventilators, these shall be protected from loose cement and mortar by suitable covering, such as tarpaulin. The tarpaulin shall be hung loosely on temporary framing to permit circulation of air to prevent moisture condensation.

All timber and other lignocellulosic material based frames and shutters shall be stored in a dry and clean covered space away from any infestation and dampness. The storage shall preferably be in well-ventilated dry rooms.

The storage shall preferably be in wellventilated dry rooms. The frames shall be stacked one over the other in vertical stacks with cross battens at regular distances to keep the stack vertical and straight. These cross battens should be of uniform thickness and placed vertically one above the other. The door shutters shall be stacked in the form of clean vertical stacks one over the other and at least 80 mm above ground on pallets or suitable beams or rafters. The top of the stack shall be covered by a protecting cover and weighted down by means of scantlings or other suitable weights.

The shutter stack shall rest on hard and level surface. If any timber or other lignocellulosic material based frame or shutter becomes wet during transit, it shall be kept separate from the undamaged material. The wet material may be dried by stacking in shade with battens in between adjacent boards with free access of dry air.

Separate stacks shall be built up for each size, each grade and each type of material. When materials of different sizes, grades and types are to be stacked in one stack due to shortage of space, the bigger size shall be stacked in the lower portion of the stacks. Suitable pallets or separating battens shall be kept in between the two types of material. The pieces should be lifted and carried preferably flat avoiding damage to corners or sides.

If stacked in exposed position, they shall be protected from damage by wind. Asbestos cement sheets of same variety and size shall be stacked together.

Damaged sheets shall not be stacked with sound materials.

National Building Code NBC content and changes comparison between 2005 and 2016

All damaged sheets shall be salvaged as early as possible. Asbestos cement sheets shall be lowered or raised gently and not thrown.

To protect them from dust and rain water, these shall be covered with tarpaulin or polyethylene sheets. If required, the stack shall be adequately raised above ground level to ensure that it will not be affected by accumulation of water under it. The board shall be stacked in a solid block in a clear vertical alignment. The top sheet of each stack shall be suitably weighed down to prevent warping, wherever necessary. In case of decorative plywood and decorative boards, the surfaces 30 of which are likely to get damaged by dragging one sheet over another, it is advisable that these are lifted as far as possible in pairs facing each other.

The coolest store room available shall be utilized for the storage of the sheets. The store rooms where the sheets are stored shall be well ventilated and direct light should not be allowed to fall on them. Contamination of the sheets with vegetable and mineral oils; greases; organic solvents; acids and their fumes; alkalies; dust and grit shall be prevented. Where greasy contamination occurs, this shall be removed immediately with petrol and the sheets and tiles thoroughly wiped dry and dusted with chalk.

Undue stretch and strain, kinks, sharp bends or folds of the sheets and tiles shall be avoided. In case of long storage, the sheets shall be turned over periodically and treated with chalk powder, if necessary. It is important that all glass sheets whether stored in crates or not shall be kept dry. Suitable covered storage space shall be provided for the safe storage of the glass sheets.

The glass sheets shall be lifted and stored on their long edges and shall be put into stacks of not more than 25 panes, supported at two points by fillets of wood at about mm from each end. The first pane laid in each stack shall be so placed that its bottom edge is about 25 mm from the base of the wall or other support against which the stack rests. The whole stack shall be as close and as upright as possible.

The glass sheets of different sizes, thickness and type shall be stacked separately. The distance between any two stacks shall be of the order of mm. In removing glass sheets from crates, due care shall be taken to avoid damages. Glass edges shall be covered or otherwise protected to prevent injuries to workers. Storage shall be provided at the bottom layer to keep the stack stable.

The stack shall be in pyramid shape or the pipes placed lengthwise and crosswise in alternate layers. The pyramid stack is advisable in smaller diameter pipes for conserving space in storing them. The height of the stack shall not exceed 1. Each stack shall contain only pipes of same class and size, with consignment or batch number marked on it with particulars or suppliers wherever possible. Cast iron detachable joints and fittings shall be stacked under cover and separated from the asbestos cement pipes and fittings.

Rubber rings shall be kept clean, away from grease, oil, heat and light. At a time only one pipe shall be handled by two labourers while carrying to the actual site and shall be carried on shoulders. Fittings shall be handled individually. Natural polyethylene pipes, however, should be stored under cover and protected from direct sunlight.

Coils may be stored either on edge or stacked flat one on top of the other, but in either case they should not be allowed to come into contact with hot water or steam pipes and should be kept away from hot surface.

Straight lengths should be stored on horizontal racks giving continuous support to prevent the pipe taking on a permanent set. The pipe should be given adequate support at all times. In storage, pipe racks should be avoided. Pipe should not be stacked in large piles especially under warm temperature conditions as the bottom pipes may distort thus giving rise to difficulty in jointing. Socket and spigot pipes should be stacked in layers with sockets placed at alternate ends of the stacks to avoid lopsided stacks.

It is recommended not to store a pipe inside another pipe. On no account should pipes be stored in a stressed or bend condition or near a source of heat. Pipes should not be stacked more than 1.

Pipes of different sizes and classes should be stacked separately. In tropical conditions, pipes should be stored in shade. In very cold weather, the impact strength of PVC is reduced making it brittle.

The ends of pipe should be protected from abrasion particularly those specially prepared for jointing either spigot or socket solvent welded joints or soldered for use with couplings. If due to unsatisfactory storage or handling, a pipe becomes kinked, the damaged portion should be cut out completely. Kinking is likely to occur only on very thin walled pipes.

Where quantity storage is necessary, suitable packing shall be placed between succeeding layers to reduce the pressure and resulting spreading of the pile. During transportation, the pipes shall be so secured as to ensure against displacement. When painting is done in confined spaces where flammable or explosive vapours may develop, any necessary heat shall be provided through duct work remote from the source of flame.

The storage area shall be maintained free of vegetation and flammable materials. Tag lines shall be used to control piles and poles when handling for any purpose.

In stacking and handling of piles and poles, precautions as laid down in 8. The containers shall be kept in a well ventilated location, free from excessive heat, smoke, sparks or flame. The floor of the paint stores shall be made up of mm thick loose sand. Paint materials in quantities other than required for daily use shall be kept stocked under regular storage place.

Where the paint is likely to deteriorate with age, the manner of storage shall facilitate removal and use of lots in the same order in which they are received. When electric lights, switches or electrical equipment are necessary, they shall be of explosion proof design. Care should be taken not to use any naked flame inside the paint store.

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Buckets containing sand shall be kept ready for use in case of fire. Leaky drums shall be segregated. Empty drums shall be stored in pyramidal stacks neatly in rows. The storage area should be free of accumulations of spilled products, debris and other hazards. Storage of petroleum products should be as per Petroleum Rules, , as amended from time-to-time. Unidentifiable petroleum products may result in improper use, with possible fire hazard, damage to equipment or operating failure.

Workers shall be required to guard carefully against any part of their clothing becoming contaminated with flammable fluids. They shall not be allowed to continue work when their clothing becomes so contaminated. Contributor Public Resource. Language English. Volume 2. In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them.

For more information: Civil Engineering Section Name: This item includes two versions of volume 2. You may download in.

Bookplateleaf External-identifier urn: Identifier nationalbuilding Identifier-ark ark: Invoice Lccn Page-progression lr. Pages Ppi Army COL R. The NBC complements the National Fire Code of Canada , and both are indispensable for officials, educators and construction professionals.

The two available approaches for network diagramming techniques are arrow diagramming method ADM and precedence diagramming method PDM. Pulley blocks of the proper size shall be used to allow the rope free play in the sheave grooves and to protect the wire rope from sharp bends under load. If gangplank is on a gradient, cleats or abrasive surface shall be provided for the entire length.

Signature of the owner Date The symbol denotes a barrier free enable a person with impaired sight using a long cane, environment, to help older people, parents with prams and travellers with luggage besides persons with disabilities. When air movement is reduced to a practical minimum, hydrated lime can be stored for up to three months without appreciable change.