THE INTROVERTS WAY PDF
For anyone who loved Susan Cain's Quiet, comes this practical manifesto sharing the joys of introversion This clever and pithy book challenges introverts to. Editorial Reviews. Review. “In this thought-provoking treatise on the quieter types , Dembling, the blogger behind Psychology Today's “The Introvert's Corner,”. flective, shy, and introverted, but there are distinct advantages to be- ing this way. —JAY BELSKY, Robert M. and Natalie. Reid Dorn Professor, Human and Com.
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THE POWER OF resourceone.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) public would experience the threat of climate change the way Gore had as a. Download The Introvert's Way: Living a Quiet Life in a Noisy World Full Book PDF . Introversion Is a Gift. This clever and pithy book challenges. But the silent revolution of introverts -- catapulted into the spotlight largely by the work of Introvert's Way: Living a Quiet Life in a Noisy World.
I often let calls go through to voice-mail. In classroom situations, I prefer lectures to seminars. The more yeses you give, the more introvert you are. If you are split around the middle, then you might be ambivert. And even if you are very introvert or very extrovert, that is not a predictor of your behavior in each situation. It would be like saying that all men like contact sports. A lot of men do, but not everyone. Shyness VS Introversion People often confuse shyness with introversion.
And that makes sense actually, because the two can look similar and overlap. Susan Cain says that shyness is the fear of social disapproval and humiliation, while introversion is the preference for environment that are not overstimulating.
Shyness is painful for the shy individual, while introversion is not. You can confuse them easily because the external behavior may look the same. The introvert does not speak because he is observing, processing data and information in his head. But to the external observer the two look very similar. The question then becomes: One study, conducted by Wharton professor Adam Grant, found that it depended on who was being led.
When a leader was tasked with soliciting ideas from a group of predominantly passive employees, extroverted leaders generally came up with better ideas; their general charisma helped inspire contributions from their more taciturn employees.
Strikingly, however, extroversion had the opposite effect on a group of assertive employees. In other words, the leadership benefits of extroversion and introversion are context-dependent, suggesting that one must take careful stock of a situation before determining which leadership style will be the best fit.
Living a Quiet Life in a Noisy World
Recall the HBS students discussed in this chapter. Would you like to go to school there, and would you feel comfortable in that environment? Why or why not?
Can you recall a situation in which you found that an introverted leadership style was more beneficial? What could have been different that might have made an extroverted style more effective?
Can you identify an introverted leader in your life, such as a former teacher, coach, boss, or mentor? What made him or her effective?
What types of problems or situations was he or she particularly good at handling? Classroom Activities 1.
Different strokes for different folks: Have students select a group task, such as redecorating and re-organizing their group space. Divide the class into the following role-play groups: An extroverted leader can help bring out the best of more taciturn employees, while an introverted leader may be needed as a counterweight for a more assertive group of workers. Your own group evaluation: Consider three or four groups that you are a member of now e. Is the leader an extrovert or introvert?
What role do you play in the group?
How would the group function differently if the leadership or membership were different? In what ways would it be better? In what ways would it be worse? Expand on these questions and write a brief synopsis assessing the relationships between the leaders and members of each group.
The Rise of the New Groupthink and the Power of Working Alone B uilding off the themes introduced in Chapter 2, we continue to explore other contexts in which extrovert qualities and the environments that promote them e. Over the last fifty years, American corporate culture has increasingly emphasized collaboration and group work as the means of maximizing creativity and productivity. An early exemplar of this type of work is the brainstormsession, a term coined by Madison Avenue legend Alex Osborn that has since become a staple of corporate practice.
During a brainstorm session, the emphasis is on generating as many ideas as possible, and the tendency is to reward those group members more comfortable with taking risks in a group setting i. Similarly, corporate offices have increasingly replaced private work spaces with public ones, with the idea that by facilitating more inter-employee dialogue, creative juices will flow faster.
Empirical data, however, belies much of the supposed benefits of this group-oriented culture. In all pursuits in life and business—from training in music to developing chess skills to designing a new computer—the data repeatedly suggest that a good chunk of the most important work is done in solitude. It is during undisturbed alone time that skills deepen, genuine insights emerge, and real progress is made. Indeed, one study of 38, workers identified the simple act of being interrupted as one of the largest barriers to productivity in the workplace.
Similarly, repeated studies of that purported bastion of creativity, the brainstorming session, have found that such sessions are at best no better than solitary work, and at worst may result in fewer and poorer ideas.
If solitary work is better than group work, what does this mean for the balance between extroverts and introverts? Simply put, introverts are better suited to working alone. This is not to say there is no place for collaboration or for extroverted employees. Rather, the most effective teams are composed of a healthy mix of introverts and extroverts, as well as a balance between group-oriented and self-oriented work environments. Try to picture the most introverted and extroverted classmates you know, and think of their strengths and weaknesses in their work, school, family, and other social environments.
Now think of where you fall on this continuum. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
THE POWER OF INTROVERTS.pdf
What are the situations when you find collaboration is most useful, and when do you most need to work alone? Do you think all forms of collaboration are the same? What types of collaborative group work projects have you engaged in that were better suited to extroverts? Have you ever worked in small groups in ways that you felt were better suited for introverts?
What were the differences compared to working in larger groups, and where did you find the greatest benefits for introversion? Given your answers to the questions above, what do you think would be the key components of your ideal work environment?
How does your ideal work environment compare to your actual work environment? Are there any changes you could make that might bring you closer to your ideal? What are they?
Best of both worlds: Divide the class into three groups and present a general problem that fits the nature of the coursework e. The groups should be represented by the following: Have each group present their results. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
Evaluate whether different problems may be better addressed by different methodologies. Homework Assignment 1. Create your ideal working model by combining the elements of collaborative and solitary work with the leadership style that you believe works best for you. Write a description of how that model will function when working on a project. Chapter 4 Is Temperament Destiny?: Nature, Nurture, and the Orchid Hypothesis Section Overview All of us are constrained by our biological makeup; the genetic code we inherit only lets us grow so tall or run so fast.
But is there nothing more we can do? Increasingly, scientists appreciate the vast flexibility of our bodies and their ability to adapt to the ever-changing demands of our environment. In this section, we review evidence that suggests introverted and extroverted temperaments are sometimes based on innate biological factors; this evidence also suggests that temperament may be changed through experience.
P sychologists use the term temperament to denote innate, biologically based behavioral and emotional patterns that are observable in infancy and therefore are unlikely to reflect any effect from the environment.
In contrast, the term personality is used to describe the complex set of responses both internal and external that individuals display and experience as they grow older. Unlike temperament, personality reflects a complicated interaction between biological temperamental and environmental factors.
Some of the most powerful evidence for the existence of introverted and extroverted temperaments comes from a longitudinal study led by Harvard professor Jerome Kagan over multiple decades.
Beginning in the late s, Kagan measured the responses of four-month-old infants as they were exposed to various new experiences. Some of the infants showed strong reactions including crying and pumping their arms, while others remained relatively placid. Somewhat counterintuitively, Kagan hypothesized that those infants who were most reactive to the new stimuli whom Kagan called high-reactives would grow up to be introverts. Because underlying the surface quiet of many introverts is a chronic responsiveness to new situations, especially social situations.
Novelty can be fun and exciting, but it also brings uncertainty. In contrast, the calm infants, seemingly unfazed by the new stimuli, grew up to be more extroverted. Discussion Questions 1. In this chapter, a lot of data is revealed suggesting that qualities of temperament are manifest from a very early age and that personality is malleable as we grow.
What would you identify as your temperament i. In what ways has your adult personality transcended your temperament? In what ways has it not? Were you surprised to learn that adult personality traits could be predicted by responses to new stimuli at such an early age? If this is true, what do you think it means about how our emotional responses influence our personality?
Do you agree with the orchid hypothesis as a reasonable framework through which to view some of the potential benefits of being a high-reactive, or do you feel this hypothesis is biased towards introverts? What type of data or study would help support or refute it? Not necessarily. First, as Kagan himself frequently emphasizes, there are many factors beyond high-reactivity that can produce introverted or extroverted qualities. Reactivity to novelty is just one component, and many other aspects of life experience may either enhance or overshadow that component in the shaping of personality.
Second, being high-reactive or low-reactive is a mixed- blessing in either case. High-reactives are more sensitive, which can increase their risk of being negatively affected, but can also enhance their ability to learn and grow from enriched environments.
The phenomenon regarding the positive aspects of being a high-reactive child has been further examined in the orchid hypothesis, a term coined by writer David Dobbs. Dobbs suggests that some children are like dandelions, plants able to thrive in just about any environment, while other children are like orchids.
The orchid is more fragile than the dandelion, but given the right environment, it can produce a rare and extraordinary blossom. Shock effect: Create a surprising shock effect i. Have students evaluate their response on the Kagan high-reactive—low-reactive scale.
Lemon juice test: Have students take the lemon juice test by having them place drops of lemon juice on the tips of their tongues. The theory here is that high-reactives will salivate more than low- reactives. Discuss whether the two tests reveal the same temperament in each student.
Control group: Have the students split into two groups in two different rooms. Have individuals in each group try to solve as many simple math problems as they can in ten minutes. Interrupt one group with some kind of brief startle effect twice during the ten minutes. Evaluate the accuracy and number of problems solved by each group, noting the different results by the control group and the startle group. Interview students in the startle group and ask them whether they feel their results were compromised because of the distractions.
For a different take on this activity, instead of introducing the startle effect, the teacher plays loud music for one group and soft music for the other group while they are solving the problems. Compare how the extroverts and introverts in each group were affected by both music styles. Were there preferences? Home research: Track the number of times you are interrupted during the course of one day and record your responses to these interruptions in your journal.
Rate the effect of each interruption on a scale from 0 to10 see scale below. Describe what impact the interruptions had on your productivity and how much time it took for you to get back to the task at hand. How strong a response the amygdala sends and how easily it can be restrained are two biological factors that contribute to high- and low-reactive temperaments. T emperament is not destiny, but it does place limits on what we can do.
Oxygen use reflects changes in neural activity as different brain regions become more or less active. Schwartz found that the same individuals who had been characterized as high-reactives in the second year of their lives showed elevated responses to novel faces in a brain region called the amygdala. Individuals with conditions such as anxiety and depression frequently have been found to have high amygdala responses, possibly reflecting a greater tendency toward worrying.
What are the different challenges faced by high-reactives and low-reactives as they mature? What is your sweet spot? How do you know? What are the top three signs that you are overstimulated? What are the top three signs that you are understimulated?
Can we change them: Students discuss, in pairs, whether it is easier to expand the repertoire of behaviors and social skills of an introvert or the reflection and sensitivity of an extrovert. Walk a mile in my shoes: Have students role-play conversations in which introverts try to be more extroverted and extroverts try to be more introverted. What difficulties does each type have emulating the other type?
What actually feels useful about reversing roles? However, with help from the highly evolved prefrontal cortex, most of us are fully capable of overriding our amygdala responses. This is what allows shy people to overcome their anxieties in situations that initially make them uncomfortable, such as attending cocktail parties or speaking in public. Still, the fact that amygdala responses were stronger in high-reactive children many years after they were first assessed tells us something important about temperament: Therefore, it is important for each person to learn where his or her own comfort zone lies and to try to stay there as much as possible.
Too little novelty can become boring, but too much can be overwhelming. Experiment with expanding your repertoire at work and at home on alternate days and function as you normally do on the days in between.
The Introvert’s Way
Also, reflect on your comfort level on the normal days. Are you fully comfortable in your normal pattern? Why Cool is Overrated F ranklin and Eleanor Roosevelt were among two of the most influential political figures of twentieth-century American life, but they represent remarkably distinct leadership styles.
Eleanor, on the other hand, was shy, awkward, and unsure of herself in many ways, but she retained a gravitas, a sensitivity, and an intellectual depth that many—including Franklin—were drawn to and admired. Sensitivity and introversion appear to be closely related traits. These were the children who responded strongly to even small changes in the world around them. As research psychologist Dr. Empathy is the ability to not just intellectually understand what another person feels but also to feel what they feel.
A famously introverted politician of our time is Al Gore. When Gore was first exposed to theoretical models of climate change as a Harvard undergraduate, he was deeply moved—and terrified. When he arrived in Congress in the s, he approached his fellow congressmen with the climate change information that had left such a strong impression on him. His colleagues, however, were unimpressed.
The Gore example offers two great lessons for introverts: Do you agree? What about being introverted might enhance empathy? Do you think introverts are better at understanding how other people think, or just how they feel? Election showdown: Students stage a mock election between Bill Clinton and Barack Obama. Who wins? Evaluate each of them on the introvert-extrovert spectrum. This could make them more anxious, but they were also more attuned to lifes subtleties.
As research psychologist Dr. Elaine Aron has suggested, this heightened sensitivity may be a cornerstone of some introverts greatest strength: empathy. Empathy is the ability to not just intellectually understand what another person feels but also to feel what they feel. In this sense, empathy is very similar to compassion, a word whose original meaning was to literally suffer with.
Introverts feel things more deeply and may be more affected than extroverts by feelings and ideas. A famously introverted politician of our time is Al Gore. When Gore was first exposed to theoretical models of climate change as a Harvard undergraduate, he was deeply movedand terrified. When he arrived in Congress in the s, he approached his fellow congressmen with the climate change information that had left such a strong impression on him.
His colleagues, however, were unimpressed. As with most politicians, they were primarily extroverts, and pie charts and line graphs about temperature change based on complex statistical models werent exciting enough to get the point across.
It would take the synthesis of Gores message with dramatic, cinematic techniques featured in his breakaway documentary hit An Inconvenient Truth before his colleagues and the general public would experience the threat of climate change the way Gore had as a college sophomore.
The Gore example offers two great lessons for introverts: 1 they must recognize that they may be more sensitive to important information than their more extroverted peers, and 2 they must recognize that they may have to step outside their comfort zone to successfully communicate their concerns to a broader audience. In this chapter, the author introduces the idea that an introverts heightened sensitivity may enhance his or her capacity to experience empathy.
Do you agree? What about being introverted might enhance empathy?
Do you think introverts are better at understanding how other people think, or just how they feel? Whats the difference? Who wins? Evaluate each of them on the introvert-extrovert spectrum. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses in each of their personalities as leaders.
Which style are you more responsive to and why? How much did their leadership style and their introverted and extroverted qualities affect your vote? I feel your pain: Have students rate their capacity for empathy on a scale from 0 to10 see scale below.
In pairs, students discuss their self-ratings and how it makes them feel about themselves. Homework Assignment 1. In your journal, keep track of your empathic responses to a few current situations e.
Record how you feel about your ability to empathize and how strongly your feelings of empathy are. Include any judgments you might have about how you think you are supposed to feel as opposed to how you actually feel. But this chapter may contain the first instance where it has been suggested that Buffetts large bank balances may be attributable to his dopamine functioning.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is critical to how the brain orients itself toward and learns about rewards e.
Dopamine plays a central role in getting us excited about lifes fruits; it helps us seize the day and just do it.
But it can also cause us to become too focused on short-term gains and make it difficult to know when to walk away from a risky deal. Because the sensitivity of dopamine varies from person to person, it can be a risk factor since it encourages actions toward risks and rewards.We believe that the questions and exercises in this guide will encourage students to reflect on their own natural temperament and to learn the ways it fits into their lives and the ways it can be an impediment.
You're not antisocial; instead, you enjoy recharging through time alone. Can you explain? Cortney Marie. These were the children who responded strongly to even small changes in the world around them.
Compare how the extroverts and introverts in each group were affected by both music styles. To bet or not to bet: Consider the following table of bets, listed At the end of this chapter, the author encourages each of us to find our sweet spot of stimulation and novelty, that is, the place where we are most comfortable.
Have students discuss current leaders who lead with soft power and leaders who lead with outgoing, extrovert power.
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