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HANDBOOK OF TECHNICAL TEXTILES PDF

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Handbook Of Technical Textiles Pdf

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Request PDF on ResearchGate | Handbook of Technical Textiles: Second Edition | The second edition of Handbook of Technical Textiles, Volume 1: Technical. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Handbook of Technical Textiles | Processes: Technical Textiles Market-An Overview. Technical Fibres. Technical Yarns. TECPR 11/24/ AM Page iii HANDBOOK OF TECHNICAL TEXTILES Edited by A R Horrocks and S C Anand Cambridge England TECPR 11/24/ .

Ng 56 Thermal and moisture transport in fibrous materials Edited by N. Pan and P. Gibson 57 Geosynthetics in civil engineering Edited by R. Russell 59 Cotton: Science and technology Edited by S. Gordon and Y-L. Hsieh 60 Ecotextiles Edited by M. Miraftab and A. Horrocks 61 Composite forming technologies Edited by A. Long 62 Plasma technology for textiles Edited by R.

Shishoo 63 Smart textiles for medicine and healthcare Edited by L. Van Langenhove 64 Sizing in clothing Edited by S. Ashdown 65 Shape memory polymers and textiles J. Hu 66 Environmental aspects of textile dyeing Edited by R. Christie 67 Nanofibers and nanotechnology in textiles Edited by P. Brown and K. Stevens 68 Physical properties of textile fibres Fourth edition W. Morton and J. Hearle 69 Advances in apparel production Edited by C. Fairhurst 70 Advances in fire retardant materials Edited by A.

Horrocks and D. Price 71 Polyesters and polyamides Edited by B. Deopura, R. Alagirusamy, M. Joshi and B. Gupta 72 Advances in wool technology Edited by N.

Johnson and I.

Systems Thinking, : Managing Chaos and Complexity: A Platform for Designing Business Architecture

Russell 73 Military textiles Edited by E. Wilusz 74 3D fibrous assemblies: Properties, applications and modelling of threedimensional textile structures J. Hu 75 Medical textiles Edited by J. Kennedy, S. Miraftab and S. Rajendran 76 Fabric testing Edited by J. Hu 77 Biologically inspired textiles Edited by A. Abbott and M. Gupta 79 Textile advances in the automotive industry Edited by R. Shishoo 80 Structure and mechanics of textile fibre assemblies Edited by P.

Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles (Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles)

Schwartz 81 Engineering textiles: Integrating the design and manufacture of textile products Edited by Y. El-Mogahzy 82 Polyolefin fibres: industrial and medical applications Edited by S. Ugbolue 83 Smart clothes and wearable technology Edited by J.

McCann and D. Bryson 84 Identification of textile fibres Edited by M. Houck 85 Advanced textiles for wound care Edited by S.

Rajendran 86 Fatigue failure of textile fibres Edited by M. Miraftab 87 Advances in carpet technology Edited by K. Eichhorn, J. Hearle, M. Jaffe and T. Kikutani 89 Advances in knitting technology Edited by K. Au 90 Smart textile coatings and laminates Edited by W. Smith 91 Handbook of tensile properties of textile and technical fibres Edited by A.

Bunsell 92 Interior textiles: Design and developments Edited by T. Rowe 93 Textiles for cold weather apparel Edited by J.

Williams 94 Modelling and predicting textile behaviour Edited by X. Chen 95 Textiles for construction Edited by G. Pohl 96 Engineering apparel fabrics and garments J.

Fan and L. Hunter 97 Surface modification of textiles Edited by Q.

handbook of technical textiles

Blackburn 99 Advanced fibre spinning Edited by C. Lawrence Fire toxicity Edited by A.

Taking innovative products to market The problems of taking innovative products to market for new entrants to the field are not extensively covered here but the authors offer helpful suggestions for this situation. The assumption is made that readers have a good working knowledge of textile operations. For many years the authors have been designing textile solutions for a very wide range of industrial problems. They have a combined experience in excess of 40 years and have agreed to requests from many people to put on record their experiences of working in this field.

Summary The book is divided into two sections. In the first section, Chapters 1 to 4 the general principles for technical textile designs are discussed. We cannot, obviously, guarantee that by reading this book you will be able to design great products but we hope that we can ensure that you will not waste time or money on multiple no-hopers.

We have found over the years that very many technical textiles are copies of, or amendments to, other fabrics. It is often only luck that ensures that they perform! Our aim is that it will be possible to have confidence in the performance of a fabric even before it leaves the drawing board.

The tables in chapter 4 provide starting points on the path to a successful development. Russell 73 Military textiles Edited by E. Wilusz 74 3D fibrous assemblies: Properties, applications and modelling of threedimensional textile structures J. Hu 75 Medical and healthcare textiles Edited by S. Anand, J. Kennedy, M. Miraftab and S. Rajendran 76 Fabric testing Edited by J. Hu 77 Biologically inspired textiles Edited by A.

Abbott and M. Ellison 78 Friction in textile materials Edited by B. Shishoo 80 Structure and mechanics of textile fibre assemblies Edited by P. Schwartz 81 Engineering textiles: Integrating the design and manufacture of textile products Edited by Y. El-Mogahzy 82 Polyolefin fibres: industrial and medical applications Edited by S.

Ugbolue 83 Smart clothes and wearable technology Edited by J. McCann and D. Bryson 84 Identification of textile fibres Edited by M. Houck 85 Advanced textiles for wound care Edited by S. Rajendran 86 Fatigue failure of textile fibres Edited by M. Miraftab 87 Advances in carpet technology Edited by K. Eichhorn, J. Hearle, M. Jaffe and T. Kikutani 89 Advances in knitting technology Edited by K-F. Au 90 Smart textile coatings and laminates Edited by W.

Smith 91 Handbook of tensile properties of textile and technical fibres Edited by A. Bunsell 92 Interior textiles: Design and developments Edited by T. Rowe 93 Textiles for cold weather apparel Edited by J. Williams 94 Modelling and predicting textile behaviour Edited by X.

Chen 95 Textiles, polymers and composites for buildings Edited by G. Pohl 96 Engineering apparel fabrics and garments J. Fan and L. Hunter 97 Surface modification of textiles Edited by Q.

Wei 98 Sustainable textiles Edited by R. Blackburn 99 Advances in textile fibre spinning technology Edited by C. Bartels Technical textile yarns Edited by R. Alagirusamy and A.

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Das Applications of nonwovens in technical textiles Edited by R. Chapman Colour measurement: Principles, advances and industrial applications Edited by M. Gulrajani Textiles for civil engineering Edited by R.

Fangueiro New product development in textiles Edited by B. Mills Improving comfort in clothing Edited by G. Song Advances in textile biotechnology Edited by V. Nierstrasz and A. Cavaco-Paulo Textiles for hygiene Edited by B. McCarthy Nanofunctional textiles Edited by Y.

Li Joining textiles Edited by I. Jones and G. Stylios Soft computing in textile engineering Edited by A. Majumdar Textile design Edited by A. Briggs-Goode and K. Townsend Biotextiles as medical implants Edited by M. King and B. Gupta Textile thermal bioengineering Edited by Y. Li Woven textile structure B. Behera and P. It is not woven, knitted, tufted, stitchbonded or felted. It is not a paper but some nonwovens are paperlike. In general a nonwoven is a sheet material made from fibres or filaments that is strengthened by bonding using one or more of several techniques.

These include entanglement using barbed needles or fluids, and chemical and thermal bonding. With regard to the definition, there are problems in deciding whether or not wetlaid fabrics containing wood pulp and stitchbonded fabrics should be included. Wetlaid fabrics are distinguished from wetlaid papers by having a higher proportion of fibres with a length to diameter ratio more than Early nonwovens were made using conventional carding machines designed for carding fibres to make yarns.

The carded webs were consolidated or bonded to provide strength by one or more methods that included mechanical means barbed needles, water jets , chemical means using polymer lattices and thermal means for example using fibres that become adhesive when heated. Developments in papermaking and polymer extrusion, especially the extrusion of molten polymers, have extended the range of ways of making nonwovens. Of the latter the development of spunbonding technology was the major leap forward followed by meltblowing, which enabled finer fibres to be made.

Recently the introduction of electrospinning has provided a route to even finer fibre nonwovens. Composite structures made from layers of nonwovens that have been made by different routes or from different fibres are now common.

For example combinations of spunbonded and melt fabrics or combinations with nanospun webs. The current interest in green issues has led to a renewed interest in biodegradable fibres and fabrics. Nanotechnology has opened up the possibility of very fine fibre webs being made of both conventional and new fibre types. Smart textiles is leading developments in nonwoven structures that have built-in batteries and energy storage — at the fibre level. The development of new applications for nonwovens and new fabrics for established applications in particular are seen in nonwoven products for hygiene, building, personal care wipes, household products, filters and automobiles.

Of these, hygiene is by far the largest end-use, followed by building applications and personal care wipes. This book covers the basics of nonwovens — the fibres used, the principal manufacturing routes and the influence of fibre and fabric properties on nonwoven performance, are addressed in Part I. Part II describes many of the main application areas including hygiene, wipes, apparel, building and automotive interiors and filtration.

The nonwovens industry, however, has drawn on the practices and know-how of many other fields of materials manufacturing, with a piratical disregard and an eye to the most diverse range of end-use products. Today, it would be reluctant to be associated with the conventional textile industry and its commodity associations. The nonwoven technologies originating from the textile industry manipulate fibres in the dry state. This chapter examines the various bonding processes for producing nonwovens.

Key words: drylaid, wetlaid, spunlaid, carding, plastics, paper, extrusion, airlaid, meltblown, nanofibres. The yarn spinning stage is omitted in the nonwoven processing of staple fibres, with bonding of the web by various methods — chemical, mechanical or thermal — replacing the weaving or knitting together of the yarns in traditional textiles. However, in defining what a nonwoven is, there is always at least one exception that breaks the rule.

This is perhaps fitting, since while being now recognised in its own right, the nonwovens industry has drawn on the practices and know-how of many other fields of materials manufacturing with a piratical disregard and an eye to the most diverse range of end-use products.

Many would define themselves by the customers they serve, as being in the consumer products, medical, automotive or civil engineering industries, for example. And now, certainly, the nonwovens industry would be reluctant to be associated with the conventional textile industry and its commodity associations. But nor would it want its products to be called nonpapers or nonplastics. The illusion created by this misnomer has certainly been of some kind of bulk commodities, when the opposite is often true.

The nonwovens industry is highly profitable and very sophisticated, with healthy annual growth rates — often in double digits in certain sectors and parts of the world. It is perhaps one of the most intensive in investing in new technology, and also in research and development.

In nonwoven manufacturing systems, the fibre material or extruded thermoplastic is deposited or laid on a forming or conveying surface, and the physical environment at this phase can be dry, quenched in air, wet or molten — drylaid, wetlaid or spun. Mechanical and fluid means are employed to achieve the preferred fibre or plastic orientation in the web, through the use of machinery adapted from the textile, paper or extrusion industries.

Other critical fabric parameters established at the web formation stage are the unfinished product weight and the manufactured width. Each web-forming system is used for specific fibres or products, although the exception here is with highloft nonwoven production, which employs both cards and crosslappers and air-forming systems.

Another trend currently having a significant impact is that of incorporating nanofibre nonwoven layers into products — most notably, to date, in the area of filtration fabrics. At the time of writing it is difficult to predict how significant this will be, since it is dependent on a number of factors outside the control of the industry.

It could even be driven by legislation as the drive towards less reliance on petrochemicals increasingly becomes a political tool. The fibres are carded or aerodynamically formed and then bonded by a number of methods — needlepunching, thermobonding, chemical bonding, hydroentanglement, etc.

The first drylaid systems owed much to the basic wool felting process known since medieval times. The principle of carding is mechanical action, in which the fibres are held by one surface while another combs them out. The cylinder is partly surrounded by an endless belt of a large number of narrow, cast iron flats positioned along the top of the cylinder. The fibres are fed by a chute or hopper and condensed into a lap or batting.

This is initially opened into small tufts by a licker-in, which feeds the fibres to the cylinder. The teeth of the two opposing surfaces of the cylinder and flats, or the rollers, are inclined in opposite directions and move at different speeds.

The main cylinder moves faster than the flats, and due to the opposing barbs and difference in speeds, the fibre clumps are pulled and teased apart. In the roller-top card the separation occurs between the worker roller and the cylinder. The stripping roller strips the larger tufts and deposits them back on the cylinder. The fibres are aligned in the machine direction and form a coherent web below the surface of the needles of the main cylinder.

At present the leading manufacturers of airlaid nonwovens include Buckeye Technologies, Concert Industries and Georgia-Pacific. Other key nonwovens manufacturers with airlaid manufacturing capacities include Kimberly-Clark, Fiberweb and Johns Manville. Airlaying involves three key steps: fibre defibration, web formation and web bonding.

In the defibration process, fluff pulp is delivered in a highly compressed roll that has a cardboard-like feel. The rolls are fed into hammermills that have a series of small hammers that rotate at high speed, separating the pulp into individual loose fibres.

The fibres are then transported to the web forming system and at the same time staple fibres are fed from bales into opening systems that loosen and separate the individual fibres. There are two main forming technologies used to produce airlaid webs. With the first, the fluff pulp and staple fibres are sifted through a coarse screen and deposited with the aid of a vacuum onto a forming wire below it.

The second system employs formers — the fibres pass through a series of holes or slots in a large cylinder that spans the width of the forming wire. With both technologies, the pulp sheet is kept in place by a vacuum system located below the forming wire, and additives, such as superabsorbent polymers or odour control powders, can be incorporated. Production lines generally have more than one web former to allow for flexibility in the web formation and increase line throughput.

The technology often allows for the web composition and structure to be controlled to achieve various required functions. Prior to bonding, the web is compacted by large rollers to provide some integrity and cohesiveness.A brief outline of the production techniques is given. Fuel cells made with nanofibrous electrodes allow the uniform dispersion of catalysts, which increases electrocatalytic activity, leading to higher chemical—electric energy conversion efficiency.

Ahlstrom is one of the leading manufacturers of wetlaid products today. Dai 53 Digital printing of textiles Edited by H. Hunter 97 Surface modification of textiles Edited by Q.

Hearle, B. The bonding is usually accomplished under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Powered by.