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SOLAR COOKER PDF

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of solar energy devices like solar cooker, solar water heater, solar .. Followings instructions are associated with the full load test of box type solar cooker. PDF | Solar cooking is one of the best clean and environment Different types of solar cookers are designed and developed around the world. PDF | Fossil fuels are today's most accessible sources of energy. However due to their limited resources and greenhouse gas emission, the use of renewable.


Solar Cooker Pdf

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of solar cooker, energy and exergy analysis approach and economic evolution cooker. Thermal performance of box type and concentration type solar cookers. rachel andres, Director, Solar Cooker Project of Jewish World Watch solar cooker .. Appendix A contains detailed instructions on how to use a solar cooker. This booklet includes solar cooking concepts, solar cooker construction plans and Follow regular canning instructions: fill jars almost to the top with fruit and .

For comparison, a conventional box type The following two tests have been performed solar cooker of exactly the same material and Stagnation and water heating test. During the tests, it dimensions was also fabricated. The attached fins on the absorber of load standard fluid temperature only which makes plate increase its temperature by radiation absorption it simple and conforms to the main objective of this due to different multiple reflections.

The maximum air work. The reduction of heating period was 18 analysis was limited to only two types of cooker i. A boiling point.

Air temperature in the concentrating type and box type was found to be 0. A Gravity Based Tracking System for Box Type Solar Cookers Suhail Zaki Farooqui [13] presents a one-dimensional tracking mechanism for box type solar cookers along the azimuth, which does not require any external power source and tracking energy is drawn from the gravitational potential energy stored in a spring which is attached to water container.

As water is discharged at a constant rate from the container, the spring slowly returns to its un-stretched position dragging the solar cooker along with it.

The weight of the water in the container required to give Fig. Lahkar et. A single step and less time consuming test northern hemisphere, for the entire year. The proposed procedure is being proposed which enables estimation mechanism is innovative, simple, low cost, easy to of COR and consequently performance comparison handle and almost maintenance free.

Result indicates between different cooker types. COR is defined as the that the optimum length of the booster mirror is equal ratio of the optical efficiency—concentration ratio to twice the width of the cooker box.

COR appears to be similar to F1 loaded Results are be noted here — Firstly, it has been derived analytically averaged over five readings obtained at 9 min from the HWB equation for concentrating collectors.

Experimental the holistic performance of the cooker. Thermal test procedure for box type solar Methodology cooker. Solar Energy There are several work had done on box type [2] Nahar NM. Performance and testing of an solar cooker by using the single, double and more than improved hot box solar cooker.

Energy two mirror as the reflector. There are several Covers Manage A the transparent insulating material TIM etc. Solar of these are not very effective to increase the Energy Testing of to manage in daily practice. Therefore economical box type solar cooker: second figure of merit work will be done in the paper by using the water F2 and its variation with load and number white glass extra clear glass of 5mm thickness as of pots.

Design, development and testing solar cooker, which provide the better transmittance of a double reflector hot box solar cooker than other glass.

Solar cooker

The whole cover is made up of double with a transparent insulation material. In this experimental work we are also [6] Abulla H. Algifri and Hussain A. Al-Towaie changing the absorber plate material by cooper, which Efficient orientation impact of reflector of provide high conductive rate between the pots and box type solar cooker on the cooker absorber plate. In this new work the comparison will done [7] O. Ekechukwu and N. Design between new proposed solar cooker and conventional and measured performance of a plane solar box cooker by using the two figure of merits, reflector augmented box-type solar-energy which are reliable performance factor.

Both the cooker, After [8] Subodh Kumar. Estimation of design calculating these figures of merits the required time to parameters for thermal performance reach the specific boiling temperature of water can be evaluation of box-type solar cooker, These factors are [9] U.

Mirdha, S. Harmim, M. Belhamel, M. Boukar, M. Experimental investigation of a box- From the review it is concluded that every type solar cooker with a finned absorber element of a solar cooker have great importance and plate, Lahkar, Rajesh K. Bhamu, S. Different kinds of solar cookers use somewhat different methods of cooking, but most follow the same basic principles. Food is prepared as if for an oven or stove top. However, because food cooks faster when it is in smaller pieces, food placed inside a solar cooker is usually cut into smaller pieces than it might otherwise be.

Solar cooker

If several foods are to be cooked separately, then they are placed in different containers. The container of food is placed inside the solar cooker, which may be elevated on a brick, rock, metal trivet , or other heat sink , and the solar cooker is placed in direct sunlight.

Rice for a mid-day meal might be started early in the morning, with vegetables, cheese, or soup added to the solar cooker in the middle of the morning.

Depending on the size of the solar cooker and the number and quantity of cooked foods, a family may use one or more solar cookers. A solar oven is turned towards the sun and left until the food is cooked.

Unlike cooking on a stove or over a fire, which may require more than an hour of constant supervision, food in a solar oven is generally not stirred or turned over, both because it is unnecessary and because opening the solar oven allows the trapped heat to escape and thereby slows the cooking process.

If wanted, the solar oven may be checked every one to two hours, to turn the oven to face the sun more precisely and to ensure that shadows from nearby buildings or plants have not blocked the sunlight.

If the food is to be left untended for many hours during the day, then the solar oven is often turned to face the point where the sun will be when it is highest in the sky, instead of towards its current position.

The cooking time depends primarily on the equipment being used, the amount of sunlight at the time, and the quantity of food that needs to be cooked. Air temperature, wind, and latitude also affect performance. Food cooks faster in the two hours before and after the local solar noon than it does in either the early morning or the late afternoon.

Large quantities of food, and food in large pieces, take longer to cook. As a result, only general figures can be given for cooking time. With a small solar panel cooker, it might be possible to melt butter in 15 minutes, to bake cookies in 2 hours, and to cook rice for four people in 4 hours.

With a high performing parabolic solar cooker, you may be able to grill a steak in minutes. However, depending on local conditions and the solar cooker type, these projects could take half as long, or twice as long. It is difficult to burn food in a solar cooker. The exception to this rule is some green vegetables, which quickly change from a perfectly cooked bright green to olive drab , while still retaining the desirable texture.

For most foods, such as rice, the typical person would be unable to tell how it was cooked from looking at the final product.

There are some differences, however: Bread and cakes brown on their tops instead of on the bottom. Compared to cooking over a fire, the food does not have a smoky flavor. A box cooker has a transparent glass or plastic top, and it may have additional reflectors to concentrate sunlight into the box.

The top can usually be removed to allow dark pots containing food to be placed inside. One or more reflectors of shiny metal or foil-lined material may be positioned to bounce extra light into the interior of the oven chamber.

Cooking containers and the inside bottom of the cooker should be dark-colored or black. Inside walls should be reflective to reduce radiative heat loss and bounce the light towards the pots and the dark bottom, which is in contact with the pots. The box should have insulated sides. Crumpled newspaper, wool, rags, dry grass, sheets of cardboard, etc.

This is not as hot as a standard oven, but still hot enough to cook food over a somewhat longer period of time.

Panel solar cookers are inexpensive solar cookers that use reflective panels to direct sunlight to a cooking pot that is enclosed in a clear plastic bag.

Solar Oven science experiments are regularly done as projects in high schools and colleges, such as the "Solar Oven Throwdown" at the University of Arizona.

Parabolic solar cookers concentrate sunlight to a single point. When this point is focused on the bottom of a pot, it can heat the pot quickly to very high temperatures which can often be comparable with the temperatures achieved in gas and charcoal grills.

These types of solar cookers are widely used in several regions of the world, most notably in China and India where hundreds of thousands of families currently use parabolic solar cookers for preparing food and heating water. Some parabolic solar cooker projects in China abate between tons of carbon dioxide per year and receive carbon credits through the Clean Development Mechanism CDM and Gold Standard.

Others are large enough to feed thousands of people each day, such as the solar bowl at Auroville in India, which makes 2 meals per day for 1, people. If a reflector is axially symmetrical and shaped so its cross-section is a parabola , it has the property of bringing parallel rays of light such as sunlight to a point focus. If the axis of symmetry is aimed at the sun, any object that is located at the focus receives highly concentrated sunlight, and therefore becomes very hot.

This is the basis for the use of this kind of reflector for solar cooking. Paraboloids are compound curves , which are more difficult to make with simple equipment than single curves.

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Although paraboloidal solar cookers can cook as well as or better than a conventional stove, they are difficult to construct by hand. Frequently, these reflectors are made using many small segments that are all single curves which together approximate compound curves. Although paraboloids are difficult to make from flat sheets of solid material, they can be made quite simply by rotating open-topped containers which hold liquids.

The top surface of a liquid which is being rotated at constant speed around a vertical axis naturally takes the form of a paraboloid. Centrifugal force causes material to move outward from the axis of rotation until a deep enough depression is formed in the surface for the force to be balanced by the levelling effect of gravity.

It turns out that the depression is an exact paraboloid. See Liquid mirror telescope. Energy is vital for our relations with the environment, and thus the research to resolve problems related to energy is quite significant since life is directly affected by energy and its consumption. Fossil fuel based energy resources still predominate with the highest share in global energy consumption. However, clean energy generation becomes more and more crucial day by day due to the growing significance of environmental issues.

Among the clean energy technologies, solar energy is recognized as one of the most promising choice since it is free and provides clean and environmentally friendly energy. The Earth receives about 3. Solar energy covers a wide variety of applications in order to harness this available energy resources[1]. Besides the environmental and economic burden of firewood use, there are some serious health problems originate from the utilization of firewood.

Therefore, there is a rising attention concerning the renewable energy options to meet the cooking requirements of people in developing countries. Utilization of solar cookers provides many advantageous like no recurring costs,high nutritional value of food, potential to reduce drudgery and high durability[1].

Also,solar cookers have many advantages, on the health, time and income of the users and on the environment. High-performance parabolic solar cookers can attain temperatures above C.

They can be used to grill meats, stir-fry vegetables, make soup, bake bread and boil water in minutes. Conventional solar box cookers attain temperatures up to C. Solar cookers use no fuel which saves cost as well as reduces environmental damage caused by fuel use.

Since 2. Any type of cooking may evaporate grease, oil, and other material into the air, hence there may be less cleanup. A solar cooker is a device which uses the energy of direct sunlight to heat, cook or pasteurize food or drink. The available solar cookers are mainly classified into two groups. Solar Cookers without storage Solar cookers without storage are classified into direct and indirect solar cookers according to the heat transfer mechanism to the cooking vessel.

Figure 1: Different types of direct solar cookers a Panel type b Box type c Prabolic type a Panel type solar cooker Solar panel cookers may be considered the most simple type available due to their ease of construction and low-cost material.

In solar panel cookers,sunlight is concentrated from above as shown in Fig. Panel cookers have a flat panel which reflects and focuses sunlight for cooking and heating. This method of solar cooking is not very desirable since it provides a limited cooking power.

Solar panel cookers utilize reflective equipment in order to direct sunlight to a cooking vessel which is enclosed in a clear plastic bag.

Solar box cookers are the most common and inexpensive type of solar cookers. These box cookers have a very simple construction and they are made of low cost materials, which essentially consists of a black painted metallic trapezoidal tray and is usually covered with a double glass window base shown in Fig. However, a parabolic cooker includes risk of burning the food if left unattended for any length of time because of the concentrated power.

A solar parabolic cooker simply consists of a parabolic reflector with a cooking pot which is located on the focus point of the cooker and a stand to support the cooking system as shown in Fig. A very high temperature of between C to C can be reached because of a combination of the circular design, the size and the polished aluminium.

These types of solar cooker provide high thermal storage, temperature without tracking and at the same time cooking can take place in shadow or in conventional kitchen inside buildings. Three types are categorized under indirect solar cookers,one which uses flat plate collector,other with evacuated tube collector and last one with concentrating type.

In concentrating type of collector either parabolic or spherical shape is used to concentrate the solar radiation. Solar Cookers with Storage Cooking outdoors and impossibility of cooking food in late evening hours are the main problems associated with solar cooking systems.

Therefore, thermal energy storage is essentially needed to increase the utility and reliability of the solar cookers.COR is defined as the that the optimum length of the booster mirror is equal ratio of the optical efficiency—concentration ratio to twice the width of the cooker box.

If the axis of symmetry is aimed at the sun, any object that is located at the focus receives highly concentrated sunlight, and therefore becomes very hot. Also,solar cookers have many advantages, on the health, time and income of the users and on the environment.

Whenever the actual temperature of cooking vessel falls below a fixed value,say 50 0C the auxiliary heating source Qaux will provide sufficient heat to maintain the cooking vessel temperature at 95 0C.

In concentrating type of collector either parabolic or spherical shape is used to concentrate the solar radiation.

Some solar cookers have been built that use them in the same way. The available solar cookers are mainly classified into two groups.