NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY OF THE RUMINANT PDF
Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant Read Online · Download PDF; Save; Cite this Item Until the s the study of ruminant nutrition stood apart from the rest of nutrition science, which had little appreciation for the 2 Nutritional Concepts. He has extended precepts of ruminant nutritional ecology to such distant adaptations as the giant panda and streamlined conceptual issues in a clearer logical. PDF | 1. Two contrasting explanations of niche separation in ruminants emphasize the importance of body mass-related trends in energy.
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The library was established in Rome at the FAO Conference, according to the decisions of the Conference. It was named David Lubin Memorial. This monumental text-reference places in clear persepctive the importance of nutritional assessments to the ecology and biology of ruminants and other. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. Second edition, Peter resourceone.info Soest, Cornstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Eage House, East.
Eventually all MCP will flow down to the lower gastrointestinal tract where it will be digested and absorbed at the level of the small intestine. The RUP escapes rumen degradation and flows to the small intestine where it too is digested and absorbed.
Milk urea nitrogen MUN levels can provide producers information regarding over or underfeeding of protein. Because protein is usually the most expensive component in the ration dietary excesses are not desirable in either an economic and environmental sense.
Phosphorous Phosphorous P in feedstuffs is not utilized efficiently in ruminants. This, coupled with higher than needed requirements due to misplaced concerns over reproductive and production performance has led to overfeeding of P in dairy rations. A significant amount of dietary P is excreted in the manure, which has led to accumulating levels of soil P.
Also of interest
The current dietary P recommendation for dairy cattle has been reduced below the NRC recommendations to 0. It is recommended that mineral analysis on feeds be done using wet chemistry instead of NIR. Note Meeting, but not exceeding dietary requirements maximizes production and hence profit potential and minimizes soil, water, and atmospheric impacts.
Resources Federation of Animal Science Society. Invasive species Human-caused habitat disturbance has been associated with an increased likelihood of invasion of communities by non-native species Hobbs and Huenneke, , such as large oil well sites which increase the presence of non-native plants Preston, Some now invasive species were even purposely planted as food for wildlife Kaufman and Kaufman, , even though native plants are often nutritionally better for herbivores than introduced species Applegate, This alters prey abundance, but the direction of this effect will depend on whether invaders affect common or rare native species Powell et al.
Introduced species can also affect the diet quality of their consumers, but this effect will depend on how the ratio of nutrients and secondary compounds differs between native and introduced prey Maerz et al. Introduced species can have diverse effects on species interactions. A famous example of a successful invasive species is the Eurasian zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha.
Zebra mussels modify the concentration of nutrients and the community of algae in whole ecosystems Caraco et al. In Australia, toxic cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to deal with plant pests, but their presence has had many unintended consequences.
For example, northern trout gudgeon Mogurnda mogurnda exposed to cane toad tadpoles showed reduced rate of consumption of native tadpoles Nelson et al.
However, there has been a lack of study focused on the nutritional effects on native animals beyond simple consumption, and none linking these effects to fitness. Anthropogenic disturbances Human disturbance can modify feeding strategies through increased nocturnal illumination and acoustic disturbances. Natural lighting cycles affect foraging in a wide variety of species reviewed in Navara and Nelson, and so it should be no surprise that artificial lighting changes these behaviours, especially as it can exceed the intensity of any natural lunar phase Cinzano et al.
Both prey and predators are affected by artificial light. Insects are readily attracted to nocturnal lights, and this is changing not only the abundance but also the species composition of this prey base Davies et al.
Nutritional Ecology of Grazing and Browsing Ruminants
Some prey reduce foraging under lights Kotler, ; Contor and Griffith, ; Brown et al. Similarly, night lighting may impair the vision of some predators Buchanan, while others are more active and use the increased visibility Yurk and Trites, ; Rich and Longcore, which may change their distribution in the environment Montevecchi, However, when the light itself mimics a foraging cue, individuals may not possess the flexibility to change their behaviour Schlaepfer et al.
For example, juveniles of many seabird species are drawn to lights, possibly because they resemble their bioluminescent prey Montevecchi, —a clearly maladaptive response.
In general, the severity of the effects of artificial illumination will depend on the trade-off between predation, foraging and competition, whether the species are naturally nocturnal or diurnal, and whether these new cues trigger previously adaptive responses. Acoustic disturbance has increased drastically over the past century, affecting communication in urban populations Birnie-Gauvin et al.
This form of feeding disturbance is especially detrimental to animals that rely on acoustic cues to locate food items. For example, sonar-using greater mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis spend less time foraging when exposed to traffic noise Jones, However, some species have the ability to cope with noise pollution.
For example, the foraging behaviour i. In fact, whale behaviour appeared to be more closely related to prey abundance than to acoustic disturbance Croll et al. When noise causes individuals to shift attention, foraging often suffers.
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For example, noise led chaffinches Fringilla coelebs to increase vigilance scanning for predators and decrease food intake Quinn et al. However, if specialists are also more efficient at foraging, additional time dedicated to detecting predators may be more costly to generalist species Chan and Blumstein, The contrasting results from studies that investigate the effects of noise on feeding behaviour suggests that depending on the feeding nature of organisms, they may be affected differently and to varying degree.
Many reviews have suggested that foraging is affected by noise Kight and Swaddle, ; Francis and Barber, , but few studies have made direct links to nutrition. Another important form of disturbance is the very presence of humans, which is presumably the most direct form of anthropogenic disturbance for wild organisms and generally results in an energy cost Houston et al.
This may come in the form of hunting, horseback riding, biking, hiking, camping, swimming, fishing, skiing, photographers, or observers Cole and Knight, ; Boyle and Samson, ; Knight and Gutzwiller, ; Hammitt et al. The effects of such recreational activities on nutrition have seldom been investigated, but behaviour can be highly affected by human presence. For example, the presence of observers near the territories of European oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus led to less time spent foraging and reduced food intake for the parents, and decreased the proportion of food allocated to the chicks Verhulst et al.
However, brown bears Ursus arctos showed minimal effects of human presence as they altered their behaviour to maintain food intake and body condition Rode et al. Yet the same species of bear decreased their foraging activity and fed on berries of poorer quality when hunting risk was high Hertel et al.
When endangered Amur tigers Panthera tigris altaica were disturbed, they often abandoned kills, spent less time at the kill when they stayed and consumed less meat Kerley et al. Elk Cervus elaphus fled in response to skiers, often moving upslope to areas with poorer quality vegetation Frances Cassirer et al.
Bald eagles Haliaetus leucocephalus rarely fed at salmon carcasses when disturbed while glaucous-winged gulls Larus glaucescens fed more, indicating gulls were more wary of the dominant heterospecific than of people Skagen et al.
Disturbance also led to changes in temporal feeding activity of bald eagles, crows and ravens Knight et al. Responses to people may also differ between the sexes. Female brown bears with young prioritize avoidance of male bears over avoidance of humans, while male site use was linked to prey availability Rode et al. The presence of people often results in behavioural modifications in feeding activity or location that may result in poorer body condition and lower reproductive success in animals that are sensitive to this presence.
Human-provisioned food sources In urban areas, humans often provide a source of food for many wild animals, both inadvertently e. In most industrialized countries, these foods have a high level of predictability both spatially and temporally Chamberlain et al. Such food provisioning may affect food webs and communities, changing competitive and predator-prey interactions and nutrient transfer processes reviewed in Oro et al.
Unintentional food provisioning usually involves refuse sites dumps, middens, harvest discards, etc. Many cosmopolitan opportunistic species such as gulls, rats and foxes have benefited greatly from these food subsidies, showing improved body condition and reduced susceptibility to pathogens reviewed in Carey et al.
Vervet monkeys Chlorocebus pygerythrus spent less time foraging and had higher reproduction but also increased aggression while feeding on garbage Lee et al. In other cases, food provisioning is not beneficial.
During the non-breeding season seabirds can use bycatch and still meet their own nutritional needs, but when breeding commences females need to consume pelagic prey due to the energetic requirements of egg formation Louzao et al. Unintentional provisioning may also include cultivated fruit trees, compost and dropped bird seed, all of which are highly attractive to urban wildlife reviewed in Murray et al. These low-protein but easily accessible foods may either cause poor health or be used by animals already in poor health, increasing the likelihood of human-wildlife conflicts Murray et al.
Human food sources can also increase interactions among wildlife. When food left at campsites attracts flocks of carnivores and omnivores, small-bodied herbivores may be excluded from the area Densmore and French, Thus the extent, timing and quality of human-provisioned resources will determine the effects of using this alternative prey. Wildlife tourism is an important source of income for many countries Braithwaite, and can be a motivation for intentional feeding reviewed in Orams, However, this form of interaction can be highly detrimental to wildlife Murray et al.
For example, both stingrays Semeniuk et al. Moreover, interactions at food sources can lead to increased risk of injury for animals, as is observed in chacma baboons Papio ursinus where these injuries also hindered their foraging efficiency Beamish, The feeding of wildlife can also cause an aggregation of individuals at feeding sites Newsome and Rodger, , potentially reducing food intake per individual through competition Raman, Even backyard feeding of birds can affect subsequent reproduction Ruffino et al.
Provisioned food may even have unpredictable effects on nutrition when it interacts with other components of the diet. For example, white-tailed deer supplemented with hay and corn consumed less digestible energy in areas where they also consumed lichen which reduces feed retention times Page and Underwood, Humans enjoy being in close contact with animals, but when this involves feeding wildlife, the health of the wildlife is often of secondary importance.Nitrogen Metabolism He has extended precepts of ruminant nutritional ecology to such distant adaptations as the giant panda and streamlined conceptual issues in a clearer logical progression, with emphasis on mechanistic causal interrelationships.
Detailed info This monumental text-reference places in clear persepctive the importance of nutritional assessments to the ecology and biology of ruminants and other nonruminant herbivorous mammals. Also of interest. Van Soest covers are nutritional constraints, mineral nutrition, rumen fermentation, microbial ecology, utilization of fibrous carbohydrates, application of ruminant precepts to fermentive digestion in nonruminants, as well as taxonomy, evolution, nonruminant competitors, gastrointestinal anatomies, feeding behavior, and problems fo animal size.
Nature—New Biol — Related articles in Google Scholar.
Pollution Changes in animal behaviour can occur at concentrations of chemicals lower than can cause mortality Little and Finger, and may affect foraging decisions Scott and Sloman, ; Vaughan et al.
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