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Jul 10, This list is divided into two sections (click on the link to jump there): Contemporary Komiks, which are comics made after the s including. ng Amerika. Pagsang-ayon sa Ingles: 6/ Pagsang-ayon sa pagsasalin: 6/ Pagsasalin ng New Testament Stories. Tagalog Hiwaga (Mystery in Tagalog) Komiks was the third comic to come from Ace Publications, the premier producer of komiks in the Philippines. It continued mystery.

Second, it makes a reference to the place of origin of a trait as a pre-condition to what is indigenous. Third, it reflects the agency of the natives themselves in defining who they are and what they are capable of. They came from mainland Asia by boat and migrated to the islands. After some time, the early settlers would be regarded as the first discoverers or natives of the islands. These early peoples eventually became indigenous to the place The cinema was not indigenous to the Filipinos, and neither were the early theatrical forms and early prototypes of the novels that have become part of their narrative tradition.

Brought from the outside through colonial encounter, these early foreign narratives prepared the Filipinos for cinema, which they considered both a novelty and a continuation of early narrative traditions. Before the coming of the Spaniards in , the communication forms in the country were predominantly oral. This was true of all civilizations before the advent of writing and printing.

Influenced by Kritika Kultura 30 Lumbera agrees to this role of material history in the rise of media: Para sa akin, history and culture ang nag-de-determine kung paano tayo kumikilos, tumitingin, nagpapasya. The ethno-epics were already in existence in the Philippines prior to Spanish contact, and served a number of functions in pre-colonial Philippines aside from providing amusement and delight.

In both its ritualistic and its artistic function, the epic is a key to understanding the pre-colonial native. The qualities of the native that found their way in the narrative forms of the 20th century were forged in ancient times. The natives who greeted the early missionaries were predisposed to singing and to producing verses that capture the reality of the everyday. The artistic temperament that we associate with contemporary Filipinos seems to have been rooted in their nativist past.

During the Spanish years, new narrative forms such as the pasyon and didactic prose were introduced and became influential enough to displace the epic. In pre- colonial times, epics were recited for days by the chanters who possessed excellent memory and improvisational skills. These oral forms had the fractured feel of the episodic.

When Spanish dramaturgy and storytelling devices were introduced through religious and community rituals, the epic went into history. Some of these Spanish narrative styles were imbibed in cinema, and some were sifted first through the komiks medium. Hispanismo is all-embracing, a seepage on various domains of culture. Spanish narrative forms reconfigured ancient genres and rendered these in a new package, and the native narrative tradition was never the same again.

With the Americans, cultural narratives developed from traditional to innovative, from didactic to secular. Fanon reveals this as the reaction of the native—whether an Kritika Kultura 30 The roots of imitation, of conscious borrowing from foreign forms in the s, may be linked to a longing to acquire universal knowledge. Fanon articulates: This is because the native intellectual has thrown himself greedily upon Western culture.

Like adopted children who only stop investigating the new family framework at the moment when a minimum nucleus of security crystallizes in their psyche, the native intellectual will try to make European culture his own. However, Bhabha sees this mimicry as having two implications: Mimicry, for Bhabha, is a site where colonial memory and influences meant not only adopting a standard or an idea but also subverting it: What Fanon has referred to as the tendency of the native to imbibe or to imitate foreign culture may be evident in the cycle of borrowings that the s film industry engaged in.

From the koridos to the fantasy-adventures, from the historical genre to the comedies, the influences of both Spanish and American forms were intertwined with the sources of komiks.

Del Mundo, Jr. Philippine Cinema and Colonialism , draws a vivid picture of how easy it was to build the local film industry from the example of the American entrepreneurs At the same time, appropriation of foreign influences has been crucial in forging a postcolonial consciousness.

The foreign and the native get entangled with each other, creating the komiks-based cinema of the s. Together, they constitute the national and the popular.

Prior to the rise of cinema cultures in the Philippines, two print-based media performed the task of implanting the idea of community, which was once assigned to the pre-colonial communication forms.

The novel and the newspaper grew alongside the spread Kritika Kultura 30 Conceptions of community defy time. In other words, the nation has only been an idea. Eventually, colonized societies that imagined the nation, through the novel and the newspaper, would soon be consumed by the desire to free themselves from colonial oppression.

Departing from the predominantly religious themes during the Spanish years, the secular themes during the period of independence bordered on various aspects of modern life. Reyes opines: History books refer to the s as the Decade of Philippine Nationalism.

This must have something to do with the general feeling of exuberance that the Filipinos had following the colonial years. The presence of Hollywood influences should not be a problem in an era of nationalism. It is the assimilation of influences that should be interesting to film history Personal Interview.

The empire has answered back, which is a sort of re-enactment of a usual postcolonial narrative. The dynamism of the decade in terms of the quantity of films and the constant sourcing of komiks stories was perceived as something important, if not merely novel. The young nation has created various artistic expressions that are to be enunciated for the first time.

Flores has labelled three ramifications of the idea of the postcolonial Filipino: The nation is a pervading presence in pelikulang komiks, maybe not in a direct way, but in an oblique way.

One example that may be cited to prove this point is the treatment of the past that has been sifted from komiks to film. The subject of the past is perceived to be a means of constructing identity through fiction. For S. She adds: With the economy in shambles, the infrastructure almost completely destroyed and its people still trying to recover from three years of a repressive Japanese regime, the country had very little to look forward to.

Those films set in a modern setting are reworkings of the same old themes of the conflict between a land-grabbing haciendero and a dispossessed land owner. Yet there are other forms of domination that rework the residual patron-client relationship in the films.

While the komiks writers and filmmakers seemed to be less critical of the old values that needed to be further re-examined, they were however reflective of urban woes, of the chaos wrought by industrialization, and of crass materialism that challenged family values. The Coching-Avellana Lapu- Lapu, in its avowed proto-nationalism, combines coherent storytelling with Kritika Kultura 30 Another text, Tulisang Pugot, may be too fantastic and evasive of politics, but its sheer depiction of the late 19th century that evokes the eerie and the gothic presents a possibility for critique via iconography.

The past as subject for pelikulang komiks is not only about the Spanish period. Various periods of oral and written history of the Philippines were also tackled by komiks stories by borrowing plots from awit and corrido S. The distant past is a trope by which the film story may be able to achieve a resolution of old issues.

But the indiscriminate evocation of the period film and its problematic values had been revisited by adaptation not in a didactic mode but in a nostalgic mode. Instead, the intention in recapturing the past may be to retrieve a sense of pride that has been crushed by wartime experiences.

There was a need to make sense of the past, to return to what used to be untrammelled and whole. The past serves as a school for the honing of the visual iconography of the s. This specificity does something else; it is a key to the heroic ideal of the Filipino. It served both as a value and as a generic trope. The concept of nation penetrated pelikulang komiks either through the use of the past as trope or by pursuing myth- making strategies.

As Horn offers: The problem of creating a milieu at once ordinary and different is the lot of all mass media which also aspire to becoming art forms. To answer the challenge, the comics may resort to the wholesale creation of a mythical ontogeny. It is where heroes fulfil their role in the collective destiny of the people: But then the bright lights of criticism, of mythography, are easily dimmed by commerce.

This Janus-faced content of film adaptation can be problematic when it surrenders politics to entertainment. As Figure 1 above shows, the confluence of foreign borrowings and indigenous elements in pelikulang komiks reflect both scripting the nation and fuelling a culture industry. The latter is inevitable insofar as cinema is a technology borrowed from the West and is propelled through the capitalist enterprise. As Armes offers: Cinema has been a notable exception being not native to any third cinema as the Philippines.

Lumbera differentiates it from folk culture, which denotes the traditional culture that a distinct community of people has evolved sometimes in isolation from others in its struggle with nature, and in the process of accommodation and resistance experienced by each community in its multifarious relationships with outsiders.

The result is repetition. Insofar as the pelikulang komiks of the s engaged both the national and the popular, we can say that colonization was only one of the factors implicated in the complex borrowings of content and form. The growing consciousness of the masses has also been shaped by the Enlightenment doctrine of rationalism and a new excitement over the kind of cinema current in those days.

Although not immune from being victims of deception, the masses gave new voice to the idea of nationalism that has been forged by or made complex by capitalism.

Adaptation is not exclusive to cinema. It is an artistic practice that has been in existence as far as the known history of the Filipinos is concerned. In locating adaptation in culture, one is not limited to any specific art form or cultural practice. The whole of cultural tradition is implicated in understanding specific moments of adaptive art and ways of sourcing materials from narrative lore and cultural memory. Filipino adaptation practices in the s were distinct because these were rooted in a culture of recycling.

Stories and narratives were assimilated from various sources—foreign and local—and were rendered in the vernacular native language , using local color and idiom. Adaptations re-symbolized source texts Kritika Kultura 30 In this sense, the past and the present merge in a work of komiks-to-film adaptation. In another sense, locating culture in adaptation allows for a broader view of adaptation. It is about culture as a whole, the kind of stories we recycle, and the type of materials that help explain the present.

A great era of adaptation only proceeds from a great era of source texts, and the komiks industry has seen major changes in decades past. As Yonzon has added: The values carried forth in both source texts and target text may also subvert status quo. Valiente agrees. After the war, with the memory of their harrowing experience at the hands of the Japanese, Filipinos worked towards the rejuvenation of their spirit.

The Second World War, he says, impelled Filipinos to find their moorings. There came a need to carve an image of a new Filipino that is ideal, chivalric, and heroic. It is recycling materials from various periods of cultural development across forms, across genres, and across meanings.

Noli Me Tangere (Noli Me Tangere Comic, Tagalog Version)

In the act of updating a material, both capitalistic drive and cultural impulses are at play. Sourcing is paean to the past—albeit in a more unconscious way. There would come a time when traces of foreign borrowings would have already melded smoothly with the local to be ever visible. This was the route taken by the sarswela and komedya.

Komiks-to-film adaptation has been only one point of entry in that long process of cultural adaptation.

There is perhaps no other more articulate way to illustrate appropriation than the example of the Bernardo Carpio story, which followed multiple routes. From a 19th century Spanish corrido, the story became a legend about the Filipino folk hero.

To vernacularize is to express an appropriated material in the language, idiom, and metaphor of the Filipino. Film adaptation of komiks in the s, that artistic product brought about by the merging of foreign and native materials, is a vernacular narrative. Baker, Jr. Vernacularization as a form of adaptation in cinema works along the principle of addition.

Moreover, pelikulang komiks presents itself as a type of vernacular narrative, alongside the Tagalog novel, epic, awit, korido, and pasyon because it delivers a story that is exclusively retold using conventions and tropes drawn externally and locally. This aptly parallels what Baker has commented on vernacularized forms like blues music: During the early American period, other forms of narratives reflected traces of adaptation practices and their popular reception.

The past and the present, the folk and the popular, merge in the komiks and in film. The historical roots of Filipino film adaptation practices are linked to linguistic translation.

After all, vernacular cinema and vernacular adaptation are partly about the vernacular language that they employ or speak. If one were to trace the ability of Filipino media forms to refer or to borrow from diverse sources, the dramatic years of the Spanish period would come to mind. Translation in Early Spanish Rule, adaptation is posited to be synonymous with translation.

Natives in early Spanish rule barely spoke the Spanish language but they took to imagining in their own Tagalog language or vernacular Christian concepts that contain messages about freedom and justice. Rafael articulates that these nascent concepts of vernacularization may be beneficial to present day scholars of culture: By looking at the translation — or, more appropriately, vernacularization — of conversion in Tagalog culture, we can also discern native responses to the dominant and dominating interpretation of the past.

As Flores explains: The world is within the Filipino. Di mo na dine-decolonize kasi inaangkin na nga ng mga Filipino. The Filipino is entitled to that world kasi kasama na tayo dun e bakit ide-decolonize pa yun?

We just re-make it, re-world it. Atin yon, kaya tignan mo at ease naman ang mga artist natin gumawa. Hindi naman sila anxious na we are doing this to decolonize. Halata naman na atin ito. We are in this world. The Filipino is entitled to that world so why de-colonize that. It is ours. Look, our artists were at ease with it.

They are not anxious that we are creating art to de-colonize. It is obvious. The summoning of various texts, the mixing of heterogenous genres, and the emulation of various effects from the audience reflect a knowledge of the world outside and the world within.

Filipinism is the process of exorcising the alienness of the borrowed technology by bringing into it the familiar and social marks and features of Filipinicity thus giving the new creation a familiarity, a habitation and a name. The Spanish hero, after more than a century, became a Tagalog king who is asleep in a cave called Mount Tapusi. One day, he rises again to liberate his nation from oppression. Filipinism, he says, involves the eminent right of the free to name the world they create.

It is an affirmation of independence of spirit. The result is a hybrid cinema that is probably a key to unravelling a Filipino adaptation theory. The hybridity of Filipino film adaptation refers to the co-mingling of influences and intertextualities in the target text.

As a hybrid form, the work of adaptation Kritika Kultura 30 Fanon enumerates three phases by which a national culture is created during the postcolonial period.

This means that the artist is literate and open to the forms, genres, plots, and motifs that were brought from the outside. This culture should serve as template for what is possible. The komiks looked toward for the metrical romances, the fantasy, the musical-comedy, the family drama, and the historical genres.

As cultural artifact, film extends the komiks experience by forming audiences and transforming movie-going into a social institution. Past happenings of the bygone days of his childhood will be brought up out of the depths of his memory: Old lore is rendered in new forms. For example, Lapu-Lapu, its avowed nationalism through a story of a hero that was pre-national, reflects on a ruptured past.

The film interacts with the komiks version through representational and modernist iconography that only a Coching and an Avellana could summon and execute excellently. The native interprets the past and brings this to the attention of the masses. It may not be overt or radical, but it is present nonetheless.

Bhabha introduces the notion of Kritika Kultura 30 This negotiation of cultures allows for the opening up of a new space—non-essentialized, unfixed, integrative. Bhabha adds: Therefore, instead of erecting binaries between the foreign and the native, between Hollywood and local, between European stories and native sources, one can look at a larger world: Jameson considers all third world texts as national allegories. Even the most private and mundane stories reflect notions of nation.

As Jameson adds: Film adaptation of komiks stories in the s involved the invocation and recycling of various genres. Stories from Spanish colonial years were recast side by side with contemporary stories, and although these were produced with business profit in mind, these were socially important to the viewers.

The task of this theory-building enterprise is not to criticize the creative compromises done in the s or to assign greater social importance in the simplistic storylines that were recreated in the works of adaptations. Yet, the actors spoke the vernacular. The manner of narration was loose, episodic, improvisational, and digressive. No other example could be more telling than the dialogue that happened between komiks and cinema in the s. Those memories were shaped and visualized through vernacularization, which has entailed appropriating a foreign technology of mechanical art; importing stories from other cultures; mining indigenous narratives from some remembered pre-literate past; shaping a cinematic language; installing a narrative style; and propelling both old forms and new expressions of visuality, literariness, and performativity that cannot be anything other than Filipino.

The introductory part of the paper, pertaining specifically to the archival data collected as a prerequisite to theory building, is the combined revised versions of two international conference papers, namely: Public education was introduced and Anglo-American literature became part of the reading lists in basic and university education.

It is rendered in this study in the vernacular, in keeping with the arguments of de-Westernization, which is appropriation and translation of terms into the local language. LVN Pictures was established in The film production company was considered as one of the four major producers during the studio era s to s , alongside Sampaguita Pictures, Premiere, and Lebran.

It stopped making movies in , but continued to maintain its film laboratory processing unit for many more years. LVN has been credited for producing almost one half of the all the films released in the s. The last film it produced was Kakabakaba Ka Ba? Before the war, LVN was known to have produced classics that were spin-offs from the traditional dramas such as the moro-moro or comedia and the sarswela Del Mundo, Jr. Born a tad earlier than LVN Pictures, Sampaguita Pictures was a product of the fortunate collaboration between members of the Vera family and a number of entrepreneurs who gambled at the idea of a film producing company.

The first Sampaguita production was titled Butuing Marikit Beautiful Star, , the first of the musicals that the production firm would release in the next couple of years. During the war years, Sampaguita did not produce any movie, but by , under the management of Judge Jose Vera, it released a Gerardo de Leon- directed movie titled So Long, America.

By , Sampaguita will be one of the big four studios in Philippine cinema alongside LVN , Premiere, and Lebran, only to suffer a major setback when its studio caught fire.

It was the post-fire production titled Roberta, a true box-office success, which brought Sampaguita back in the saddle again. The company would produce films for a number of decades more until it finally closed down in An English-language broadsheet whose owner has been able to acquire what remained of the Roces Publications, which published the magazine Liwayway Magazine since its beginnings before World War II.

Previous publications of this author tackle the archival texts and analyses using various types of adaptation criticism. These are listed below: Arriola, Joyce. A Philippine Journal of Humanities, vol. Fantasy and Folklore in s Komiks-to-Film Adaptations. A Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. Primary Sources a. Komiks Ad Castillo, Dominador. Caravana, Nemesio. Coching, Francisco. Del Mundo, Clodualdo. November 27, - March 26, Laudico, Alejandro P.

Pineda, Gemillano. Films Aristokrata. Directed by Olive La Torre, Sampaguita, Bernardo Carpio.

Directed by Tony Cayado, Sampaguita, Directed by Octavio Silos, Sampaguita, Directed by F. Constantino, LVN , Munting Koronel.

Rodrigo de Villa. Sohrab at Rustum. Tulisang Pugot. Directed by Silos, Octavio, Sampaguita, Personal and Online Interviews Flores, Patrick. Personal Interview. Lent, John. Online Interview. Pilar, Santiago. Reyes, D. Reyes, Soledad. Valiente, Randy. Yonzon, Boboy. Personal Communication. Secondary Sources Alfonso, Grace.

Andrew, Dudley. Concepts in Film Theory. Oxford UP , Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Anvil, Armes, Roy. Third World Film Making and the West. U of California P, A Vernacular Theory. Norton, , pp. Bakhtin, Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination, translated by M. Holquist, U of Texas P. Barton Palmer, R. Twentieth-Century American Fiction on Screen. Cambridge UP , Bhabha, Homi. The Location of Culture.

Routledge, Braudy, Leo. The Conventions of Convention. Introductory Readings, edited by G. Mast and M. Cohen, Oxford UP , , pp. Carunungan, Celso. Guerrero, Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, , pp.

Cua Lim, Bliss. Ateneo de Manila University. David, Joel. Fields of Vision: Critical Applications in Recent Philippine Cinema. Ateneo de Manila UP , Native Resistance: Philippine Cinema and Colonialism De La Salle UP , Deocampo, Nick. Desmond, John and Peter Joseph Hawkes. Studying Film and Literature. McGraw-Hill, Eco, Umberto. Eisner, Will.

Comics and Sequential Art. Poorhouse, Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative: Principles and Practices from the Legendary Cartoonist. Norton, Fang, Irving. A History of Mass Communication: Six Information Revolutions.

Focal Press, Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. Grove Press, Fischlin, Daniel and Mark Fortier, editors. Adaptations of Shakespeare. Flores, Patrick. The Life and Art of Francisco Coching. Vibal Foundation and Francisco V. Coching Foundation, Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. Pantheon, Francia, Rowena. Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays.

Atheneum, Genette, Gerard.

Theories of Interpretation, translated by J. Lewin, Cambridge UP , Gianetti, Louis. Understanding Movies. Prentice Hall, Giron, Eric. Gledhill, Christine.

Williams, Arnold, , pp. Gould Boyum, Joy. Double Exposure: Fiction into Film. New American Library, Hill, J. World Cinema: Critical Approaches. Horkheimer, Max and Theodore Adorno.

Bayan Komiks Inc

Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. Stanford California Press, Horn, Maurice, editor. The World Encyclopedia of Comics, vol. Hornedo, Florentino. Hutcheon, Linda. Accessed 22 Mar. Pasyon and Revolution: Popular Movements in the Philippines, Filipinos and Their Revolution: Event, Discourse, Historiography. Inglis, Fred. Media Theory: An Introduction. Basil Blackwell, Jameson, Fredric. The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act.

Cornell UP , Joaquin, Nick. Kline, Karen E. Interrogating normative theories about film adaptation. Accessed 22 March Kracauer, Sigfried. Cohen, Oxford UP , Kuhn, Annette. Dreaming of Fred and Ginger: Cinema and Cultural Memory. New York UP , Leitch, Vincent, et. Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Leitch, Thomas. Review of A Theory of Adaptation by L. Littlejohn, Stephen.

Encyclopedia of Communication Theory. Sage, Yonzon Associates, Lumbera, Bienvenido. Essays on Philippine literature, cinema and popular culture. UST Publishing House, , pp.

An Essay on Philippine Film. Maslog, Crispin. Philippine Communication: Philippine Association of Communication Educators, Mojares, Resil. Origins and Rise of the Filipino Novel: Momblanco, Carmencita. A Checklist of the First Fifty Years. Moine, Raphael. Cinema Genre, translated by A. Fox and H. Radner, Blackwell Publishing, Naremore, James.

Film and the Reign of Adaptation. Nichols, Bill, ed. An Anthology, vol. Palmer, Walter. Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Southern Illinois UP , Pareja, Lena. Sangandaan Movie Workers Welfare Foundation, Inc. Contracting Colonialism: Reyes, Emmanuel. Studies of Popular Forms in the 20th century.

UST Publishing House.

11 New Pinoy Comic Books Worth Reading

Studies of Popular Forms in the 20th Century. UST Publishing House, b, pp. From Darna to Zsa Zsa Zaturnnah: Tradisyon at Modernismo. Some Perspectives on Popular Texts. Plenary Paper.

Text as Containment.

Ilang-Ilang Magazine. Ilang-Ilang Publications, May 17, Accessed 14 Sept. Roxas, Cynthia. Islas Filipinas Publishing, Salumbides, Vicente.

Tagalog Love Stories

Motion Pictures in the Philippines. Vicente Salumbides, Sanders, Julie. Adaptation and Appropriation. Santiago, Arminda. Click on the link in the email.

Step 3: Enter and confirm your new password. While it's true that you won't find komiks in every corner, as in the days of Mars Ravelo's Ang Panday , a whole bunch of Pinoy comic book creators are keeping the comic spirit alive. Trese and Kikomachine Komix are just the tip of the iceberg. In this season of superhero movies, we take a look at 11 other comic stories you should be checking out. From sci-fi to fantasy to straight up classic slapstick comedy, from super cute to super bastos, there's one for everyone, showing the wide range of fiction these new creators are churning out.

Since most of these are indies-that is, not backed by a major corporate publisher-it may be a bit difficult to find a copy. Comic Odyssey should be carrying a few titles, as well as Flipreads.

Most comics retail for less than P, and you'll get to meet the creators, too! With hilarious characters cast straight out of a company payroll, Crime Fighting Call Center Agents combines team building seminars and fearsome creatures with a tongue-in-cheek tone. There's actually not much crime-fighting or call-centering going on Written in Taglish and drawn in a loose, cartoony style that still manages to stay melancholic, it's funny and hip and modern and totally worth checking out.

Tejido and Posadas build a strong mythology, then bring it to life with action-packed pages that don't skimp on the detail.

Joel Chua's colors make everything pop. Without any word balloons to distract from the action, it's a quick and funny read that's perfect for anyone. Zombie plague hits the Philippines Not really. It's not all karaoke jokes and sight gags even if the creators do love putting their fans' faces in the comic panels -social commentary comes in the form of a meddling US government who steps in to help for their own twisted reasons, along with a serious look at how we Pinoys would react if zombies actually showed up on our doorsteps.

Three issues-one season, as the creators call it-are already out, and season two is coming up next. Years later, Taga-Ilog picks the story up again, releasing the further adventures of Mina and Dante in individual comic book issues. Two issues are out, with more to come in Indieket. The creators go for their own epic spin on Pinoy mythology in this comic tale.

Ian Sta.

Maria's art is up to the task-clean, richly shaded lineart with a keen eye for details. Story-wise, you really can't go wrong with a tikbalang slicing the heads off invading conquistadores during the Battle of Mactan spoiler alert: Magellan dies.

Mervin Ignacio goes for some serious world-building, as a lost kingdom of tikbalang, aswang , and various Sons of Heaven poke and prod at the unseen corners of Philippine history.

A four-book volume is already out, with a full-color sequel on the way. There's no mistaking the distinctive doodles of Baguio-born Rob Cham. You've probably seen one or two of his posters floating around the interwebs. Best of all, he's released it free on the web, and you can download it here. This is only one of the prolific Cham's many comic works-also check out his collaboration-slash-anthology with Apol Sta.

That is, if you can find a copy; it was completely sold out at this year's Art in the Park. A page from Kalasag , one of the comics from the Black Ink imprint. Not a comic book, per se, but an imprint from the same publisher as the Precious Hearts romances. Don't expect cheesy romances from these comics, though-Black Ink publishes graphic novels that feature a variety of creators and cut across a whole swath of genres.

And if you really want to see our national hero with magical powers, get Mendoza and Arnold Cruz's Pepe:Komiks writers and screen writers were reconstructing cultural memory by going back to the materials that have already been rendered in previous forms such as the komedya and the sarswela.

Rodrigo de Villa. Most comics retail for less than P, and you'll get to meet the creators, too! Despite having been out of circulation for 13 years, Thanos shows that he is still very much a formidable threat — hoodwinking the Silver Surfer to unwittingly help him commit genocide on a few planets.

The presentational mode dictated the narrative style. By Jocelyn Martin. Journal of Philippine Arts and Culture. The source text as a transitional text enables a historical continuity between and among the sources, foreign and local, that Philippine cinema builds its idiom around and about.

It is where heroes fulfil their role in the collective destiny of the people: