THE CAVE TEMPLES OF INDIA PDF
The cave temples of India. byFergusson, James, ; Burgess, James. Publication date PublisherLondon: Allen. The rock-cut temples of India. byFergusson, James, Publication date Topics Temples -- India, Caves, Tempels, Gesteenten. PDF; Export citation. Contents PART II - CAVE TEMPLES OF WESTERN INDIA CHAPTER III - THE BUDDHIST CAVE TEMPLES IN THE SOUTH KONKAN.
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This is a kind of rare architectural element that we never come across in any of the cave temple in India. The back wall of the cave houses a bas-relief of. PDF | On Dec 1, , R K K Rajarajan and others published The Cave Temple at Tirumalai Its Iconographical Significance. reference to Pir?nmalai Cave Temple', paper presented in the National Seminar on 'Art in Indian. PDF | In North India rock-cut architecture is not commonly found. North Indian temples are based on the Nagara style. The Nagara style is distinct from the Cave.
They form thus a singular contrast with those at Ajunta. Only one important group is known to exist in the Madras Presidency. In the Ghats above Bombay there is another important series. Besides this. They are comparatively modern. After these comes a Hindoo series.
In order to understand what has just been said and a great deal of what is to follow.
In this they succeeded. Their pure religion required no stately ceremonies. The fust was that of the immigrating Aryans —an elemental fire-worship. Architectural magnificence was.
We have only slight means of guessing what the religion of the aboriginal Indians may have been in early times. The climate is so temperate. We have every reason. So far as we know. When Buddhism broke down in India. This was apparently the religion of some of the original inhabitants of the country with whom the effete remnant of the old Brahmanical Aryans allied themselves.
We know it only from the Vedas. What really replaced it. They are either Viharas or Monasteries. The mortices. At all events. In the next class they were extended to a long verandah. As these had. All the Buddhist caves we know of belong to one of two classes.
The same thing occurred in Lycia. The oldest Viharas consist of one cell only. This is always covered with sculpture. Chaitya cave attached to them we find a dagopa.
Externally there was always a porch or music gallery. As mentioned above. In the third. Chaitya caves. The whole is always surrounded by an aisle or procession path. From this belt springs the semicircular roof In the oldest Chaityas. The end. There the Brahmans found a group of granite boulders lying on the seashore. The Kylas at Ellora and the temple at Dhumnar are.
When standing in the pit.
The one exception to this rule is the example of the Raths at Mahavellipore. Generally speaking. The first of these resemble true monasteries at first sight.
As the Brahmans excavated caves only in order to signalize their triumph over their enemies the Buddhists. In almost every case they have also the disadvantage of standing in a pit. At Kennari. They are distinguished. Even without sculpture. The Brahmanical temples are still more unlike the Buddhist examples.
From the valley of the Nerbudda to that of the Kistnah. On either side of this great valley numerous ravines or cracks extend for some miles into the plateau. It may have been a familiarity with those of Egypt. Whether harder or softer. It is in vain now to speculate on what may first have induced the inhabitants of Behar to excavate temples in the hard granite rocks of their country. Their arrangements partake principally of that of the Brahmanical caves.
The Tapty is one of the few streams which have cut through the upper crust of this formation. They are interesting. The Jaina temples are so few as hardly to require classification. I numbered them like houses in a street. To avoid all difficulty.
When I visited the caves in It is in one of these ravines. According to this arrangement. In order to render the following description of these caves intelligible. It may also be remarked. The earliest Viharas. Thus the group from No. At this point the stream is crossed by a bridge of ten arches.
The Bara Durree or Palace was then used as a field hospital. A little farther down a second obstruction forms an artificial lake in front of the Bara Durree.
A T the head of the ravine in which the Caves are situated stands Ajunta. After leaping over the two artificial obstructions shewn in the last view. It then reaches the edge of the lower platform. Half way between them a platform of haixler rock divides the height into two nearly equal strata of feet each.
The Caves are situated about feet lower down. The upper. This view is interesting as showing the two great platforms of trap-rock of which this country is composed. And above all these three is an upper stratum. The lower. The river Tapty Hows over a third. The two oldest Viharas. The two Chaitya Caves. The demarcation of the two strata of trap is very clearly shown in this view. I TO No. The first Cave on the left of the picture is that known as No.
Next to it is the two-storied cave numbered as 6. As will be observed. This arose apparently from their architects following the vein of rock. The Chaitya Cave seen in the extreme left is No. Those next it on its right are the unfinished Viharas Nos. As is seen from the picture, the.
To the right and left. It is onlv by getting the terrace at this point that the outer. Within the great arch, on either side, are two upright posts, on which the two principal rafters rest. The broken end of one of these is seen on the right.
Below, five smaller are placed horizontally, and between the two prin- cipals, seven are arranged perpendicularly. The great flat ogee was probably originally painted, and represents a sort of barge board terminating the gable.
It probably assumed this form because it. On the face of the rib lining the interior of the arch niav be seen the incised footings into which a wooden framework was inserted, partially closing the. To the left is some sculpture of much more modern date,!
The dimensions of this Cave internally are 45 ft. On the roof is still seen the markings of the timber framing that once adorned it. The tee. The dagopa also shows marks of the wooden and plaster decorations that once ornamented it. Being actually of wood they have perished. Above these is the triforium belt.
There are twenty-nme pillars surrounding the nave. It is peculiar at Ajunta. It consists of a square hall. It has three cells on the right-hand side as you enter. In this respect it resembles the old Cuttack and Behar Caves. Towards the face of the rock it has one doorway.
Just as the Romans used little frontons of temples. On the right-hand side. On this side of the hall. The string course also. It is nothing more than wooden posts and rails repeated in stone. Notwithstanding this it has four pillars sup-. Its paintings, however, possess no historical interest, as. The doorway leading to the interior is simple, and the steps are adorned.
These are square for the greater jDart of their. This being to a greater or less. The details of its pillars are peculiar. Their style. Under it a large Vihara. This form was adopted liy the Hindoos in order that the abacus of the capital should not extend beyond the diameter of the shaft. As will be seen in the view. In other words it was a device by which they obtained a pillar with a well marked capital out of a straight lined block of stone.
The inner wall is arranged in a similar manner to that of all the Viharas liere. To the same cause it" may perhaps be ascribed that the pillars of the verandah have fallen down and been obliterated. This Cave has now apparently been cleaned out. Most of these liave been copied by Major iill in facsimile. The centre hall is surrounded by twenty pillars. The figure m the sanctuary is seated with his feet down.
Some of the paintings are tolerably entire and extremely interesting. There are no side chapels. All the details of the architecture of this Cave are particularly good and elegant. At all events we cannot be mistaken if we assert that they were excavated and painted between what in Europe we should call the age of Justinian and that of Charlemagne. The doorway leading into the central hall is unusually plain. There are no inscriptions in the Caves Nos.
The paintings which adorn every part of the Vihara are much more entire than in any other cave of the series. Its dimensions are 64 ft. It is not.. The pdlars of the verandah. Over the door are painted eight figures sitting cross-legged.
The first four are black. The roof of the verandah is also very beautifully adorned with paintings. A T the end of the verandah in this view is dimly seen the circular painting or so called zodiac. It may be remarked that there are more black people represented in this cave than in any other.
A fac- simile of it is now at the Crystal Palace. The two immediately in front of the doorway are as elegant as any pillars at Ajunta. The corresponding pair facing them opposite the sanctuary are richer but less graceful. The remaining sixteen are plain octagons with bracket capitals and no bases, but all richly painted. The figures of fat boys who do duty as transverse brackets supportmg the beams of the roof, are peculiar to this Cave, though the wooden construction of the roof itself is the same in all, and is identical with that now used throughout India.
In this instance it is of course repeated in the rock. The great interest of tliis Cave is centered in the frescoes which cover eveiy part of its interior ; those of the roof in geometrical patterns like those of the verandah, and those of the walls representing legendary scenes from the life of Buddha and other celebrated IJuddhist worthies.
It is not large, however, being only 46 ft. The wooden forms. It shows the same general arrange- ment as the first Cave described. The niches and little semicircular canopies have lost so much of their wooden origin that. Below this he is represented seated cross. The principal figure on the right hand of the entrance represents Buddha giving alms.
In the next compart- ment he is standing in front of a daghopa. The two pillars which support the porch. Buddha is represented standing in the usual attitude of exposition.
Beyond these are repetitions of the same two figures as bounded the composition in the last view. In the next compartment he is seated cross-legged over a shrine. It might require the brilliant climate of India to admit of its application to any large hall. The whole light being introduced through one great opening in the centre of the fa5ade throws a brilliant light on the altar— the principal object.
It is perhaps the most artistic mode of lighting a building of this class that has ever been invented. The spectator himself stands in the shade. The light on the floor is subdued. The upper part of the daghopa is also seen. The connexion between the porcelain tower at Nankin. The Romanesque architects left all their masonry ]- lain in great Hat surfaces as in Cave No.
The Gothic artists. It is also interesting as illustrating the process of change from pamtmg to carving which took place in India as in the middle ages in our own country. So far as can be made out.
Rock Cut Temples Of India.pdf
S will be seen in all those interior views. Though it may be supposed they were prepared in this way for the purpose of being painted. Between each of these is a standing figure in the usual attitude of exposition. There is not much variety in the sculptures of the triforium belt itself These consist of alternate sitting and standing figures of Buddha. The sitting ones all cross-legged.
The brackets on either side of the central block differ every one from the other. These consist. The shafts of the pillars of the nave are also covered with sculptured ornaments. As a matter of course they are all different. Human masks. This is not a Vihara. If this is not so. The front consists of two pillars of very graceful design. It is somewhat clumsily used here. It may be of the same age as the C'haitya to which it belongs. On the other side stands an attendant with a chowrie in his hand.
Though more modem than the Chaitya. There were inten'als long before the final expulsion of the Buddhists. It represents Vishnu sitting under the canopy of the seven-headed snake a very common Brahmanical arrangement —with Sareswati by his side.
In style. Its I dimensions are twenty-eight feet two inches wide. CAVE No. It possesses four cells for monks. The sculpture of these is bold and free.
Rock Cut Temples Of India.pdf
There is no internal colonnade. There is also a verandah in front. With this Cave the great central group terminates in this direction. Those which exist consist of frets and flowers. The front line of the verandah is broken by the projection of two porches. There is also a chapel with two pillars at each end of the verandah.
It consists merely of a large verandah 63 ft. These are particularly interesting here. Though it cannot pretend to rival in magnificence some of the other Viharas at Ajunta. The halls of both stories are of the same dimensions. It will be observed in the above view of the facade there M-as a figure standing in the nook shaft on each side of the doorway. The pillars in front of the sanctuary are of the same Elephanta order as in the last described Cave.
In the lower. In consequence of this the verandah of the upper storey has fallen down. On careful examination. I have therefore no dimensions and no such intimate knowledge of it as would enal le me to speak confidently either as to its age or any of its arrangements. This is the more to be regretted as.
Its presence. The style of the sculpture. In the one on the north are two most portly. Who they were meant to represent is by no means clear. It is in very good preservation. Though the dimensions of its hall are only 48 ft.
In the sanctuary there is a statue. The lower portion is of sixteen sides. The doorway leading into the hall is also a rich and elegant specimen of its class. At either end of it a smaller porch stands in front of the two principal cells. These are covered with the most elegant ornaments. These are not of the same high class of his- torical paintings which adorn the Viharas 16 and Taken alto- gether.
The interior has been a good deal filled with mud. Its paintings are tolerably entire. Tlie hall of its interior is 64 feet square. Besides this, there is a very important and interesting series of caves at Kennari in the island of Salsette, in Bombay Harbour wholly Buddhist, and of various ages and the well-known Hindoo cave of Elephanta, of the eighth or ninth century.
In the Ghats above Bombay there is another important series, atJuneer ; a Buddhist group at Bang, in Malwa and one partly ; Buddhist and partly Brahmanical at Dhumnar, and several others lessknown, and which yet remain to be examined and described.
Only one important group is known to exist in the Madras Presidency, that at Mahavellipore, on the coast, south of Madras. They are comparatively modern, and may be as late as the thirteenth century of our era. They present a curious mixture of Brahmanical and Buddhist forms of architecture, but cannot bear comparison either in extent or interest with those existing in the Bengal or Bombay Presidencies. Altogether, it has been calculated there may be in India i,ooo excavations of this class nine-tenths of which are Buddhist, and the remaining loo divided between the Brahmanical and Jaina religions.
They thus form not only the most numerous, but the most interesting series of architectural remains existing in India before the Mahomedan Conquest. In fact, they are the only ones that serve to illustrate the Arts or History of the period to which they belong. In order to understand what has just been said and a great deal of what is to follow, it is necessary to bear in mind that thrte xiii great phases of religious failh have succeeded one another in India in historical times.
We know it only from the Vedas, and from its analogy with the fire-worshij of the ancient Persians ; for no stranger visited India during its prevalence who has left us an account of what he saw, and no monument or material records remain by which it could be judged.
We have every reason, however, to suppose that it continued pure and undefiled till the period when it was superseded by Buddhism, some three centuries before our era. We have only slight means of guessing what the religion of the aboriginal Indians may have been in early times, but it seems clear that Buddhism was little else than a raising up of the aboriginal casteless Hindoos to a temporary supremacy over the aristocratic Aryans.
When Buddhism broke down in India, of which we have symptoms as early as the sixth century a. What really replaced it, however, was the modern Brahmanical worship of Siva and Vishnu.
This was apparently the religion of some of the original inhabitants of the country with whom the effete remnant of the old Brahmanical Aryans allied themselves, in order to overthrow the Buddhists. In this they succeeded ; but this most unholy alliance has given birth to one of the most monstrous superstitions the world now knows, but which generally prevails at the present day over the whole peninsula of India.
So far as we know, the Aryans built no permanent buildings in India. Their pure religion required no stately ceremonies, and consequently no temples.This Porch is further interesting as being the first known attempt to repro- duce the exterior of a temple in the rock —a thing never done by the Buddhists. They extend froin the first century B. This is to be regretted. And then the great hall above with its sixteen pillars and more pilasters. The next two are small caves.
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