Politics Hiv Aids Pdf


Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Condoms. Living with HIV/Aids. HIV Medicines/Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). The Aid for AIDS programme. Module 1 Introduction to HIV/AIDS. SESSION 1. Scope of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic . SESSION 2. Natural History and Transmission of HIV. After completing the. Many may not know the difference between HIV and AIDS. HIV attacks immune cells and is transmitted through bodily fluids. AIDS is a.

Hiv Aids Pdf

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Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) All rights reserved . Until a vaccine or a cure is found, our greatest weapon against HIV/AIDS is. Fact sheets about HIV/AIDS treatment information, the prevention of mother-to- child transmission, and HIV treatment side effects. All the fact. Today AIDS is probably one of the most widely talked about illnesses in history. Everybody has heard about HIV and AIDS. But unfortunately many people still.

Recurrent Salmonella septicemia: This type of bacteria often enters the body in contaminated food and water, circulates the entire body, and overpowers the immune system, causing nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Toxoplasmosis toxo: Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that inhabits warm-blooded animals, including cats and rodents, and leaves the body in their feces. Humans contract the diseases by inhaling contaminated dust or eating contaminated food, but it can also occur in commercial meats.

Take care to wear protective gloves while changing cat litter and thoroughly wash the hands afterward. Wasting syndrome: This occurs when a person involuntarily loses 10 percent of their muscle mass through diarrhea, weakness, or fever. Part of the weight loss may also consist of fat loss. Aside from managing HIV viral load with medications, a person who lives with the disease must take precautions, including the following steps:.

Antibiotic , antifungal, or antiparasitic drugs can help treat an OI. Many misconceptions circulate about HIV that are harmful and stigmatizing for people with the virus. Becoming aware of HIV status is vital for commencing treatment and preventing the development of more severe immune difficulties and subsequent infections.

A doctor can test for HIV using a specific blood test. A positive result means that they have detected HIV antibody in the bloodstream.

HIV Overview

The blood is re-tested before a positive result is given. After potential exposure to the virus, early testing and diagnosis is crucial and greatly improves the chances of successful treatment. Home testing kits are also available. HIV might take 3 - 6 months to show up in testing, and re-testing may be necessary for a definitive diagnosis. People at risk of infection within the last 6 months can have an immediate test. The test provider will normally recommend another test within a few weeks.

However, treatments can stop the progression of the condition and allow most people living with HIV the opportunity to live a long and relatively healthy life. Starting ART early in the progression of the virus is crucial. This improves quality of life, extends life expectancy, and reduces the risk of transmission, according to the WHO's guidelines from June More effective and better-tolerated treatments have evolved that can improve general health and quality of life by taking as little as one pill per day.

A person living with HIV can reduce their viral load to such a degree that it is no longer detectable in a blood test.

After assessing a number of large studies, the CDC concluded that individuals who have no detectable viral load "have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting the virus to an HIV-negative partner. If an individual believes they have been exposed to the virus within the last 3 days, anti-HIV medications, called post-exposure prophylaxis PEP , may be able to stop infection.

Take PEP as soon as possible after potential contact with the virus. PEP is a treatment lasting a total of 28 days, and physicians will continue to monitor for HIV after the completion of the treatment.

The treatment of HIV involves antiretroviral medications that fight the HIV infection and slows down the spread of the virus in the body.

Protease is an enzyme that HIV needs to replicate.

These medications bind to the enzyme and inhibit its action, preventing HIV from making copies of itself. HIV needs integrase, another enzyme, to infect T cells. This drug blocks integrase.

These are often the first line of treatment due to their effectiveness and limited side effects for many people. These drugs block HIV from entering cells. However, doctors in the U. Entry inhibitors prevent HIV from entering T cells. Without access to these cells, HIV cannot replicate.

As with chemokine co-receptor antagonists, they are not common in the United States. A medical team will adapt the exact mix of drugs to each individual. HIV treatment is usually permanent, lifelong, and based on routine dosage.


A person living with HIV must take pills on a regular schedule. Each class of ARVs has different side effects, but possible common side effects include:.

Although many people who have HIV try complementary, alternative, or herbal options, such as herbal remedies, no evidence confirms them to be effective. According to some limited studies, mineral or vitamin supplements may provide some benefits in overall health. It is important to discuss these options with a healthcare provider because some of these options, even vitamin supplements, may interact with ARVs.

To prevent contracting HIV, healthcare professionals advise precautions related to the following. Sex using a condom or PrEP: Having sex without a condom or other preventive measures, such as PrEP, can drastically increase the risk of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections STIs.

Use condoms or PrEP during every sexual act with a person outside of a trusted relationship in which neither partner has HIV. Drug injection and needle sharing: Intravenous drug use is a key factor for HIV transmission in developed countries.

Sharing needles and other drug equipment can expose users to HIV and other viruses, such as hepatitis C. Certain social strategies, such as needle-exchange programs, can help to reduce the infections as a result of drug abuse.

What is HIV?

Recovering from a substance use disorder can improve health a quality of life for many reasons, but it can dramatically reduce potential exposure to HIV. Body fluid exposure: A person can limit their potential exposure to HIV by taking precautions to reduce the risk of exposure to contaminated blood.

Healthcare workers should use gloves, masks, protective eyewear, shields, and gowns in situations where exposure to bodily fluids is a possibility. Frequently and thoroughly washing the skin immediately after coming into contact with blood or other bodily fluids can reduce the risk of infection. Healthcare works should follow a set of procedures known as universal precautions to prevent transmission.

However, an effective, well-managed treatment plan can prevent mother-to-fetus HIV transmission. Delivery through caesarean section may be necessary.

Women who are pregnant but have HIV might also pass on the virus through their breast milk. However, regularly taking the correct regimen of medications greatly reduces the risk of transmitting the virus. Teaching people about known risk factors is vital to equip them with the tools to avoid exposure to HIV. Due to the added risk of other infections and disease, people living with HIV must make lifestyle adjustments to accommodate their reduced immunity.

Taking HIV medication as prescribed is absolutely essential to effective treatment. Missing even a few doses might jeopardize the treatment. Program a daily, methodical routine to fit the treatment plan around any existing lifestyle and schedule. Treatment plans will be different between people. People sometimes refer to "adherence" as "compliance".

HIV medications can cause particularly severe side effects that often deter people from adherence. Learn more about the adverse effects of HIV medication by clicking here.

If side effects are becoming too severe, speak to your medical team rather than simply stopping medication. They can switch the regimen to a better-tolerated drug. General health: Taking steps to avoid illness and other infections is key. People living with HIV should seek to improve overall health through regular exercise, a balanced, nutritious diet, and the cessation of any drugs, including tobacco.

Additional precautions: People living with AIDS should take extra precautions to prevent any exposure to infection, especially around animals. Avoid coming into contact with animal feces and pet litter. Doctors also recommend the meticulous and regular washing of hands. Coccidioidomycosis: People sometimes refer to the self-limited version of this disease in healthy individuals as valley fever. Inhalation of the fungus Coccidioides immitis causes this infection. Cryptococcosis: Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that can infect any part of the body, but most often enters the lungs to trigger pneumonia or the brain to cause swelling.

Cryptosporidiosis: The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium causes this infection that leads to severe abdominal cramps and watery diarrhea. Cytomegalovirus disease CMV : CMV can cause a range of diseases in the body, including pneumonia, gastroenteritis , and encephalitis , a brain infection.

However, CMV retinitis is of particular concern in people with late-stage HIV, and it can infect the retina at the back of the eye, permanently removing sight. CMV retinitis is a medical emergency. While doctors do not fully understand the cause, they consider it to be linked to post-infection inflammation in the brain.

Herpes simplex HSV : This virus, usually sexually transmitted or passed on in childbirth, is extremely common and rarely causes health issues or causes self-limiting recurrences in people with healthy immune systems. However, it can reactivate in people with HIV, causing painful cold sores around the mouth and ulcers on the genitals and anus that do not resolve. The sores, rather than a herpes diagnosis, are an indicator of AIDS. Histoplasmosis: The fungus Histoplasma capsulatum causes extremely severe, pneumonia-like symptoms in people with advanced HIV.

This condition can become progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and can impact on organs outside of the respiratory system. Chronic intestinal isosporiasis: The parasite Isospora belli can infect the body through contaminated food and water, causing diarrhea, fever, vomiting, weight loss, headaches , and abdominal pain.

Kaposi's sarcoma KS : Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus KSHV , also known as human herpesvirus 8 HHV-8 , causes a cancer that leads to the growth of abnormal blood vessels anywhere in the body.

If KS reaches organs, such as the intestines or lymph nodes, it can be extremely dangerous. KS appears as solid purple or pink spots on the surface of the skin. They might be flat or raised. Lymphoma: People refer to cancer of the lymph nodes and lymphoid tissues as lymphoma , and many different types might occur.

Tuberculosis TB : The bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes this disease and can transfer in droplets if a person with an active form of the bacteria sneezes, coughs, or speaks.

TB causes a severe lung infection as well as weight loss, fever, and tiredness, and can also infect the brain, lymph nodes, bones, or kidneys. They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood.

Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as the late s. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world.

We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid to late s. What are the stages of HIV?

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Medicine to treat HIV, known as antiretroviral therapy ART , helps people at all stages of the disease if taken as prescribed.

Treatment can slow or prevent progression from one stage to the next. When people have acute HIV infection, they have a large amount of virus in their blood and are very contagious.

If you think you have been exposed to HIV through sex or drug use and you have flu-like symptoms, seek medical care and ask for a test to diagnose acute infection. During this phase, HIV is still active but reproduces at very low levels. People may not have any symptoms or get sick during this time. However, people who take HIV medicine as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load or stay virally suppressed have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative sexual partners.

As this happens, the person may begin to have symptoms as the virus levels increase in the body, and the person moves into Stage 3.Flu-like symptoms include fever, chills, rash, night sweats, muscle aches, sore throat, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, or mouth ulcers. They might be flat or raised. What is the treatment for HIV? As this happens, the person may begin to have symptoms as the virus levels increase in the body, and the person moves into Stage 3.

Tuberculosis TB : The bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes this disease and can transfer in droplets if a person with an active form of the bacteria sneezes, coughs, or speaks. Taking effective antiretroviral medications for life can halt on-going damage to the immune system.

Aside from managing HIV viral load with medications, a person who lives with the disease must take precautions, including the following steps:. The bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes this disease and can transfer in droplets if a person with an active form of the bacteria sneezes, coughs, or speaks. The fungus Histoplasma capsulatum causes extremely severe, pneumonia-like symptoms in people with advanced HIV.