NORTHERN LIGHTS PHILIP PULLMAN PDF
The right of Philip Pullman to be identified as the author and illustrator of this NORTHERN LIGHTS; the universe we know; and a third universe, which differs. PRAISE FOR PHILIP PULLMAN'S The Shadow in the North Compass was originally published under the title His Dark Materials I: Northern Lights in Great. Northern Lights (His Dark Materials) by Philip Pullman; 4 editions; First published in ; Subjects: In library.
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Download The Golden Compass Northern Lights Pdf Book By Philip Pullman. Author: Pullman Philip. downloads Views KB Size Report The Golden Compass (Northern Lights). Read more · 1 - The Golden Compass (v). Philip Pullman Author cover image of Once Upon a Time in the North cover image of The Science of Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials Northern Lights.
His Dark Materials trilogy is certainly the highlight of Philip Pullman's writing career; it launched him among the fifty greatest British writers since 1 according to The Times, but also prompted the critics to claim he is the most dangerous author in Britain and "the one the atheists would hav e been pray ing for, if atheists pray ed" Hitchens This paper aims to ex plore the aspects of His Dark Materials which div ided opinions and attracted a barrage of criticism.
It introduces the concepts of religious and literary canon and illustrates their intertwinement through a brief ov erv iew of British literature classics, Milton and Blake. The main focus, howev er, is placed on the employ ment of v arious literary strategies in transferring the Judeo-Christian canon into fantasy fiction and subv erting Roman-Catholic dogmatic principles in His Dark Materials. These are presented and discussed on the ex amples of the Creation my th, the Fall of the man, life after death, the image of God and the notion of the Kingdom of Heav en.
Pullman's portray al of the Roman-Catholic Church is also ex amined, the emphasis being placed on the features of its hierarchical structure, ex cluding policies and, generally the social role of organised religion and its significance for the indiv idual.
Key words: But w e need heaven nonetheless. Introduction In the final v olume of the fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials was published in London. Although it was only after New Line Cinema announced the film adaptation that it attracted world wide attention, it is undeniable that Pullman's work made an immense contribution not only to children's literature, but to British literature in general.
The fact that Pullman was the first children's author to receiv e The Whitbread Award, as well as the sales of more than 1 5 million, speak in fav our of the significance his work. Howev er, because of his public outbursts against the boy cotters of his works, Pullman came under strident criticism.
Unconv entional usage of traditional religious and Church-related concepts as literary dev ices brought into question his integrity as an author and designated him as a ferv ent atheist. The central aim of this paper is to show how Pullman uses v arious religious concepts, which are mainly related to Christian tradition and doctrines. The resonant imagery of His Dark Materials carries numerous canonical references, primarily from the Bible, but also from Milton's Paradise Lost and the works of William Blake.
Pullman employ s different strategies throughout the v olumes to introduce these, somewhat dogmatic, precepts; they are either rewritten in a way that casts new light upon the matters they relate to or are presented unaltered per se, but in a completely new contex t that enables a different, allegorical reading of the canonical item.
This paper opens with a short ex plication of the religious canon, followed by ex amples of its subv ersion in His Dark Materials. Special emphasis is placed on the transfer and modification of the traditional Christian religious concepts into fantasy fiction contex t and a relativ ely critical replica of the Catholic Church in His Dark Materials.
On Religious and Literary Canon When dealing with elements of religious canon, it is necessary to differentiate it clearly from the literary canon. The major distinction can be noted in the process of canon formation. The religious canon, when once established, is thereafter fix ed, whereas the literary canon can be subject to ceaseless flux.
Also, there is a wide div ergence between their appositeness. Despite these dissimilarities, religious and literary canons are closely intertwined: These transformations that occur during the artistic transfer can be perceiv ed as tools for depicting socio- political circumstances and v iews the author holds as well as a dev ice for reshaping the notion of religious identities. Judeo-Christian concepts are certainly the most frequently employ ed elements of religious canons.
The motiv es in the Old and the New Testament impelled the works of many authors and in a way influenced the shaping of literary canon as well.
In order to illustrate this, works of John Milton and William Blake will be presented in the contex t of literary subv ersion of the religious canon. These two authors are also of importance for the study , since they prov ided Pullman with inspiration and incentiv e to write His Dark Materials trilogy.
John Milton: Milton is often referred to as "the greatest English author" and his epic poem Paradise Lost as one of the greatest poems of the English language. To tell the story of man's first disobedience he inv ocates: Milton I, The focus will here be placed on the Act of Creation, Adam and Ev e's marriage and the character of Satan. The Creation of Man The biblical Genesis presents the Creation of man as the final stage, the crown of God's perfect project. Man is created with lov e and purpose - to be the image of God and to gov ern His other creations.
Milton's Creation is equiv alent to the biblical in terms of mechanics, it is the omnipotent Creator who employ ed his power and made man be. Howev er, the div ine agenda is altered in two major points.
Firstly , the biblical man is created to complete the otherwise perfect work of God; he is the final asset to his v ision or earthly world. On the contrary , Milton's man is a creation, a project himself, formed to spite the Chaos.
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Secondly , the Bible rev eals that God wanted a being similar to Himself, His reflection and image, and therefore created man. In Paradise Lost "God creates mankind to replace ev entually the emptiness in Heav en left when the rebel angels were cast out" Hajiy ev a 1 , 31 , and man is giv en the role of a candidate - if he obey s God's will, he will ev entually be eligible for Heav en, to substitute those who were ex pelled.
Adam and Eve Milton has been frequently accused of misogy ny in relation to the perspectiv e of gender issue he delineated in Paradise Lost.
His Adam is created powerful and rational; a being capable of gov erning what God had left in his charge. Ev e is in many way s inferior to Adam, but he can not resist her beauty. It is debated whether Ev e is presented as Adam's intellectual underling, and Brodwin giv es an interesting proposal that "Ev e is created inferior to Adam not in intelligence Erickson notes that "Milton augments Ev e's image, giv ing innumerable insights into her personality and character" and portray s Adam "v ery much along traditional theological lines" 1 , 1 Further ex ploration of her character rev eals arrogance, greed, lust, and wrath; she is "the v ehicle through which Adam meets ev il" Erickson 1 , 1 7 0.
Another untraditional and far from canon element is Adam and Ev e's relationship. Their marital affairs are presented for the first time in an ordinary , human-like way. Ev en though sharply contrasted, Milton truly portray s them as a couple, rather than separate entities liv ing in Paradise.
The Dark Prince is not merely a mindless v illain, with nothing but bestial destruction on his mind. On the contrary , Milton chooses to characterise him almost as a Romantic hero. Satan's remarkable intelligence, great boldness and fiery passion significantly detract from the deprav ity of his agenda; his spirit compels admiration and respect.
The superior strength of his character lies in the ex traordinary oratorical skills he ex hibits on v arious occasions throughout the poem. It is precisely the persuasiv e speeches Satan deliv ers that set the plot into motion, and entice the actions of other characters.
Waldock, E. Stoll, G. Hamilton, William Empson, him almost as a Romantic hero. Lewis, S. Musgrov e and Stanley Fish. Falcone great boldness and fiery 1 notes that Satan's ambiv alence is not epitomised by a passion significantly struggle between good or ev il, but in the notion of his freedom. For agenda Here at least We shall be free; th' Almighty hath not built Here for his env y , will not driv e us hence: Here we may reign secure, and in my choice To reign is worth ambition though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell, than serv e in Heav 'n.
Milton I, 2. William Blake: His poetry elucidates his v iews on creation and the notion of God, the fall of man, the arriv al of the Messiah and the last judgement. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience delineates "Blake's theological and my thological dev elopment which culminated in a belief sy stem both radical and deeply spiritual, causing some to dismiss his works as lunatic rantings" V ines , 1 1 6. Blake portray s innocence as a concurrence of energy , poetry and God, and experience as the "inv asion and subsequent enslav ement of imagination by reason", which brought on man's ex pulsion from Eden Malcomson 1 When analy sing Blake's works, Northrop Fry e 1 , 1 suggests that, according to Blake, all of God's doings come through man, v ia his imagination and consciousness.
Blake rejects the notion of a human soul superior to the body and proposes that "the Eternal Body of Man is The Imagination.
That is, God himself" Blake, 27 3. Man's God-likeness is contrasted with the cruelty of institutions, such as the Church and the State, since they come between man and God.
In embracing religion and discarding religiosity , "Blake sought to challenge the collapse in society 's v alues, to rev erse the decent into the godless aby ss of reason and to reunite an intrinsically holy humanity with its creator" V ines , 1 His literary striv ings were aimed against the interpretation of the religious canon in his time and, therefore, do not present only a subv ersion of the canon, but also of the societal circumstances he wrote in.
Religious Canon in His Dark Materials 3. Howev er, Milton's objectiv e was to "justify the way s of God to men" and ex plicate the clash between God's infinite prudence and man's right to ex ercise free will. Whereas Pullman, despite hav ing publicly declared that his "books are about killing God", and that he is "try ing to undermine the basis of Christian belief", concludes humbly: My intention is to tell a story - in the first place because the story comes to me and wants to be told.
The central theme is the eternal battle between Good and Ev il, Light and Darkness. The Catholic Church hierarchy is caricatured, as well as any form of organized religion in general, with its doctrines and public attitudes. Although this creation my th underlies the whole trilogy from the v ery beginning, it only becomes ex plicit to a higher degree in the last v olume. He was nev er the creator. He was an angel like ourselv es, the first angel, true, the most powerful, but he was formed of Dust as we are, and Dust is only a name for what happens when matter begins to understand itself.
Matter lov es matter. It seeks to know more about itself, and Dust is formed.
The first angels condensed out of Dust, and the Authority was the first of all. He told those who came after him that he had created them, but it was a lie.
Namely , Pullman was nev er reserv ed when it came to his religious v iews: There's no God here. There nev er was. But if y ou go out into the v astness of space, well, I'm not so sure. On that lev el, I'm an agnostic. But, it is not Pullman's atheism or agnosticism for that matter, that agitate zealous Christians so much; it is the fact that he calls "The Authority , God, the Creator, the Lord, Y ahweh, El Adonai, the King, the Father, the Almighty " an imposter, a liar and self-proclaimed creator.
This effect is ev en enhanced when one notes that Pullman does not make ex plicit references to the Creation from Genesis here, but simply adds a prequel, so to say. He proposes the ex istence of the Matter which became self-conscious and ev entually created Dust - an embodiment and indication of reason. It is interesting how Pullman's Dust stands in a sharp contrast to God's Dust, an omen of sin and an eternal flaw in man: Also, it could be compared to the description of Creation in the Book of John: If the notion of the Word is compared, or ev en equalled, to the Dust, an inv ersion becomes apparent: Accordingly , Pullman's representation of the creation my th can be interpreted dichotomously.
It might be perceiv ed, on the one hand, as a case of malicious transposition of the narrativ e's elements or, on the other, merely as a radical change in perspectiv e.
His adroit juggle with this part of religious canon is multi-lay ered and includes sev eral related elements: The tex t from Genesis, the story of "how sin came into the world, sin and shame and death" is discarded as a fairy tale imposed by the Church, and used as a template for dev eloping an entirely new image.
Since the scientists from Ly ra's world hav e discov ered the ex istence of Rusakov 's particles, that is Dust, and through its further ex plorations, it has become obv ious that it is attracted to consciousness: Therefore, as it is emphasised throughout the trilogy , the Fall of Man was not actually a fall, but rather an ascent from the state of ignorance to the state of ex perience and self-awareness.
The Church, on the other hand, did not rejoice ov er the idea of enlightenment: From that moment on "all the history of human life has been a struggle between wisdom and stupidity. She and the rebel angels, the followers of wisdom, hav e alway s tried to open minds; the Authority and his churches hav e alway s tried to keep them closed" Pullman III, It appears that Pullman not only prolonged the Dark Ages but, moreov er, announced its climax: This division between There is also an interesting nov elty regarding human nature: This div ision between the towards learning about body , which is capable of sensing the world around it, the spirit, the world around it which is oriented towards learning about the world around it, and the soul, which is lov ing the world around it.
This is especially intriguing, if one considers the fact that the human souls in Ly ra's world are presented through daemons. There is a considerable difference in the quantity of Dust produced by adults and children. This is the reason why the Spectres feed on adults only , for the children are not conscious enough to attract a lot of Dust. In the time of puberty , as children's characters form and their daemons assume fix ed shapes, more Dust is beguiled.
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Since Pullman's Church considers ev ery thing related to Dust to be sinful and ungodly , the notion of childhood as a Dust-free period is idealised. Furthermore, they try to preserv e it ev en buy cutting off the children's daemons because, as Mrs. Coulter ex plains to Ly ra, "y our daemon's a wonderful friend and companion when y ou're y oung, but at the age we call puberty Conv ersely , it is the ex perience and maturity that Pullman idolises, in opposition to a child's innocence and ignorance; he regards childhood as a preparatory stage: The Child Hero Archety pe is subv erted in order to: This is the moment at which the purpose behind Pullman's use of the figure of the Child Hero becomes apparent.
Pullman's works do not y earn toward a higher form of innocence: Crosby To underline this, Pullman introduces v arious woes into his parallel worlds; Spectres are attacking people, the Church has gotten out of control, etc.
Ev ery thing indicates the necessity of the Second Fall: It would hav e to lead up to a garden in which something similar took place, or something analogous, any way " Pullman in Fried Furthermore, a prophecy made by witches is unv eiled: Ly ra will be a new Ev e, she will be tempted and "hav e the power to make a fateful choice, on which the future of all the worlds depended" Pullman III, Indeed, Ly ra is somewhat Ev e-ish: I think we could win her around.
She's innocent, and she lov es easily " Pullman III, 1 46 , but also "a thoughtless, insolent child" 1 Will is more alert, "but won't go any where without her" and ev en his name is sy mbolic - it refers to what mankind gained after the Fall: Just like in Eden, Ly ra and Will hav e a serpent too, Mary Malone, an ex -nun turned scientist, whose character and attitude towards the Church doctrine many Catholics found offensiv e: I thought phy sics could be done to the glory of God, till I saw there wasn't any God at all and that phy sics was more interesting any way.
It was Mary who, in a way , is responsible for the change, for the Fall.
Her stories and v iews of the world, life and lov e open Will and Ly ra's ey es. This enables the recreation of the Eden scene: Their Fall, howev er, does not bring about misery and desolation.
On the contrary , as witch Serafina Pekkala ex plains to Mary: I don't know what it was. They saw each other differently , or something Until then, they hadn't felt like that, but suddenly they did. And then the Dust was attracted to them, v ery powerfully , and it stopped flowing the other way " Pullman III, Apparently , it was what the univ erse needed to achiev e harmony again and restore its balance.
Howev er, Pullman discards the accusations of immorality and v ulgarity: And as a child, a kiss is enough. A kiss can change the world" Pullman Life After Death One of the foundations of Catholic teaching is the eternity of the human soul, which inev itably implicates the ex istence of afterlife. In Catholicism, death is nothing but a new beginning; heav en and boundless joy await those who hav e prov en themselv es to be worthy and interminable suffering for the sinful. Pullman substitutes this merit sy stem with a disheartening image of the Land of the Dead, where ev ery one goes to, "kings, queens, murderers, poets, children" but nobody comes back from.
His descriptions are painfully ex pressiv e: It's a place of nothing. The good come here as well as the wicked, and all of us languish in this gloom forev er, with no hope of freedom, or joy , or sleep, or rest, or peace" Pullman III, Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia.
It is discussed that the trilogy is anti-Chronicles in its ideology. Both works talk about the Fall of human, yet they differ in the way they deal with it.
The Chronicles of Narnia shows fall as being something negative, yet ' For Pullman the Fall must be seen as positive because it represents the necessary and natural transition from childhood to adulthood' Cuthew Starting from this notion, it maybe considered that Pullman's work is religiously irresponsible as it tends to make children question whether 'Fall' or 'sin' is something good or bad.
We believed them, even though we could see that what they were doing was wicked and evil and wrong We thought Dust must be bad too, because they were grown up and they said so. But what if it isn't? What if it's — " She said breathlessly, "Yeah!
What if it's really good.
Pullman Northern Lights, pp. In other words, Pullman is providing an ideology that 'Fall' should be considered as something good because it resembles the Rihane 6 discovery of oneself while to Lewis, who is a conservative Christian writer, sin resides with bad people.
Northern Lights arises questions of how whether witches are good or bad, or whether murder can be justified. Your father en't the kind of man to deny or conceal the truth, and it left the judge with a problem.
He'd killed all right, he'd shed blood, but he was defending his home and his child against an intruder.
On t'other hand, the law allows any man to avenge the violation of his wife, and the dead man's lawyers argued that he were doing just that.
Morally speaking, this notion sheds the spots lights on the ideologies that Pullman is providing within his book. Witches in Pullman's 'world' also differ from Lewis' White Witch who is a purely evil character. The witch who kills Will's father, for example, does so not out of malevolence but because of a broken heart' Squires In this notion, Pullman tends to disclaim the old accusation of 'bad witches' which the Church used to promote during the 16th and 17th century in Europe.
Also, he mentions again the issue of tolerating death depending on the circumstances and intentions. Besides religious and ethical issues, Northern Lights 'denounces the Church and its Oblation Board [. Northern Lights is not only the adventure of young Lyra in a fantastic world, it is also the motif of child from the phase of innocence to that of experience. Some readers say that daemons in the story are presentation of a person's sexuality.
Daemons are animals who change constantly, yet they obtain their constant shape when the child reaches puberty. In such way, Rihane 7 Daemons can be interpreted as the child's sexual awakening and as children's shift from 'innocence to experience'. They were captured She felt those hands It wasn't allowed Not supposed to touch Similar to Tolkien, Lewis, and Rowling, Pullman has succeeded in amusing readers from all ages. Northern Lights tells the adventure of a young girl, Lyra, who goes on a quest in what seems to be an alternative world that contains witches, talking animals, and magic.
The element of fantastic in the novel served its 'delighting' goal. On another hand, Pullman's work seems not to be free of the ideologies of sexuality, morality, and religion.
Whether intentionally or not, the first book of His Dark Materials trilogy raises many questions of what is 'good' and 'bad' while most of the ideologies it discusses are considered for granted 'bad', like that of murder and witches.
Northern Lights is more than just an adventure in a fantastic world, it is the journey of a child from innocence to experience. Therefore, Pullman's novel can be considered as being intrusive on some levels and may be seen by conservatives as downright sinister.
London: Palgrave Macmillan, Cuthew, Lucy Marie. Ezard, John. Fully Booked: The Whitbread judges made the right choice. Philip Pullman's extraordinary novels are not just for children.
The Guardian. Grenby, Matthew. Children's Literature: Approaches and Territories. Hunt, Peter. Modern Fantasy: Five Studies. London: Cambridge University Press, Pullman, Philip.Therefore, Pullman's novel can be considered as being intrusive on some levels and may be seen by conservatives as downright sinister.
Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia. Cuthew, Lucy Marie. Your father en't the kind of man to deny or conceal the truth, and it left the judge with a problem. Northern Lights.
She and the rebel angels, the followers of wisdom, hav e alway s tried to open minds; the Authority and his churches hav e alway s tried to keep them closed" Pullman III, Squires, Claire. Fully Booked: The Whitbread judges made the right choice. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Pullman III, 41 4 3.
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