INTRODUCTION TO OPTICS PEDROTTI PDF
Introduction to Optics FRANK L. PEDROTTI, S.J. LENO M. PEDROTTI LENO S. PEDROTTI This page intentionally left blank. PHYSICAL CONTSTANTS Speed of . Introduction to Optics 2nd ed - F. Pedrotti, L. Pedrotti (Prentice-Hall, ) WW. pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Lecture homepage: resourceone.info~shsong/syllabus-Optics-Part I. html Frank L. Pedrotti, "Introduction to Optics", 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall Inc. 2.
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Introduction to optics / Frank L. Pedrotti, Leno S. Pedrotti, Leno M. Pedrotti. Author. Pedrotti, Frank L., Other Authors. Pedrotti, Leno Matthew. Pedrotti . Second Edition. Introduction to Optics. FRANK L. PEDROTTI, S.J.. Marquette University. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Vatican Radio,. Rome. LENO S. PEDROTTI. hapter nature of light 63 63 05 kg) 20 63 88 kg) energy 00 63 62 time the energy of photon is given by 63 ev 23 27 ev at nm: 60 9j 34 63 ev at.
We follow this account with several basic relationships—borrowed from quantum physics and the special theory of relativity—that describe the properties of subatomic particles, like electrons, and the photon. We close this chapter with an introductory glance at the electromagnetic spectrum and a survey of the radiometric units we use to describe the properties of electromagnetic radiation.
In his treatise Optics, Newton clearly regarded rays of light as streams of very small particles emitted from a source of light and traveling in straight lines.
Introduction to optics
Although Newton often argued forcefully for positing hypotheses that were derived only from observation and experiment, here he himself adopted a particle hypothesis, believing it to be adequately justified by his experience. Important in his considerations was the observation that light seemed to cast sharp shadows of objects, in contrast to water and sound waves, which bend around obstacles in their paths.
Such light patterns are not easily explained by viewing light as a stream of particles traveling in straight lines. Christian Huygens, a Dutch scientist contemporary with Newton, championed a view in his Treatise on Light that considered light as a wave, spreading out from a light source in all directions and propagating through an all-pervasive elastic medium called the ether.
Adopting a wave theory, Huygens was able to derive the laws of reflection and refraction and to explain double refraction in calcite as well. It was the double-slit experiment, in which an opaque screen with two small, closely spaced openings was illuminated by monochromatic light from a small source.
Victories for the wave theory continued up to the twentieth century.
In the mood of scientific confidence that characterized the latter part of the nineteenth century, there was little doubt that light, like most other classical areas of physics, was well understood.
In , Augustin Fresnel published results of his experiments and analysis, which required that light be a transverse wave. On this basis, double refraction in calcite could be understood as a phenomenon involving polarized light. It had been assumed that light waves in an ether were necessarily longitudinal, like sound waves in a fluid, which cannot support transverse vibrations.
For each of the two components of polarized light, Fresnel developed the Fresnel equations, which give the amplitude of light reflected and transmitted at a plane interface separating two optical media. Working in the field of electricity and magnetism, James Clerk Maxwell synthesized known principles in his set of four Maxwell equations. The equations yielded a prediction for the speed of an electromagnetic wave in the ether that turned out to be the measured speed of light, suggesting its electromagnetic character.
From then on, light was viewed as a particular region of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation. Together they led inevitably to the conclusion that the assumption of an ether was superfluous.
The problems associated with transverse vibrations of a wave in a fluid thus vanished.
If the nineteenth century served to place the wave theory of light on a firm foundation, that foundation was to crumble as the century came to an end. The visible spectrum of colors ranges from red long-wavelength end to violet short-wavelength end and is bounded by the invisible ultraviolet and infrared regions, as shown.
The three regions taken together comprise the optical spectrum, that region of the electromagnetic spectrum of special interest in a textbook on optics. In addition, atoms and molecules have resonant frequencies in this optical spectrum and so EM waves in this frequency range interact most strongly with atoms and molecules. We now provide brief sketches of the various invisible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet On the short-wavelength side of visible light, this electromagnetic region spans wavelengths ranging from nm down to 10 nm.
Introduction to Optics (3rd Edition)
Ultraviolet light is sometimes subdivided into three categories: UV-A refers to the wavelength range — nm, UV-B to the range — nm and UV-C to the range —10 nm. UV radiation from the sun is linked to a variety of health risks. UV-A radiation, generally regarded as the least harmful of the three UV bands, can contribute to skin aging and is possibly linked to some forms of skin cancer.
UV-A radiation does not contribute to sunburns. UV-B radiation has been linked to a variety of skin cancers and contributes to the sunburning process. The link between UV-B radiation and skin cancer is a primary reason for the concern related to ozone depletion, which is believed to be in part caused by human use of so-called chlorofluorocarbon CFC compounds.
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The concern that CFCs and other similar chemicals may contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer and thus increase the risk of skin cancer led to protocols calling for the reduction of the use of refrigerants, aerosol sprays, and other products that release these chemicals into the atmosphere. Sunblock and sunscreen lotions are intended in part to block harmful UV-B radiation. On the other hand, UV radiation has the beneficial effect of inducing vitamin D production in the skin.
X-rays X-rays are EM waves with wavelengths in the 10 nm to nm range.
These can be produced when high-energy electrons strike a metal target and are Nature of Light used as diagnostic tools in medicine to see bone structure and as treatments for certain cancers. X-ray diffraction serves as a probe of the lattice structure of crystalline solids and X-ray telescopes provide important information from astronomical objects. Gamma Rays This type of EM radiation has its origin in nuclear radioactive decay and certain other nuclear reactions.
Gamma rays have very short wavelengths in the range from 0. Like X-rays, penetrating gamma rays find use in the medical area, often in the treatment of localized cancers. Infrared Radiation On the long-wavelength side of the visible spectrum, infrared IR radiation has wavelengths spanning the region from nm to 1 mm.
Objects in thermal equilibrium at terrestrial temperatures emit radiation that has its energy output peak in the IR range. Images such as these can be used to map the temperature variation across the surface of the earth, for example. Infrared radiation is used as a treatment for sore muscles and joints, and, more recently, lasers that emit IR radiation have been used to treat the eye for vision abnormalities.
Infrared radiation is also used in optical fiber communication systems and in a variety of remote control devices. Microwaves Beyond infrared radiation we find microwaves, with wavelengths from 1 mm to 30 cm or so. Microwave ovens, which have become a common kitchen appliance, use microwaves to heat food. In addition, microwaves play an important role in radar systems both on the ground and in the air, in telecommunications, and in spectroscopy.By using an ion beam sputtering IBS , high quality and dense coating with few defects has been coated.
In , at the very dawn of the twentieth century, Max Planck announced at a meeting of the German Physical Society that he was able to derive the correct blackbody radiation spectrum only by making the curious assumption that atoms emitted light in discrete energy chunks rather than in a continuous manner.
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