SOCIAL WORK PROFESSION IN INDIA BOOK
This book is an outcome of the active association of authors with the teaching, research and practice in the field of social work and allied terms. Social work is. 9 results for Books: "P D Misra". Social Work Philosophy and Methods. by P D Misra Social Work Profession India. by P.D. Misra and Beena Misra. In India, during the last eight decades the professional Social Work has contributed drastically Lucknow: New Royal book CoGoogle Scholar.
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PDF | By looking into 63 years of the social work profession in India and by reflecting on the author's own experiences and observations, this. PDF | Social work is a field of study in social sciences. the fields of practice components and the advance skills and professional development components. Available in the National Library of Australia collection. Author: Misra, P. D. ( Prayag Din), ; Format: Book; p. ; 23 cm.
By the end of the decade, voluntary social work had a stable financial base, social workers had created a number of professional organizations, and public social services had expanded. The census, which classified social work as a profession for the first time, enumerated over 30, social workers in the United States, but only 5, of them were members of the American Association of Social Workers, the largest professional organization of social workers Walker, The Great Depression: A Crisis for the New Profession The worldwide economic contraction that began in resulted in economic and social crises as the demand for products slackened, workers lost their jobs, and political unrest toppled established governments around the world.
In Europe, a fascist takeover of the German government led to the emigration of many, including leading social workers like Alice Solomon, to the United States and elsewhere. Ultimately, the worldwide depression of the s resulted in World War II, which began in with the German invasion of Poland.
In the United States, voluntary and state-supported social welfare services contracted in response to reductions in funding. Community Chest donations declined in the early years of the Great Depression, and over one third of the nation's voluntary social service agencies closed. Some of the agencies that survived contracted with local governments to provide relief to the swelling ranks of the unemployed.
The slowing economy resulted in declining tax receipts for property and sales taxes, making it difficult for state and local governments to meet increasing demands for unemployment relief.
Cities that had resisted the Community Chest movement, notably Boston, Chicago, and New York, turned to federated fund raising to broaden the pool of potential donors.
The federal government began to support state and local relief efforts, first with loans to the states beginning in , during the Hoover administration, and then with grants for unemployment relief during the Roosevelt administration. Herbert Hoover, who served as President in the early years of the depression — , increased the federal budget but wanted states and the voluntary sector to take the lead in relief. In contrast, the Roosevelt administration, while it enlisted state governments, favored a strong federal role.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Federal Emergency Relief administrator, Harry Hopkins, a social worker with a background in the administration of both public and voluntary agencies, required that states receiving federal grants for unemployment relief establish public agencies to administer the relief program, ending the practice of contracting with voluntary agencies Trattner, In response, the general director of the Family Welfare Association of America charted a new course for private social work.
The Social Security Act established a federal old age insurance program and state programs, supervised and partially funded by the federal government, of unemployment insurance, public assistance, and social services.
States pressed new employees, most of them without social work experience, into service in the rapidly expanding state welfare systems.
States established training programs and many state universities introduced undergraduate social work education programs. The established schools of social work, concentrated in urban areas and often in private universities, increasingly emphasized graduate education.
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During the next few years, the master of social work MSW became the standard professional degree. To some in social work education, it appeared that two social work professions were emerging, a graduate profession based on the MSW degree and a baccalaureate profession based on the acquisition of an undergraduate degree.
While many MSWs continued to work in the voluntary social service sector, opportunities for public employment increased during the s, as states implemented the services titles of the Social Security Act.
Social workers developed new conceptualizations of social work practice methods during the s. Different branches of psychoanalytic casework, influenced by psychiatrists Otto Rank and Sigmund Freud, contested for dominance in social case work.
Group workers and community organizers attempted to conceptualize their methods by sponsoring special sessions at the National Conference of Social Work in and The group work sessions resulted in the creation of a new group work organization, the Association for the Study of Group Work, and the session on community organization eventually led to another new organization, the Association for the Study of Community Organization.
By then the war was already being fought worldwide and some refugees from Hitler's Europe found sanctuary in the United States. Some, like Alice Salomon, had been leaders in the social work profession in Europe, while others, like Werner Boehm, had not been social workers in Europe but would become leaders in social work practice and education after the war.
The growth of army camps and war-related industries ended the depression and disrupted community life even before the United States entered the war.
Congress passed the Lanham Act to provide assistance for war-impacted communities. Veteran social workers like Bertha Reynolds, who worked for the Personal Service Department of the National Maritime Union, devoted themselves to war work even as she challenged the direction of the profession.
New social workers were recruited to war-related social work services. During World War II, the Army Medical Corps deployed psychiatric social workers to treat service men and women suffering from war-related psychological trauma.
Bill, which provided health care, home and business loans, and postsecondary education grants for veterans of World War II. The G. Bill also resulted in an expansion of the Veterans Administration VA hospital system.
Social work became an important part of the VA health care system, which planners hoped would model an efficient public health system for the nation. Congress enacted new social legislation after World War II. The United States signed the charter of the United Nations in , creating an international body that provided an arena for international exchange. Social workers in the United States were eager to share their expertise with development programs in war-ravaged Europe and Asia and later with developing nations in an era of decolonization.
Unfortunately, the models were sometimes based on what was effective in the United States, with little effort to adapt practices to local conditions Midgley, Social work in the late s was a fragmented profession. Practitioner organizations representing different fields of practice emphasized the special skills and knowledge needed by specialists, so that graduate education emphasized specialized rather than generic content.
Separate education organizations accredited undergraduate and graduate programs. Many believed that the social work profession needed to speak with one voice. A movement for generic casework practice, initiated at the University of Chicago by Charlotte Towle, appeared to have promise for unifying social work practice with individuals and families.
Social Work & Human Services
Social work practice organizations and social work education organizations amalgamated. A study of social work education was commissioned, conducted by adult educator Ernest W. Hollis and social work educator Alice Taylor.
CSWE moved quickly to require graduate status and university affiliation for institutional membership—social work would be a graduate profession. Social work practitioner organizations presented a more complex picture. The American Association of Social Workers AASW , organized in , attempted to represent all social workers, but specialized practitioner organizations existed for medical social workers organized in , school social workers , psychiatric social workers , group workers , community organizers , and researchers Several inter-organizational committees met during the early s to develop an agreement for a single social work practitioner organization.
Although the early committees included the AASSW as a nonvoting member, consolidation of the education and practitioner organizations was not pursued. In , the seven practitioner and researcher organizations joined to form the National Association of Social Workers NASW , which had 22, members after the merger.
Published in , the 13 volume Curriculum Study included volumes on undergraduate education, specialized practice methods administration, community organization, group work, and casework , fields of practice corrections, public social services, and rehabilitation , and curriculum areas human growth and behavior, research, social welfare policy and services, and values and ethics Boehm, The intent of both efforts was to unify social work by providing a common set of concepts and educational experiences.
The commission issued Action for Mental Health , a report that called for renewed investment in mental health. The new liberal Kennedy administration, in , proposed an expansion in community mental health programs, based on the report and on California's experience with community mental health centers. By the end of the decade, social workers provided the majority of mental health care in the United States. The Kennedy administration initiated other projects, notably in public welfare and delinquency prevention.
After Kennedy delivered a special message on public welfare, Congress enacted the Public Welfare Amendments to the Social Security Act PL 87— , which provided federal funds for state social service programs and for educating social workers to work in state public welfare programs. The act increased opportunities for public welfare personnel to enter MSW programs and resulted in expanded opportunities in public welfare programs for professional social workers.
Two years later, a federal task force projected an increased need for social work personnel and called for additional investment in social work education, including the development of undergraduate education for social work U. President Kennedy's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency provided demonstration grants for antidelinquency programs. The example of the President's Committee led the new Johnson administration to propose a War on Poverty in A vigorous antipoverty program would be directed by quasi-public entities, local Community Action Programs.
Some social workers were involved in the design of the program, while others looked askance at its nonprofessional, some thought antiprofessional, approach to solving the problem of poverty. Voluntary social service agencies found new opportunities for contracting to provide services to the poor, from community organization to family counseling. The effect of the expansion of government social welfare services during the Great Depression and after World War II was to shift the most important source of funding and practice for social work from the voluntary, nonprofit sector to the public sector, and to emphasize health and mental health programs.
Other sectors, such as corrections and child welfare, medicalized their approaches, as talk of treatment for offenders and dependent children began to dominate professional discourse in these areas.
The increasing complexity of the emerging welfare state resulted in an increasing emphasis on policy, planning, and administration in social work curricula and in practice. Many programs in the Kennedy—Johnson era, from the antidelinquency programs of the Kennedy years to the community action, older Americans, and Model Cities programs of the Johnson administration, relied on increasingly complex federal relationships with state and local governments managed by community planners, many with social work credentials.
If the decade was contentious, the social work profession seemed vibrant during the s. In , the membership of NASW reached nearly 46,, doubling its membership in its first decade. In doing so, NASW endorsed the conclusion of the Task Force on Social Work Education and Manpower that baccalaureate social workers were needed to fill the many social work positions created by the expansion of social welfare programs in the s. CSWE subsequently developed standards and accreditation procedures for undergraduate social work programs.
However, some believed that recognition of the BSW had deprofessionalized social work.
Federal spending for social welfare increased during the s, but employment for social workers stagnated as a result of several related trends Patterson, State public welfare departments separated social services from public assistance payments, reversing the logic of the Public Welfare Amendments. Often justified as cost-saving measures, these changes, which were particularly important in public child welfare services, limited employment opportunities for professional social workers even as they reduced the quality of services for clients.
By the late s, many social services were provided by private or quasi-public agencies or by private practitioners under contract to public authorities rather than by public agency employees. Many conservatives around Reagan were suspicious of social workers, whom they viewed as misguided philanthropists, harming poor people even as they attempted to assist them.
In response, social work practitioner organizations lobbied for legal regulation. Licensing by the state, accomplished in varying degrees in all of the states by the s, would assure the public of quality social services while increasing the demand for licensed social workers, advocates believed.
Licensing also facilitated the growth of private practice, as many states included an independent practice license for experienced MSWs. Despite a new democratic administration in Washington, the trends of the s continued during the Clinton administration—growth in government contracting with nonprofit and for profit organizations, increasing reliance on third-party payments, and privatization of social services. The act eliminated a year-old public assistance program for poor families, Aid to Families with Dependent Children AFDC , replacing it with a block grant program, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families TANF , which imposed work requirements and time limits for the receipt of public assistance.
As the 21st century began, new organizations of practitioners, educators, and researchers arose to complement CSWE and NASW, creating a situation reminiscent of the s. Research, increasingly emphasized by social work educators, did not seem to influence social work practice, signaling a potentially dangerous division between academics and practitioners. NASW held a Social Work Summit in , which brought 43 different social work organizations together to discuss coalitions and collaborative undertakings, and a Social Work Congress in to identify common goals for the next 10 years.
Challenges and Trends Although the social work profession seemed fragmented, a number of organizations of practitioners and educators were able to work together on interorganizational projects to promote social work research and focus the profession's political advocacy activities.
The number of social work education programs at the BSW and MSW levels grew during the last decade of the 20th century and in the early 21st century. By , there were accredited social work education programs in the United States, including baccalaureate programs and masters programs Council on Social Work Education, , in addition to 84 doctoral programs Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education, Over , people in the United States identified themselves as social workers.
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Qty Add to Cart. Add to Wish List Compare this Product. Compare this Product. Our Rann, Your Sanctuary: Agarias of Little Rann of Kachchh, Gujarat. Add to Cart.The federal Sheppard-Towner Act of established a program of grants to the states to support maternal and child health programs administered by social workers in the Children's Bureau.
My Order History. Propriety — The social worker should maintain high standards of personal conduct in the capacity or identity of social worker.
I pledge to perceive people as having inherent worth and dignity, irrespective of their attributes and achievements and having the capability of continuing development; and I pledge to perceive myself and other people as part of nature, needing to live in harmony with other non-human existence. During World War II, the Army Medical Corps deployed psychiatric social workers to treat service men and women suffering from war-related psychological trauma. If it is the widening gap between promise and reality that breeds much of the current anger and frustration amongst social workers, it is also the awareness that social work could be much more than it is at present that leads many of us to hang on in there.
Social Work Education In India: A Resource Book
Social Work Profession In India. Eight years later, in , child welfare agency executives founded the Child Welfare League of America. Copyright White Hat Communications.