PRODUCING ANIMATION PDF
Producing Animation is your answer. Written by Catherine Winder and Zahra Dowlatabadi and edited by Tracey Miller-Zarneke, Producing Animation is a comprehensive guide to the production industry. The companion website provides access to sample tables, templates and workflow. basic steps to make a 3d animation. • why do we need a production pipeline? • what is the production pipeline? • a tour through the various departments at Pixar. numerous times for their chosen books like this producing animation, but end up in infectious Download Producing Animation, 2nd Edition Pdf Ebook. 3 / 4.
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THE ANIMATION PROCESS. PRE PRODUCTION PHASE. STAGE 1: SCOPING. STAGE 2: SCRIPTING. All audio visual projects follow the. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | In this study, a work process model for animation pro-duction is developed. Interviews with animation stu-dio workers and surveys of their working diaries. Film Animation. Dan McLaughlin. Producing Animation. Catherine Winder and Zahra Dowlatabadi. Producing Independent 2D Character Animation: Making and.
Through their outreach, Mplus takes condoms and safe-sex information to places where MSM and transgenders meet for sex to make their usage more acceptable and less stigmatized. Mplus' groundbreaking HIV prevention outreach targets MSM in their 'hide-outs', that is, parks, clubs and public toilets and male sex workers MSW and transgender sex workers in sex venues such as brothels, go-go bars and beats. After the cancellation of the 2nd annual gay pride parade, Mplus was vexed by the rampant public display of inequity, stigma, discrimination and violence towards Chiang Mai's MSM community.
Mplus also worries it could be a factor that leads to the acceleration of violence against MSM and transgenders due to the wide coverage in the local news. Mplus fears a concurrent rise in HIV incidence is possible because they understand the individual vulnerability of MSM and trans genders is closely linked to the social environment where they live, and reflects a level of self-awareness and the potential power or sense of powerlessness to change one's personal behavior Pathfinder International, Collaborating with BABSEA CLE was pivotal because few-to noneof the outreach and prevention workers at Mplus understood what their rights were under Thai law, or the fact that there was a university- based legal clinic they could visit to seek assistance and advice.
Because BABSEA CLE understands that many of the issues faced by the trans gender population where not limited to their diverse community, they viewed these legal and societal problems as a type of break down in the rule of law system in Thailand. The project collaborated to produce the animation as a vehicle to educate transgenders specifically, but also anyone else, who found their rights violated or suffered GBV. The project also exposed and sensitized international interns to a group of marginalized persons often rejected by Thai society.
The collaboration offered these international interns a means to assist in providing some access to justice for the local trans gender and MSM communities.
The project believed that the research for, and production of, the animation with transgenders was squarely within the confines of why the internship program was established. Simultaneously it also reflected the standards proposed by the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Law in Relation to Issues of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity that make it explicit that access to human, civil and legal rights should be extended to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning LGBTQ persons, as it is to non-LGBTQ persons Y ogyakarta Principles, We felt by producing the animation, we would have a screen-based educational resource that has the potential to not only teach transgenders' their rights but also reduce stigma and discrimination around gender identity, sexuality, sex work, and sexual orientation.
[PDF Download] Producing Animation (Focal Press Visual Effects and Animation) [Read] Full Ebook
This is because we believe screen-based digital resources, like animations, resonate with the target populations' experiences across social networking sites and in downloading and sharing music videos. What makes this project unique, is the fact that continuous stakeholder involvement was an integral part of our undertaking for producing and integrating the animation into locally-adapted, community-based peer outreach and prevention programs to promote sexual health, legallhuman rights and access to quality HlV prevention.
Holding steadfast to these principles, the project recruited transgender volunteers, reflective of the diversity of Chiang Mai's transgender population, to participate in all aspects of the production of the animation. The animation is a powerful, context-specific narrative that represents the complex ecologies of transgenders' individual lives.
It presents three separate sexual violence scenarios reflective of transgenders' experiences within and across multiple settings that were negotiated with trans gender participants in focus group discussions.
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The animation, through familiar visuals, sounds and real-life stories, has the power to evoke emotional responses from viewers and is used as a catalyst for conversation in peer outreach. Figure I. The project decided to include three scenarios that were representative of the narratives collected.
One was about the danger of a date rape drug; another was about rape within a relationship and the refusal of the boyfriend to use a condom. The final scenario included a trans gender sex worker. The project came to the decision that although sex work is illegal in Thailand, many trans genders work in the industry because they often find it hard to secure more legitimate work. After the project developed the concept, they scripted and storyboarded the animation.
The diverse participants, including the transgender volunteers from the local community, debated how to visually represent the potentially graphic nature of the rape scenes. Local cultural context and awareness raising were guiding principles. For example, while they agreed not show any nudity, they did not downplay the brutality of rape and its physical and psychological consequences.
For pragmatic and long term partnership building reasons there was also universal consensus to present the police in a positive light, even though not all of the trans genders believed this was an honest portrayal. There was also heated debate about the visual renderings of the transgenders in the animation. It was decided not to describe them in overly feminine ways, because having both masculine and feminine victims would emphasize the universality of the crime of rape and other forms of sexual assault and GBV.
The animation specifically teaches transgenders and anyone else who has suffered sexual violence in Chiang Mai how to report a sexual assault and access free legal counsel at the local university law clinic. PEP is an emergency medical response to reduce the chance of HIV infection following sexual assault or rape. PEP is widely available in Thailand.
This is a vital source of information for any individual who has been raped. The animation is currently being used by Mplus outreach workers and peer educators on mobile phones and MP3 players. The outreach and peer educators are not only able to show the animation, but they use it as a discussion and teaching tool. Importantly, transgender sexworkers can share the animation with other sexworkers before an individual engages in sex work.
We know the diverse population of MSM in Chiang Mai, particularly transgenders, is using the Internet to arrange meetings for sex or to engage in sex work. Through regular outreach, focus groups and social activities, we want to implement online peer outreach programmes because the Internet has proven crucial in reaching MSM, as a channel for education, a social outlet, and an HIV outreach opportunity.
We understand transgenders have specific health related needs, but often feel uncomfortable going to conventional public sector health services with their problems.
It is anticipated the online peer outreach programme will provide a new viable network to link trans genders to friendly health services in their community while also mobilizing them as a group by creating on online community of practice.
Wenger et. We are hoping, though an online peer outreach and prevention programme, to promote a transgender community of practice-or alliance-where individuals are encouraged to share not only their struggles, but also interact regularly and share common beliefs about safe sex practices and negotiating condom use. After an initial workshop with RFSL in late , we have identified the communities of transgenders we want to provide outreach to.
They include any transgendered females residing in upper northern Thailand aged who use online communities, chatrooms and forums, as well as sex workers. We have also identified the areas of problems which could be solvedlhelped through an on-line intervention in terms of legal issues, access to health services and sexual health.
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We have also identified the different commercial on- line arenas which we think might be a good place to launch an intervention. Working with diverse trans genders from across Thailand who attended the workshop, we also came up with a plan on how to recruit and train online peer outreach workers. Finally, we also brainstormed what would count as quality assurance and produced a referral list of possible services we might need to direct users to.
This is an example of the project working in partnership with the transgender community in Chiang Mai, instead of working with the population being studied as 'research subjects. As the project moves to further develop and implement the peer-education program, we view the sexual and legal rights animation as a fundamental resource that will provide trans genders with scenarios, context specific to their location.
The animation will provide the catalyst for transgenders and other MSM to ask questions about sexual violence, safe sex, testing, and PEP. A significant proportion of the population have mobile phone access and there are a range of innovative and low cost ways in which mobile phones can be used to disseminate information and link individuals to a wide range of services.
Queered standards: Living and working for peace and justice in Julie Andrzejewski, M. Baltodano and L.
Symcox eds. Social Justice, Peace, and Environmental Education: Transformative Standards. Routledge, Nemoto, T. HIV risk behaviors among transgender kathoey sex workers in Bnagkok Thailand. Available at www. Pathfinder International Decreasing Stigma through Quality Services. Available at http: It winds up taking all their energy.
The film comes out, and the effects look great, but the story sucks. We have some amazing technical abilities. But we still have to rely on good old-fashioned storytelling. We have a cooperative working environment and a non-hierarchical culture whereby each member of the creative team, regardless of position or department, considers the ideas of any other member of the team.
This with the collaborative atmosphere helps the organization to bind together in the making of the feature. We might attribute it to their native creative skills, complemented by the right environment.
Task Partitioning and Clusters Based on the production process we have outlined, it is very clear that creativity is located both at the top of the organization or project in terms of vision, as well as at the bottom, in terms of how a collaborative process is used to solicit bottom up input from staff.
The production of the high end of animation, such as 3D feature films, is not outsourced yet, possibly because there are so few firms with that level of capability. On top of that, the cost of production is very high. Firms like Pixar tend to keep their capabilities in house. In this way, movies can also be thought of as being made in the same way as games and high end animations - a set of decomposable scenes that are linked together.
At the same time, the development process is full of regular viewings where scenes that have been developed are viewed by the directors and the responsible staff.
These periods also form natural clusters in time , and can involve frequent script, model and other changes, suggesting the need for production to be done in house.
A technical director needs to have a strong graphics background with grounding in the standard packages, as well as a technical art background possessing familiarity with technical aspects of digital art, and a programming background, or at least, an ability to work with scripted languages. This ensures that each team member can be interface with the rest of the many skilled team. From the above descriptions, we can also speculate that in a studio like Pixar, the core creative activities are formed around groups that engage in either certain high level tasks or componentized lower level tasks.
As we have indicated and will discuss further later , the complexity of dealing with these task clusters tacitly, as well as new technological features and storylines simultaneously. The Political Economy of Animation Outsourcing: What Actually Happened in the Philippines Our framework established a basis for understanding not only why some firms like Pixar do not outsource, but also how for instance, some parts of the production process can be outsourced in 2D animation.
Now, we turn to a discussion of how outsourcing has actually taken place. The Philippines is one of the more illustrative cases, since it has a long track record of animation, and has gone through a major business cycle with its clients. How the process occurred in the Philippines might suggest a broader model for what happens with lower end outsourcing to developing countries.
Regular Filipino artists can draw 24 to 30 drawings — equal to two to three seconds of animation — a day, and they are paid much less than animators in Los Angeles or Tokyo. Exposure to foreign production, training abroad, and foreign assistance were important factors behind the emergence of an animation tradition in countries such as China, Japan, Korea, and India.
In all such instances, however, Asian artists only adopted those elements that fit their own culture, although this strategy was probably more pronounced in China, especially after , and Japan than elsewhere. In the Philippines animation began as early as the s — primarily to promote products through animated advertisements. In , a minute animated feature based on a local folklore called The Adventures of Lam-Ang was produced.
Many local studios were set up by expatriates with the production process knowledge as well as international contacts. In , Burbank Studios, an Australian owned company, was the first to sub-contract animation production in the country, setting up a studio in Manila to which it provided initial training.
Although after a couple of years most staff was indigenous, the top managerial positions were kept in Australian hands. In the late s, the global TV industry experienced financial distress, large networks went bankrupt, and the animation industry suffered a deep slump.
The Philippines were among the hardest hit as Warner Brothers and Disney closed shop and transferred animation work to China and India where labor was considerably cheaper. The recovery begun in and gathered momentum in as the number of animation projects rose.
Services include pre-production on storyboard, character design, background design, props design, layout keys, sheet direction, slugging, track reading, and special effects. Most of the output of the industry is exported. Currently, there are 24 animation firms in the country employing some 2, artists. Labor is competitively priced — relatively to the United States, percent cheaper for 2D and 30 percent lower for 3D.
In recent years, international competition amongst suppliers has also been strong. The lower costs in India have been attractive to foreign clients. However, in creative industries more than elsewhere, a business strategy excessively focused on cost-containment risks jeopardizing the attainment of quality goals. Additionally, cost control may clash with the need to ensure delivery of reliable products according to tight meeting deadlines.
Thus, it is sometimes debated that the Indian studios are not yet mature, and may stand the risk of passing mediocre work to a client in order to avoid missing deadlines.
This is something that substantially increases the final cost as the episode has to be re-taken or revised. Already, one large Indian animation company — Pentafour — has developed three animated feature films, one of them co-funded by the Singapore government.
The re-take rate is very high in India and now studios rely on Filipino animators for revisions and trouble shooting. Philippine studios argue that it would have been better if the projects went straight to them so that there would be fewer problems.
Insofar as the foreign producers have learned their lessons, they are now slowly coming back to the Philippines. The animation industry is classified in the same priority list as call centers, medical transcription, backroom services and software development.
On this occasion DTI and the Animation Council of the Philippines also launched an annual amateur competition — Animazing Shorts — with assistance from Intel Philippines and the local distributor of the Maya animation Software 4.
The Competitive Advantages of Filipino Firms In this section we sketch the record of outsourcing and the potential for upgrading on the basis of the findings from a series of semi-structured interviews with several major studios and several smaller studios, held in Manila in March-April , aimed at exploring their history, the role of foreign partners and talent in enhancing technical competencies, gaining market knowledge, and overcoming financial bottlenecks.
These findings were later corroborated by examining the existing literature in trade magazines and by our primary interviews as well as secondary interviews in the trade literature with industry professionals from the more developed markets. Foreign ownership or leadership is considerable, and has provided Philippines-based studios with the contacts, credibility to foreign buyers, including both production studios and TV chains , finance, and production and creative expertise.
Toei Japan has decided to entrust 60 percent of its total animation work to its Philippine subsidiary, and the staff level rose from employees in to Animation, a studio specializing in 3D three-dimensional digital animation. Along with these, there are numerous other smaller companies.
In recent years, some of the major studios that had been owned by or captive to larger foreign studios have now branched out to seek work on their own worldwide through their networks.
Once they see our work then we are sure to convince them. But it is hard to convince them based on image alone. Then, in , Ibong Adarna, based on Filipino folklore, became the first wide- screen full-length commercial animated film. This sort of upgrading has required surmounting a number of obstacles.
It took 18 months to finish the episode series when normally it would have taken only six months. The first thing was to persuade artists to share the risk of product development by charging below-market rates for preparing samples.
Top Peg successfully played the card of this being a Filipino-owned animation and a Filipino investor was impressed to see the work-in- progress and decided to invest in the project until it was completed. The series is currently aired primetime on Philippine TV and plans are underway for its broadcast in several Asian TV networks.
Attracting local investors and developing a Philippines or regional Asian market for local animation appear to be some of the major challenges. While foreign investors and clients have in the past built longer-term relationships and contracts with studios in the Philippines, recent events have turned that option around. Disney has shuttered its windows at its overseas Japan, Paris offices as well as its Orlando, US studio , and loosened its former exclusive agreement with ToonCity, its affiliate in the Philippines.
The impact of technology can also be seen clearly in the Philippines, especially with regards to 2D work. Projects that we interviewed had reduced their artist and animator staffing by factors of several times or more with digital ink and paint and other animation technologies. Flash software is also helping web sites and studios alike to develop simple animation content at lower cost.
As a result, many studios are gearing up to work with Flash. Local firms have had trouble keeping a foothold with these conditions. Size is also a problem as existing small players neither have the resources nor the courage to build an international business. Local firms look with some admiration at the Indian animation industry, which has the benefit of being linked financially and otherwise to its booking software services industry. The Partitioning of Creativity and Knowledge-based Theories of the Firm In this paper we have shown how in the contemporary global economy two sets of industrial dynamics may emerge and coexist.
We have also indicated that under given circumstances developing countries can attract considerable foreign direct investment, although we cautioned against fairytale predictions on the impact of this process on industrial upgrading.
However, we have still not adequately justified why companies like Pixar do not outsource. This section presents a theoretical justification of why such creative work is not outsourced, using the context of the existing literature on knowledge. We propose a distinction that draws on the differences seen in the creative problem-solving tradition and Taylorist forms of division of labor. Based on our secondary and interview evidence from the animation industry, we find it useful to distinguish between mechanistic and creative work.
Firstly, it is worth recapping what animation can be outsourced. The strong divisibility of the production process into creative work and more mechanistic elements underscores the potential for outsourcing.
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Task partitioning is easier for conventional animation applications such as serial TV cartoons, which is why outsourcing takes place in the 2D space although 3D cartoons are also outsourced these days. This in part has to do with the structure of the industry. Many TV studios did not have internal expertise, and served as distributors of content.
The studios that outsource 2D production tend to hold on to the conceptual, pre- production and production stages, and outsource only the costly, labor-intensive production stage. The production stage is outsourced using two types of activities: coordination mechanisms and specifications. Timing, model, and color sheets are used to specific the exact number of seconds and exact ways in which a scene and elements within it should look and unfold.
Coordination is part of the perceived overall use of information-communication technology in development Steinmuller In the project context, coordination is also necessary to communicate intent, as well as to ensure that schedules are kept, and that work is coordinated, and that specifications are delivered and adhered to.
Other explanations have been forwarded as to why less 3D is outsourced. The standard explanation is that the 3D industry is not mature enough, but in the future, could possibly be standardized enough to entertain outsourcing. Rather, its advantage and risk minimizing strategy is in how it manages to integrate its content production in ways attractive to audiences. This can be done only with a unique, organic and complex production 31 Winder and Dowlatabadi , p.
This relates to the distinction between general and abstract knowledge introduced by Arora and Gambardella , which is used to understand what underlies the scientific division of labor. Rather, it is the use of general principles of 3D animation, extended and applied in the animation feature context that is giving Pixar its lead in film- making.
Even so, this firm-specific capability, which is obviously far less amenable to outsourcing, is still not the creative part of the production process. Knowledge-based Limits to Upgrading Capability To further identify what types of knowledge are actually outsourced or needed for a project to be kept in house, we can also delve into the creative process.
There have been other revisits to the basic conceptions of knowledge, but many tend to focus on the problems inherent in the tacit-explicit distinction Ancori et al. Another recent suggestion that attempts to break away from this is to look at the social context for the evolution of knowledge Nelson and Nelson It is in this latter vein that our proposed typology of knowledge fits in. This is the combination of base contextual knowledge with some creative thinking processes and the stimulants themselves.
These are the learnt and experienced artistic techniques. While it may be argued that the Philippines and other developing countries can attain the same level of sophistication in artistic techniques as US animators, we argue that in fact, what the 32 Examples of this include the desire of Pixar to add textures to Monsters Inc. Even the simulation of dust in Toy Story 2 was a major technological feature, which was woven into the storyline. These can be considered the mechanistic parts of the knowledge base, or to phrase in different terms, the codifiable knowledge.
These are not easily transferable because they involve a great deal of context, and hence, make it hard to transfer the very creative parts of the work i. It can be argued that to do front end conceptualization work, it is necessary for the artist in the developing country to intimately know either what the international or domestic market wants and can bear.
We argue that this situation is one reason why the Philippines industry has found itself unable to truly scale the value chain in animation, and to become more than simply temporary partners in a generally very shaky animation market.
National authorities like to think that Filipino artists have the ability to internalize storylines and concepts for better art execution due to their exposure to a multi-cultural environment.
The problem with upgrading in high- tech products is that there was always something that could be better done, either by developing technology to improve minimize cost and increase productivity of process, which was done by Taiwanese and other contract manufacturers, or to move towards product development, itself a fairly well defined.
In animation on the other hand, to focus on artistic skills is not to participate in the evolving technologically-enhanced world of a Pixar. Furthermore, studios in the West are unlikely to release their hold on the crown jewels of conceptualization to developing country artists. Consumers are too fickle, and audience responses too unpredictable, for them to take these risks. Generally speaking, even though wages have been good, the seasonal nature of animation work and lack of longer term employment security is a problem with animators in both the US and other countries.
The problem of increasing labor costs was exacerbated by the absence of institutionalized training programs for animators. A vicious circle has emerged, whereby Filipino animators adopt a freelance mentality — not seeing the value in staying in a company — and employees have stopped training animators.
Technological changes i. Although there are multimedia courses, the emphasis is on the technical side and they offer very little animation training.
In partial response to the problems in the global animation market, and perhaps in recognition that they are being consigned to mechanistic work while the foreign studios will continue to keep control of the more creative work i.
One solution was to try to develop local content for schools and TV. At least a couple of local attempts to do so have occurred, but the general lack of capital and the lack of a institutional support may constrain these efforts. To address this, the industry has also called for legal measures that can replicate the model already in place for Filipino songs, which would require local TV stations to regularly air locally-produced cartoons.
Existing regulatory impediments should also be removed.
Taxes on software and hardware as well as long clearing times make it expensive for animation studios to upgrade their computer systems. The advent of more inexpensive and flexible software programs for animation like Macromedia Flash and lowering of costs in other packages, e. Conclusions We have presented two faces of the animation industry: one at the very high end of 3D animation, as represented by Pixar, with all its internal technology development and total self-sufficiency in content development; and another, as represented by various studios in the Philippines doing 2D cartoon animation as contractors.
Essentially, the technology-driven nature of Pixar, and the need for constant creative interaction dictate an in-house approach to production. The model is also not a guarantee in an industry where hits and misses cannot not forecasted, even up to the point when the product is released. We have also illustrated how animation outsourcing occurs.
It now appears that when labor- intensive production processes mature, along with substantial mechanisms for coordination and specifications, production can be located almost anywhere. In our second model, we also illustrated how political economy shapes the outsourcing pattern in the Philippines. Philippine executives and officials have often argued that while Asian competitors offer animation services at lower prices, the Philippines boasts a cultural affinity to clients.
However, this has not been enough to protect the industry from the vagaries of the markets, and especially from itself, when wages went far higher than the market could sustain.
The entrance of new players like India and China who work much more cheaply, combined with the Philippines too high wages, has caught the Philippines industry in a squeeze. In addition to this, there is a deep divide between these two cases of the animation industry. The Philippines studios are essentially doing less creative work, and will not likely soon have the opportunity to participate in the conceptualization stage of creative production for global 36 The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Tesda is actually researching the animation industry in order to certify the animation program.
According to artists, the problem is the tendency to liken animation to technical courses and to downplay the importance of fine arts. The Pixar model is too capital- and technology-intensive to be located elsewhere. It also involves creative and conceptualization skills which are still lacking in most places, even in the U. Pixar is also using technology to improve productivity, and this will almost certainly work against outsourcing and the hopes that export oriented countries have.
Local creative advantages are somewhat muted by these effects. There is the hope that if more front end work is to be outsourced, or if the Philippines can find its own properties that have a global or regional sales appeal, they could do well in the US like some Japanese firms. This however takes financial resources, fairly significant domestic market power, and the right blend of creativity and appreciation for what markets want i.
Ancori, Bernard, A. Bureth and P. Cohondet Aoyama, Yuko and Hiro Izushi According to globalization priests such as Thomas Friedman, writing code, maintaining computer systems and trouble-shooting consumer complaints over the phone could become a springboard for growth in India and other prime locations. Look up animation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Kanye West talks producing new album of "Rihanna" on the grammy's. While the pedagogical approach and educational outcomes of the use of animation for education have been extensively reported, few studies describe the collaborative in-house development of such resources by academics and students 5.
For animated features, pre-production may be more elaborate and iterative. Holding steadfast to these principles, the project recruited transgender volunteers, reflective of the diversity of Chiang Mai's transgender population, to participate in all aspects of the production of the animation.
No where was this more evident than in the Lord of the Rings trilogy: All three movies used CG effects extensively for the main battle scenes, redefining the notion of what assets are needed for epic scenes or to define a movie. Students were encouraged to create new and appropriate metaphors to illuminate immunological concepts whilst retaining specific, non-negotiable, basic process descriptions. Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement.
These are used to create a production plan, including issues of resources, roles, logistics, schedules, and manning.