THE DSLR FILMMAKERS HANDBOOK REAL-WORLD PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES PDF
The DSLR Filmmaker's Handbook Second Edition Photos courtesy of Carrie Vines DSLR Filmmaker's Handbook Real-World Production Techniques Second. Download the Book:The Dslr Filmmaker'S Handbook: Real-World Production Techniques PDF For Free, Preface: Learn to shoot professional-quality HD footag . Thank you for reading the dslr filmmakers handbook real world production techniques. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have search numerous times for.
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Get Free Read & Download Files The Dslr Filmmakers Handbook Real World Production Techniques PDF. THE DSLR FILMMAKERS HANDBOOK REAL. resourceone.info: The DSLR Filmmaker's Handbook: Real-World Production Techniques (): Barry Andersson: Books. Andersson Barry. The DSLR Filmmaker's Handbook: Real-World Production Techniques. Файл формата pdf; размером 80,70 МБ. Добавлен.
Because the angles are shallow, the light rays are within the acceptable circle of confusion for a greater distance.
Aperture settings are adjusted more frequently in still photography, where variations in depth of field are used to produce a variety of special effects. Focus point is on the first blocks column. Otherwise, a point object will produce a blur spot shaped like the aperture , typically and approximately a circle. When this circular spot is sufficiently small, it is visually indistinguishable from a point, and appears to be in focus.
The diameter of the largest circle that is indistinguishable from a point is known as the acceptable circle of confusion , or informally, simply as the circle of confusion. Points that produce a blur spot smaller than this acceptable circle of confusion are considered acceptably sharp. The acceptable circle of confusion depends on how the final image will be used. It is generally accepted to be 0. The limit of tolerable error was traditionally set at 0.
The plane of focus is normally parallel to the image plane. However, moving the lens relative to the sensor can rotate the plane of focus. When the plane of focus is rotated, the near and far limits of DOF are no longer parallel; the DOF becomes wedge-shaped, with the apex of the wedge nearest the camera. Alternatively, rotating the POF, in combination with a small f-number, can minimize the part of an image that is within the DOF.
Object field calculation methods[ edit ] Traditional depth-of-field formulas can be hard to use in practice. As an alternative, the same effective calculation can be done without regard to the focal length and f-number. Merklinger [c] suggested that distant objects often need to be much sharper to be clearly recognizable, whereas closer objects, being larger on the film, do not need to be so sharp.
Achieving this additional sharpness in distant objects usually requires focusing beyond the hyperfocal distance , sometimes almost at infinity. For example, if photographing a cityscape with a traffic bollard in the foreground, this approach, termed the object field method by Merklinger, would recommend focusing very close to infinity, and stopping down to make the bollard sharp enough.
With this approach, foreground objects cannot always be made perfectly sharp, but the loss of sharpness in near objects may be acceptable if recognizability of distant objects is paramount. Other authors such as Ansel Adams have taken the opposite position, maintaining that slight unsharpness in foreground objects is usually more disturbing than slight unsharpness in distant parts of a scene. For example, Focus stacking combines multiple images focused on different planes, resulting in an image with a greater or less, if so desired apparent depth of field than any of the individual source images.
Similarly, in order to reconstruct the 3-dimensional shape of an object, a depth map can be generated from multiple photographs with different depths of field. This method is called " shape from focus. Therefore, the blue channel will have a greater depth of field than the other colours. This matte is then masked to incorporate the animated character with the background plate and the animated characters and rotoscoped shadows.
The final result may be several duplications of film later. You can see why this technique was timeconsuming and was eventually abandoned for the newer blue screen process and, eventually, the digital compositing that we take for granted today. The blue or green screen production process is primarily made up of three elements: the foreground subject, the colored screen background, and the target background that the subject is composited into.
Instead of a separate film stock processed at the same time as the original footage to create the traveling matte, the matte is generated from the background color on original film or digital video footage and composited digitally through hardware or a software application as shown in the diagram in Figure 1.
Professional and amateur filmmakers alike can now shoot, extract, and composite scenes with ease, thanks to the technology available for every budget. The only limitation is your imagination and how much time you want to put into the planning, production, and post-production of your project.
What is the best solution for your particular production? Should you use green or blue?
Will your production be live or composited in post? Should you use a solid-color background or a reflective screen? Planning ahead and developing your workflow will dictate what your needs are and guide you through your available options. This chapter will help you decide between using a green or blue screen and will explore your options for hardware and software.
Green vs. Blue Screen Finally Defined! The original process for blue screen compositing, called the color difference traveling matte composite, utilized a series of steps in layering and exposing individual frames of film to create a composite, as discussed in Chapter 1. The next logical step for digital compositing production was to simplify and expedite the process of compositing blue screen shots with a combination of hardware and software.
The term blue screen was the industry standard until more video production started taking off in the late s. The green channel in HD digital video has the most samples of the three available channels, so it gives you more data to work with, with the least amount of noise.
You can read more about the different camera sensors and digital camcorder technology in Chapter In addition, green is easier to light with tungsten artificial lighting, and it requires less light to illuminate it fully—thus costing less in production for lighting and setup.
Combining these three color channels together provides a composite of RGB and gives a color image. When these channels are separated out independently, you can see the image data contained in that color space.
The original footage was shot with an HD camera with a sensor. This series of images is only for illustration purposes; the software used to generate a matte works much more comprehensively. A lot of work in matching the foreground color correction to the background composite will be required. A well-lit blue screen background will serve better in this situation.
In compositing, blue spill is less offensive on hair and skin tones, especially in night shots or composites where the scene includes a lot of cool-colored light.
At times, a magenta or red screen is used for difficult-tolight night shots with a lot of foliage and cool color lighting on the foreground subjects and objects; in those cases, you need a contrasting color to pull a tight matte. In high-resolution still photography, an evenly lit blue screen is the preferred background.
The many subtleties in the color range give you a cleaner matte in Adobe Photoshop www.
On this stage, Mr. Erland can test for the purest background and lighting combinations while extracting a broad range of foreground colors with various cameras and devices. Erland describes the various color chips and focus targets placed around the frame of the stage with the green screen background, in addition to the blue and red backgrounds used for testing. With all spill completely removed from the front face of the stage frame, as well as an isolated and separately lit Esmeralda mannequin, the background is approximately 15 feet behind with changeable color backgrounds and filtered lights for complete illumination.
As Jonathan points out, the key to a great composite is all about the lighting and getting clean information from the background into the compositing software or hardware. As Alex Lindsay of Pixel Corps www. Chroma Key 23 Difference Matte vs. Chroma Key The term chroma key is often used loosely to mean anything that refers to pulling a colordifference matte from film or video footage.
Andersson Barry. The DSLR Filmmaker's Handbook: Real-World Production Techniques
Even several manufacturers of matte compositing hardware and software still refer to the process as chroma keying. Although chroma keyers have evolved to do basic keying quite well, the process refers to switching off certain color pixels in an image or footage. Thus, when selecting a green color from the background in an image layer, the keyer looks for all instances of that green color and switches them off or makes them transparent , revealing the image or footage below.
Most keyers attempt to minimize this effect by expanding the color range slightly and choking the subject to remove green edges. A good hardware keyer or compositor has the technology to handle spill suppression, transparency, and shadows, including motion blur in the foreground footage. Most software keyers that are included with non-linear editing NLE applications such as Final Cut Pro have minimal control over these issues and often rely on a good third-party plug-in to do the compositing.
The first two images are the original green screen footage and then the chroma-keyed image against the background plate. The third and fourth images represent the matte generated with the Ultimatte AdvantEdge plug-in for Photoshop and the composited result.
In most cases, a more sophisticated matte tool will be required. I outline the differences throughout the rest of this chapter. Many options are available today for most any budget. Ultimatte Hardware Compositors The first and still the best hardware compositor on the market is the Ultimatte system www. This system combines the foreground and background plates through hardware so you can see the results of the composite instantly and make adjustments either in the setup or through the hardware settings.
Not only does the hardware key out the background colors, leaving the reflections and shadow details intact, but by using a difference matte, it also compensates for a dirty background matte, footprints, marks on the floor, cables, light stands, and other items that may be in the background.
Ultimatte has been such an industry standard that the process is now referred to as Ultimatting a shot—similar to how Xeroxing means making a photocopy or Photoshopping means manipulating an image. The difference between using a hardware compositor like Ultimatte and shooting for later compositing with a software keyer begins with the way the background is lit. With few exceptions, when shooting a scene for post-production keying, you want the background to be brightly and evenly lit, eliminating all shadows from the foreground subjects if possible.
You can learn more about using the Ultimatte hardware system in a live-broadcast TV studio in Chapter 6. Grass Valley licenses the use of the Ultimatte technology but has developed its own system to produce good results. The keyer is integrated into several configurations and packages, which makes for easy installation, implementation, and training. These systems are usually installed in a modular configuration with several panels and lined up to create an impressive console.
Pinnacle Studio MovieBox Ultimate www. It features a break-out box with several input options as well as output ports and a software interface for your PC using an HDV camcorder.
The Pinnacle Studio Ultimate features video editing and effects that are usually found in much more expensive software-editing packages, such as Boris Graffiti title and graphic animation, Red Giant Magic Bullet Looks with pro film styles, and proDAD Vitascene lighting, glow, and effects.
Reflective media systems project a low-level but highly directional green or blue LED light that reflects off a background material made up of tiny glass beads; this background reflects only the LED light back into the lens of the camera.
This footage can then be composited in real time with a low-end Ultimatte hardware solution such as the Ultimatte DV, or the footage can be recorded and composited like standard green screen or blue screen footage with a software keyer in post-production. Again, the results will be determined by the position of the subject against the backdrop and the intensity of the lighting you use with the ring lights. A few companies manufacture this type of setup, including the LiteRing from Reflecmedia www.
Another concern may be subjects wearing glasses or highly reflective adornments such as buttons and jewelry, which may bounce back the LED light. Slightly angling the subject to face at an angle away from the camera helps reduce any issues.
You can learn more about this in Chapter 9. Applied as an effect to the foreground footage, it provides edge-softening and color-smoothing options to help the key. If you have a very well-shot green screen and a simple foreground subject, you may be able to get a decent key using this tool in combination with a color corrector to help balance the foreground and background layers. As expected in high-end keying software, there are advanced matte-processing tools such as matte edge softening, luma controls, and spill suppression.
You get basic keying options that select a color range, threshold, cutoff, and blending controls and some smoothing. Keylight is a powerful green and blue screen matte-compositing tool with a lot of options and controls usually found only in high-end third-party plug-ins. Keylight was originally an awardwinning stand-alone application from the Foundry in the United Kingdom; it was first licensed and included with After Effects 7.
You can learn more about this process in Chapter After Effects is a robust compositing tool, and several third-party plug-ins are available for this application, as outlined next. Third-Party Keying and Compositing Plug-ins As opposed to the built-in keying tools of the major video software applications, the best selection of compositing applications are third-party plug-ins that specialize in matteextraction processes.
Some are very advanced, whereas others perform only one specific task but at a budget price.
The Green Screen Handbook: Real-World Production Techniques
Ultimatte AdvantEdge Ultimatte www.The Filmmaker's Eye: Another great read for Assistant Directors, perfect for learning as much as you can about the job before getting on your first job. This is especially true for backgrounds behind fine hair or transparent items such as glass or liquids. The acceptable circle of confusion depends on how the final image will be used. Different ways to light and shoot the screens have been explored, including front projection, rear projection, interior and exterior lighting, film, and hardware and digital compositing—each has made its place in special effects history.