STAHL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY PDF
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Chittaranjan Andrade and others published Stahl′s Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical. PDF | On Jan 1, , Chittaranjan Andrade and others published Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications. Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications (4th ed.) by Stephen M. Stahl. Read online, or download in secure PDF.
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No notes for slide. Both drugs and the environment target Incredibly. Synthesis of such proteins is obviously a crit. It is not In the meantime. RSK receptor complex that is passed along from molecular ribosomal S6 kinase. Numerous diverse biological actions fourth. Since the most powerful way for a ant signal transduction pathway that activates kinase neuron to alter its function is to change which genes enzyme after kinase enzyme.
Transcription factors themselves can be expression activated when they are phosphorylated. These range from expressed that seems to be the important factor in regu- the genes that make synthetic enzymes for neurotrans. Chemical neurotransmission extracellular signal-regulated kinase itself.
Most genes have two regions. The regulatory region has both an enhancer gene inactive element and a promoter element. Activation of a gene. The gene itself is now activated because the transcription factor has bound to the regulatory region of the gene. The elements of gene activation shown here include the enzyme protein kinase.
This 3 TF transcription factor particular gene is off because the transcription inactive factor has not yet been activated. The coding region is directly transcribed into its corresponding RNA once the gene is activated. RNA polymerase. The transcription factor is now activated because it has been phosphorylated by protein kinase.
This protein is thus the product of activation of this 4 TF particular gene. Such rapid-deployment zipper type of transcription factor Figure Some genes are known as immediate early it is Jun and Fos proteins coming from cJun and genes Figure They have weird names such cFos genes Figure Early genes activate late genes.
While cFos the cFos gene is being activated. Fos and Jun can be thought of fifth messenger as fifth messengers. In the top panel. Immediate early gene. Some genes are known as immediate early genes.
Shown here is a third-messenger protein kinase enzyme activating a transcription factor. These are nuclear pro- as cJun and cFos Figures and and teins. It does this by Figures Once Fos and Jun proteins are synthesized. A receptor. The Fos-Jun transcription factor belongs to a family of proteins called leucine zippers.
Once a transcription factor message. When Jun and Fos partner together to form a leucine zipper type of tran- scription factor. The product of the late gene can be any protein nucleus the neuron needs. Jun - fifth messenger fifth messenger 6 sixth messenger Figure The leucine zipper transcription factor formed by the products of the activated early genes cFos and cJun late gene now returns to the genome and finds product another gene.
Such gene products go on to modify neuronal function for many kinase.
Jun and Fos serve to traveling straight to the cell nucleus and finding a wake up the much larger army of inactive genes. Examples of late gene activation.
Which sleeping transcription factor. Once the second-messenger cAMP is formed from its first-messenger neurotransmitter Figure Since this gene is being activated later than the others. Once awakened. Two the functioning of the neuron.
Chemical neurotransmission first messenger - neurotransmitter 1 1 1 1 neuronal membrane 2 second messenger 2 2 2 2 R R 2 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 P P a a a a a a 3 3 inactive activation third messenger - protein kinase active protein kinase P P a 3 TF TF 4 inactive fourth messenger - nucleus transcription factor activated "early" transcription factor Fos - fifth messenger P TF 4 mRNA 5 Figure This figure summarizes gene regulation by neurotransmitters. This late gene product If such changes in genetic expression lead to changes Gene regulation by neurotransmitters.
The details of nerve functioning — and changes in neuronal connections. Chemical neurotransmission cFos 5 cJun Fos - fifth messenger 5 Jun.
This figure summarizes the process of activating a late gene. But can behavior modify genes? Learning as genetic changes triggered by that original experience. In this way. This in come from the connections between neurons in the turn may produce long-term changes in behavior brain. Activating a late gene. At the top.
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Chemical neurotransmission Thus. Epigenetic control over whether a gene is create neuronal functioning. Activated Figure Changes in function have read i. Methylation and deacetylation com- learning and memory. Epigenetics is a region is silenced. When neurotransmission. What are the molecular mechanisms On the other hand. Nucleosomes are an octet of genes. There are malfunctioning neurons are impacted by inherited many forms of methyl-transferase enzymes. The character of a cell is fundamentally genes thus become part of the molecular personality determined by its chromatin.
Chemical modifications that can do this include not only methylation. For Genetics is the DNA code for what a cell can transcribe example.
DNA demethylase enzymes Figure This prevents transcription factors from therapeutic improvement of a psychiatric disorder by accessing the promoter regions that activate genes. Genes do not directly regulate neuronal function. Deacetylation are expressed or silenced. The genomic lexicon of all potential enzymes called histone demethylases Figure Methylation psychiatric disorder. Epigenetics and other processes that are regulated by neurotrans- mission.
DNA methyl-transferase. Gene activation and silencing. This prevents access of transcription factors to genes. These investigations may set the stage for rewriting therapy.
Of course. On the other hand. One of the mechanisms for changing the status this process keeps a neuron a neuron and a liver cell a quo of epigenomic patterns in a mature cell is via de liver cell. In reverse. Although the initial silent. These that one cell does not need.
Chemical neurotransmission How epigenetics maintains or changes prevent the development of chronic pain states. How might this go wrong when a some neurons is that they respond to their narrative psychiatric disorder develops? This part of the story experiences throughout life with a changing charac. There are many neurotransmitters. Favorable epi. The real question is. It used to be thought that.
Depending upon what happens to a investigators who hope to understand how some neuron such as child abuse. Summary genetic mechanisms may be triggered in order for The reader should now appreciate that chemical one to learn e. It may even be possible to prevent disease progression the status quo of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia by Some enzymes try to maintain the status quo of a cell. When this happens. There is also by a neurotransmitter. Chemical neurotransmission the biochemical machinery of that cell in order to act for neurotransmission to begin influencing the upon the message that was sent to it.
Every conceivable component of this entire newly expressed postsynaptic genes transferring infor. Since the postsynaptic The neuron is dynamically modifying its synaptic DNA has to wait until molecular pony express messen.
Future psychotropic drugs will undoubtedly act messengers have been created. The ultimate pre. Events such as these all directly upon the biochemical cascades. Most psychotropic drugs quences throughout the postsynaptic neuron. The balance of psycho. Good examples of this are neurotransmit- neurotransmitter. This tropic drugs target various types of ion channels.
Classification and structure transmission Chapter 1 in order to grasp how Neuronal membranes normally serve to keep the psychotropic drugs work. All three of these sites of action will be transported back into presynaptic neurons as a discussed in this chapter. The sites of action for the remaining third of psychotropic drugs include enzymes C.
Approximately one-third of psychotropic drugs target one of the twelve-transmembrane-region transporters for a neurotransmitter A. Reuptake mechanisms for monoamines utilize unique amines serotonin. These transporters ters. Some of these transporters are presynaptic and others are on glial membranes. The molecular targets of psychotropic drugs. There are only a few major sites of action for the wide expanse of psychotropic drugs utilized in clinical practice.
SLC32 gene family consists of the vesicular inhibi- mitter transporters have been determined. The Recently. Both types of neurotransmitter transport — the amino acid glycine Table and Figure A. Chapter 2: The SLC18 gene family comprises the vesicular are a type of receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter monoamine transporters VMATs for serotonin. Although the three presynaptic transporters — How are neurotransmitters transported? Mono- SERT. For example. This energy is supplied by sodium-potassium also involves cotransport of chloride and in some cases ATPase adenosine triphosphatase.
Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology- Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications 2013.pdf
Sodium-potassium transporters include the serotonin transporter SERT. Figure A. The structure of a monoamine transporter from the SLC6 family has recently been proposed to have RT binding sites not only for the monoamine.
In the absence of sodium. The allosteric site for anti- depressant binding is also empty the front seat in Figure A. The situation is now primed for serotonin transport back into the serotonergic neuron. There are other sites on this transporter — not well defined — for drugs such as antidepressants. Examples of neurotransmitter sometimes referred to as the sodium pump. But if a drug binds to an inhibitory allosteric site on SERT. Transport of many neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron is not passive.
In many cases this excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT. Sodium-potassium ATPase. Vesicular transporters. In fact. Some antidepressants act on DAT. The normal recapture of neurotransmitter AT VM by the presynaptic neurotransmitter transporter in Figure A keeps the levels of this neurotransmitter VMAT from accumulating in the synapse.
Vesicular transporters package neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles through the use of more of the three monoamine transporters. Neurotransmitter can then be transported into the dopamine.
If one wants to enhance normal synaptic activity of these neurotransmitters. Blocking the presynaptic DA monoamine transporter has a huge impact on neuro- transmission at any synapse that utilizes that neuro- transmitter. Although this might not seem to be a very dramatic thing. The proton pump utilizes energy to pump positively charged protons continuously out of the synaptic vesicle.
In addition to the three transporters for monoamines One difference between transport of neurotrans- discussed in detail above. They are shown in The same with the choline and GABA transporters. Inactivation of neuropeptides is tamate transporters belong to a unique family. No other inhibitors of this transporter are It is an interesting observation that apparently not all available for clinical use.
No drugs utilized in clinical prac- of psychotropic drugs tice are known to block glutamate transporters. There are also several dimers. The glycine transporters.
It is functions compared to those transporters of the SLC6 always possible that a transporter will be discovered family Table Since it may often be boring glia. Although this includes a dozen does not seem to cotransport chloride with sodium additional transporters. There are no drugs utilized in clinical although it is transported into synaptic vesicles by practice that are known to block glycine transporters.
Vesicular transporters: In addition to anticon- vulsant actions. Transport into glia results in already been discussed above. The central neurotransmitter histamine amino acid neurotransmitters. The exact localization of these various transporters at presynaptic neurons. Tables and Glutamate neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The func- transporters for the ubiquitous inhibitory neurotrans. Figure B and see Chapter 7. The this receptor. The stimulants such as methylphenidate and cocaine GABA vesicular transporter is a member of the target only the monoamine transporters.
These actions on neurotransmission by G-protein- brane is cotransporting a monoamine along with linked receptors are described in detail in Chapter 1 on sodium and chloride. In contrast. These drug actions can thus change neurotransmitters can then be concentrated against downstream molecular events such as which phos- a gradient by substituting their own positive charge phoproteins are activated or inactivated and therefore inside the vesicle for the positive charge of the which enzymes.
Vesicular transporters for acetylcholine SLC18 gene This is important to understand because such drug- family. Each of the transmembrane perhaps interfering with neurotransmitter release and regions clusters around a central core that contains a thereby reducing seizures.
These recep- porter of uncertain mechanism and with unclear tors all have the structure of seven transmembrane substrates. This can lead to age of neurotransmitters is facilitated by a proton a wide range of modifications of receptor actions due ATPase. The SV2A transporter is a novel Another major target of psychotropic drugs is the twelve-transmembrane-region synaptic vesicle trans.
Drugs can inter- How do neurotransmitters get inside synaptic act at this neurotransmitter binding site or at other vesicles? In the case of vesicular transporters. Contrast this with Figure A. Here we will describe how Vesicular transporters SLC18 gene family as described in Chapter 1. Table Here we will develop the concept that neurotransmitter itself. Agonists are thought to produce a conformational change in G-protein-linked G-protein-linked receptors as targets receptors that leads to full receptor activation.
Naturally occurring neurotransmitters stimulate receptors and are thus agonists. Shown here is the agonist spectrum. Agonist spectrum. What this means from the perspective of tors. It is a common misconception that antagonists are the opposite of agonists because they block the actions of agonists. It is possible for drugs to stimulate receptors to a lesser degree than the natural neurotransmitter.
The full agonist is subtypes functioning as a specific key opening only generally represented by the naturally occurring one door. For this reason.
This is An agonist produces a conformational change in the not unlike the concept of the neurotransmitter being G-protein-linked receptor that turns on the synthesis a master key that opens all the doors.
Some drugs also stimulate receptors and are therefore agonists as well. This is represented as a small — but not ural neurotransmitter interacts at all of its receptor absent — amount of signal transduction in Figure This is referred to as constitutive and with many psychotropic drugs Figure B.
In the absence of agonist. No agonist and throughout the textbook we will show how An important concept for the agonist spectrum is that specific drugs acting at specific G-protein-linked the absence of agonist does not necessarily mean that receptors have specific actions on specific psychiatric nothing is happening with signal transduction at disorders. G-protein-linked receptors. Loss of the agonist actions of a neurotrans. Antagonists are well known both as the act to boost the levels of the natural full agonist mediators of therapeutic actions in psychiatric dis- neurotransmitter Table Partial On the other hand.
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The most prominent examples of indirect full agonists see below. In such cases. Another way to accomplish indirect full agonist agonist spectrum Figure These are direct. This happens when orders and as the cause of undesirable side effects neurotransmitter inactivation mechanisms are Table Whether this constitutive activity leads to detectable signal transduction is affected by the 2 receptor density in that brain region.
Figure with Figure Two examples of this agonist but does nothing itself Figure In the presence of an action is to block the enzymatic destruction of agonist. Constitutive activity. The absence of agonist does not mean that there is no activity related to G-protein-linked receptors.
P a 3 agonist Figure Constitutive Activity Figure The are inhibition of the enzymes monoamine oxidase antagonist simply returns the receptor conformation MAO and acetylcholinesterase. Some of these may prove to be inverse blocked. This is the property of an antagonist.
An antagonist reverses this back to the baseline state that allows constitutive Partial agonists activity Figure An antagonist reverses By themselves.
When a full agonist binds to G-protein-linked receptors. It is possible to produce signal transduction that is tor in the absence of the neurotransmitter agonist something more than an antagonist yet something Figure Turning down the gain a bit Full agonist: Inverse agonists are thought to produce and to the same place Figure — i. Agonist via Antidepressant.
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Such an ideal state may vary things on when the neurotransmitter is present and from one clinical situation to another. This of a full agonist. That is certainly pos- full agonist. P a 3 from full agonist actions. No matter retical capacity to find a stable solution between the how much partial agonist is given.
If neither full agonist nor partial tion that stabilizes G-protein-linked receptor output agonist is present. Back to Baseline. Antagonists also reverse the effects of inverse agonists. Each partial agonist has its own set point engin- stream action. Antagonists do not 2 have any impact on signal transduction in the absence of an agonist. We now know that many receptors. Figure B. Depending upon how close this partial sible in some cases. A few partial agonists are utilized agonist and antagonist — that is.
A series of partial agonist action at all Figure An Constitutive Activity Only. Same as No Agonist antagonist blocks agonists both full and partial from binding to G-protein-linked antagonist receptors.
A useful analogy for the agonist spectrum is a light controlled by a rheostat. If the light is already on. The light will be brightest after a full agonist turns the light switch fully on A. A partial agonist will also act as a net agonist and turn the light on.
When no full or partial agonist is present. Partial agonist. Agonist spectrum: Partial agonists stimulate G-protein-linked receptors to enhance signal transduction but do not lead to maximum signal transduction the way full agonists do. This leads to reduced signal transduction as compared not linked second-messenger system. Adding partial agonist to the dark room duces a functional reduction in signal transduction where there is no natural full agonist neurotransmitter Figure that is even less than that produced when will turn the lights up.
That agonist will become a net antagonist. The result of an inverse the dark room as a starting point. A partial agonist point of view what the relevant differences are between may even be able to treat simultaneously states that an inverse agonist and a silent antagonist. Inverse Agonist: Beyond Antagonism. Relative to antagonist present Figure Inverse agonist.
It is unclear from a clinical theoretical excess of full agonist. In contrast to agonists ever. A room will be brightly lit when it is full the G-protein-linked receptor that stabilizes it in a totally of natural full agonist and the light switch is fully on inactive form Figure These agents have an action dark when agonist is missing and the light switch is off that is thought to produce a conformational change in Figure C.
Inverse agonists are more than simple antagonists. This is a net then there will be no reduction in activity and the inverse antagonistic effect relative to the fully lit room. If an agonist increases signal trans- degree of brightness is that of being partially turned on. What is so interesting about partial agonists is that they can appear as a net agonist. Inverse agonists produce conformational change in the G-protein-linked receptor that renders it in the signal transduction cascade from the G-protein.
The impact of an inverse agonist is dependent on the receptor density in that brain region. The opposite of agonists. The substrates for each enzyme are unique and agonist spectrum.
When entity called the product Figure C. Enzymes as targets of psychotropic drugs When an irreversible inhibitor binds to the enzyme. The irre- in practice. In the meantime. In the presence of an point along the agonist spectrum differ so much from enzyme inhibitor. Antagonists allow constitutive activity and thus. The inhibitors one considers signal transduction along this spectrum of an enzyme are also unique and selective for one Figure The binding of inhibitors can be either irrevers- ible Figure or reversible Figure G-protein-linked receptors act along an Inverse agonists are the functional opposites of agonists and actually reduce signal transduction beyond that produced in the absence of an agonist.
Full agonists cause maximum signal transduction. Every enzyme is the theoretical binding with chains Figure A that cannot be cut target for a drug acting as an enzyme inhibitor.
This figure summarizes the implications of the agonist spectrum. This is depicted as on signal transduction. Enzymes are involved in multiple aspects of chemical it cannot be displaced by the substrate. Enzyme tors. Enzyme activity. Shown here is an irreversible inhibitor of an enzyme. The enzyme has an active site at which the substrate can bind specifically A.
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Irreversible enzyme inhibitors. A competing substrate cannot remove an irreversible inhibitor from the enzyme. The substrate then finds the active site of the enzyme and binds to it B. Some drugs are inhibitors of enzymes. In the case of a reversible inhibitor. Because the substrate has this capability.
A reversible inhibitor can be challenged by a competing substrate for the same enzyme. Whether inhibitor. The consequence of a substrate competing successfully for reversal of enzyme inhibition is that the substrate displaces the inhibitor and shoves it off C.
Other drugs are reversible enzyme inhibitors. Reversible enzyme inhibitors. Several enzymes are involved in neuro- tration. Receptor tyrosine kinases. Pharma- inhibit this enzyme Figure The develop- are discussed in more detail in Chapter 13 on ment of novel GSK-3 inhibitors is in progress. Lithium may target an important enzyme in the signal transduction pathway of neurotrophic factors Figure Lithium and possibly some other mood stabilizers may inhibit this enzyme.
Cytochrome P drug metabolizing growth factors. Lithium has the capacity to the cytochrome P CYP enzyme system. It is possible that cokinetics is the study of how the body acts upon Some neurotrophins. Receptor tyrosine kinases are potential targets for novel psychotropic drugs. MAO inhibi. Several antipsycho- bloodstream. The CYP enzymes and the pharmaco. After passing through the gut wall and liver left.
Five of the most important are shown here: CYP 1A2. There are over enzymes transforming substrates into products as 30 known CYP enzymes. An inhibitor Figure Cytochrome P CYP enzymes in the gut wall or the pharmacodynamic actions of drugs. Five CYP enzymes. For sent to the big blue enzyme in the liver to be example. The genes for these CYP enzymes can now be measured and can be used to CYP predict which patients might need to have up or down dosage adjustments of certain drugs for best results.
The first two editions of Essential Psychopharmacology were about establishing a new teaching style. Medical students, residents and allied professionals new to working with psychiatric medications have found this resource invaluable. Experienced teachers of psychopharmacology have benefitted from adopting some of the analogies Stahl used in these earlier editions to make concepts concrete and simple to understand e. Thirteen years, and two editions later, this text has become the reference for a generation of health care professionals that work with psychiatric medications.
Some precision and fine detail has been purposely sacrificed to make concepts and rules easier to understand. This book is purposefully written on a conceptual level, with hardly a sighting of a table of receptor dissociation constants or milligram dosages anywhere to be found. Added chapters in this edition include treatment of fibromyalgia and pain syndromes, and greatly expanded sections on fundamentals such as signal transduction and targets of psychopharmacological drug action.
Additionally, the cognitive enhancers section from the second edition has been split into separate chapters treatment of dementia, and treatment of ADHD and the anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics section has been split into respective chapters for each drug class.Figure C. Throughout the textbook we will If this structure were not complicated enough. It used to be thought that. February 1. For some for a psychotropic drug.
A nerve impulse is generated in neuron A.