SQL SERVER 2008 NOTES PDF
NOTE Review “Features Supported by the Editions of SQL Server R2” at . NOTE SQL Server , SQL Server , and SQL Server are all. Microsoft SQL Server Notes. Version Page 2. Table of contents. Database Backup File Encryption in SQL Server Download free SQL Server course material and training (PDF file 71 pages).
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Microsoft SQL Server A Beginner's Guide. NOTE. Before you start the installation process, you should exactly know which SQL Server components. Section Split string in Sql Server // using XML. Please feel free to share this PDF with anyone for free. This tutorial explains some basic and advanced concepts of SQL Server .. Datacenter: The major change in new SQL Server R2 is Datacenter Edition.
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You can transfer data and components to an instance of SQL Server that is located on a different physical server or on the same physical server. In a side-by-side upgrade is that you must manually transfer data files and other supporting objects from the older instance of SQL Server to the instance of SQL Server Rolling upgrade Last but not least, you may need to consider a rolling upgrade if your environment has multiple SQL Server instances that need to be upgraded in a specific order to maximize uptime, minimize risk, and preserve functionality.
There are helpful decision workflow diagrams this time around to help you choose the right approach. Here are a few tips by area. These are by no means comprehensive. Your environment is likely different than mine. For SQL Server Database engine, if possible, test the upgrade method before trying it in a production environment. After databases are upgraded to SQL Server , there are extra steps to do such as taking a new backup, enabling new features, and re-populating full-text catalogs.
In SQL Server , those applications do have schema upgrade level changes. You will need to migrate packages afterward service upgrade completes with the Integration Services Package Upgrade Wizard.
SQL SERVER NOTES.pdf
Developers can upgrade or projects to without manual adjustments after upgrade. They can also choose to incrementally update without deploying the whole project.
After upgrade, you will want to check if shared connection managers upgraded successfully. Analysis Services Backward Compatibility summarizes discontinued, deprecated, and changed features.
Logical operators test for the truth of some condition. Set operators combine results from two or more queries into a single result set. SQL Server provides the following set operators. Select ename from sample Union Select ename from sample1.
Create table sample eno int. By default order by clause arrange or sort the data in ascending order only. We can add these to a query for adding additional options like filtering the records. These clauses contains the following clauses are. The order by clause is used to sort or arrange the data in ascending or descending order with in table. This clause is used for filter or restricts the records from the table.
WAQ to find out the number of employees working in the organization Sol: WAQ to find out the number of employees working in each group in the organization. WAQ to find out the total salary of each department in the organization Sol: If we use group by clause in the query.
Group by clause will use for to arrange similar data into groups. This clause is used to fetch a top n number of records from a table. WAQ to find out the number of employees in each department only if the count is greater than 3 Sol: Having clause is also used for filtering and restricting the records in a table just like where clause.
It is not possible to create the synonym on partial table. When we drop the base table 2. Copying data from one existing table to another table: We can copy the data from one table to another table by using a combination of insert and select statement as following Syntax: Select EID.
Create synonym synemp for employee Syntax to drop a synonym: Drop synonym synemp Syntax to Creating a table from an existing table: A database can enforce these rules using a variety of techniques. A product name must be unique. The following list gives a sampling of domain integrity constraints. Data integrity rules fall into three categories: Entity integrity ensures each row in a table is a uniquely identifiable entity. We can create constraints on single or multiple columns of any table.
Referential Integrity: Referential integrity ensures the relationships between tables remain preserved as data is inserted. Domain Integrity: Domain integrity ensures the data values inside a database follow defined rules for values. It maintains the data integrity i. Constraint in SQL: Why Constraint in SQL: Constraint is using to restrict the insertion of unwanted data in any columns.
The constraint prevents an Order Detail record from using a ProductID that does not exist in the database. Not null constraint is using for that column which is not ignorable. This constraint is using to check value at the time of insertion like as salary of any employee is always greater than zero.
Both unique key and primary key both enforces the uniqueness of column but there is one difference between them unique key constraint allow null value but primary key does not allow null value. Not null constraint is used to restrict the insertion of null value at that column but allow duplicate values.
Check Constraint: In a table we create one primary key but we can create more than one unique key in Sql Server. ENAME varchar 50 unique. Not null constraint: Check constraint Primary key constraint. There are 5 types of constraints in SQL Server: Not Null constraint.
ENAME varchar 50 not null. Unique Key: So we can create a check constraint on employee table which is greater than zero. Foreign Key constraint. Unique Key constraint. Foreign key constraint is used for relating or binding two tables with each other and then verifies the existence of one table data in the other. One of the most important concepts in database is creating relationships between database tables.
Primary Key:. We require two tables for binding with each other and those two tables must have a common column for linking the tables. When we adding primary key in any table before adding primary key we have to create that column is not null if the column is not null then we have to create not null constraint on the column after that we will create primary key constraint on that table. To impose a foreign key constraint we require the following things.
In order to create a link between two tables we must specify a foreign key in one table that references a column in another table. These relationships provide a mechanism for linking data stored in multiple tables and retrieving it in an efficient manner. ENAME varchar In a table we create one primary key only. Primary key is a combination of unique and not null which does not allow duplicate as well as null values into a column.
Foreign Key: DNAME varchar When we impose the foreign key constraint and establish relation between the table. If we want to delete or update a record in the parent table when they have corresponding child records in the child table we are provide with a set of rules to perform delete and update operations knows as cascade rules. Cannot delete a record from the parent table provided that records reference key value has child record in the child table with out addressing what to do with the child record.
On Update cascade:. Cannot insert a value into the foreign key column provided that value is not existing under the refernce key column of the parent table.
Deptno int foreign key references Department Deptno on delete cascade on update cascade Ex: On delete cascade:. Cannot update the reference key value of a parent table provided that value has corresponding child record in the child table with out addressing what to do with the child record.
It is used to delete a key value in the parent table which is referenced by foreign key in other table all rows that contains those foreign keys in child table are also deleted. It is used to Update a key value in the parent table which is referenced by foreign key in other table all rows that contains those foreign keys in child table are also updated.
If we apply this rule while creating the child table like below create table Emp EID int. It is an extension for the equi join. In equi join condition we will be getting the matching data from the tables only. Joins can be classified into the following types. To overcome the above problem we use outer join which are used to getting matching data as well as UN matching data from the tables.
So we loss un matching data from the tables. It will retrieve or get matching data from both table as well as un matching data from left hand side table. If two or more tables are combined using equality condition then we call as a Equi join. Joins are used for retrieving the data from one or more tables at a time. Inner join return only those records that match in both table Ex: Joining a table by itself is known as self join. It will retrieve or get matching data from both table as well as un matching data from left hand side table plus right hand side table also.
Whenever we having some relations between the columns within the table then we use self join. If we join tables with any condition other than equality condition then we call as a non equi join. DEPT Ex: In cross join each row of the first table join with each row of the second table.
Cross join is used to join more than two tables without any condition we call as a cross join. It will retrieve or get matching data from both table as well as un matching data from right hand side table Ex: Deptno join student s on d. Deptno and Dept. Deptno join student s on e. Joins with Three Tables: Begin Transaction command is used to start the e transaction.
Update and Delete which should be executed as one unit. A transaction is a unit of work that is performed against a database or set of statement Insert.
Installing MSSQL Server 2008 - which Instance to select
For example. Begin Transaction with name is used to add nested transactions. It is important to control transactions to ensure data integrity and to handle database errors. Commit command is used to end the transaction and save the data permanent part of the database or it is used to make the transaction is permanent so we cannot undo or recall the records.
The concept of commit and rollback is designed for data consistency because many users manipulate data of the same table. That is why commit and rollback are used.
Rollback command is used to undo the transactions and gets back to the initial state where transaction started. Save point is used for dividing or breaking a transaction into multiple units. So that user will have a chance of roll backing a transaction up to a location.
CASE 2: First inner query will be executed and then finally outer query will be executed. In between the inner query and outer query. CASE 3: A query contains another query is called sub Query. Why We Need Indexes: Generally a library has a huge collection of books. Indexes speed up the querying process by providing quickly access to rows in the data tables.
SQL server internally maintain a separate table called index table. This must be time consuming.. Clustered 2. So that when ever user trying to retrieve the data from existing table depends on index table SQL server directly go to the table and retrieve required data very quickly. The index type refers to the way the index is stored internally by SQL Server.
So a table can contain the two types of indexes. One of the most important routes to high performance in a SQL Server database is the index. Non-Clustered Indexes: Clustered Index: View is database object which is like table but logical. When a table has a clustered index then is called a clustered table. In a table we can create non-clustered indexes.
If a table has no clustered index. View will be created by using select statement and table used for the creation of the view is called as base table. We can call it as a logical or virtual table because it does not has a physical existence. If you have a table containing sensitive data in certain columns. Simply we can say that view will act as an interface between the data provider Table and the User.
Views display only those data which are mentioned in the query. A view is a logical table but what it stores internally is a select statement that is used for creating the view. View is created based on a table any changes that are performed on the table reflects into the view any changes performed on the view reflect into the table also.
To protect the data. You can grant permissions to a view without allowing users to query the original tables. So that whenever a user performs any operation on the view like select. View is classified into two types.
Complex view: For instance. It is an extension of SQL language.
Sub-Program Blocks Anonymous Blocks: Anonymous Blocks are called as unnamed block of code which is executed at any point of time and does not store on database. These blocks can be written on a query window and execute. Sub program Blocks are called as named block of code which is executed at any point of time and stored on database. Anonymous Blocks 2. Those are 1. While declaring variable.
These blocks are providing reusability of code. Assigning Values to variables: Values can be assigned by using a SET statement. Print Eid. Printing Values of Variables: If-Else Statement: In if-else conditional control statement.
Conditional Statements: It is a block of code. To find positive and negative.It is not possible to create the synonym on partial table.
It is used to manage system level information of SQL server. A cursor can hold more than one row. Returns the number of characters. The practice tests provide by us contain many actual questions and answers, after hours study on it, you are sure to pass it. On delete cascade:. CASE 2: One of the most important concepts in database is creating relationships between database tables.
Transactional replication synchronizes databases in near real time. While declaring variable.