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HINDU CODE BILL PDF

Saturday, August 31, 2019


The Hindu code bills were several laws passed in the s that aimed to codify and reform .. Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version . article explain the contribution of dr babasaheb ambedkar for the preparation of hindu code resourceone.info article is in marathi language. ihMdU kaoDbaIlaa maQyao sauQaarNaa krNyaacaI maagaNaI p`kYaa-nao puZo AalaI. Da^.AaMbaoDkraMcyaa iva$Qd vaatavarNa inamaa-Na krNyaacaa p`ya%na kolaa. The chapter of the book discusses the specific stages of evolution of the Hindu Code Bill and provides the base for understanding the ideological underpinnings .


Hindu Code Bill Pdf

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Abstract: The Hindu Code Bill was introduced in the Constituent Assembly on 11th April, by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar with the intention to liberalise the personal. The Hindu Code Bill. THERE IS SOMETHING about the modern Miss which her elders never cease to condemn and envy. It is her freedom in changing her mind . Hindu Code Bill: Towards Liberation of Women. Poonam Chaudhary1. Abstract. Multiple roles of maternity formed the core of the discourse surrounding the.

Second, parties being sapinda. Third, parties being either idiotic or lunatic. Fourth, guardian's consent obtained by force or fraud. In order not to keep the sword of dissolution hanging on the head, the Bill, in my judgement very wisely, has provided a limit to an action for invalidation.

It provides that a suit for the invalidation of marriage must be filed within three years from the date of the marriage; otherwise the suit will be barred and the marriage will continue as though there was no ground for invalidity.

The Bill also provides that even though the marriage may be invalidated and may be declared invalid by a court of Law, the invalidation of marriage will not affect the legitimacy of the children born and they would continue to be legitimate just the same.

Then coming to the question of divorce, there are seven grounds on which divorce could be obtained. Coming to the question of adoption, there again, most of the rules embodied in the Bill are in no way different from the rules obtaining under the present law.

There are two new provisions in this part dealing with adoption. Firstly, under the Code, it will be necessary for the husband if he wants to make an adoption to obtain the consent of his wife and if there are more than one, at least the consent of one of them. Secondly, it also lays down that if the widow wants to adopt, she can only adopt if there are positive instructions left by the husband authorising her to adopt and in order to prevent litigation as to whether the husband has, as a matter of fact, left instructions to his wife, the code provides that the evidence of such instructions shall be either by registered deed or by a provision in the will.

No oral evidence would be admissible, so that chances of litigation are considerably mitigated. The Code also provides that the adoption may also be evidenced by registration. One of the most fruitful sources of litigation in this country is the question of adoption.

All sorts of oral evidence is manufactured, concocted; witnesses are suborned; widows are fooled; they one day declare that they. Then there is the question of minority and guardianship, the last subject which the Bill seeks to codify. There is nothing new in this part of the Code and, therefore, I do not propose to say anything so far as that part in the Bill is concerned.

As members will realise, the points which arise out of this Bill for consideration and which are new are these: First, the abolition of birth-right and to take property by survivorship. The second point that arises for consideration is the giving of half-share to the daughter. Thirdly, the conversion of the women's limited estate into an absolute estate.

Fourthly, the abolition of caste in the matter of marriage and adoption. Fifthly, the principle of monogamy and sixthly the principle of divorce. I have sought to enumerate these points separately and categorically because I felt that in view of the limited time we have at our disposal, it would be of help to the Members of this Page 7 of House if I could point out what are the points of debate on which attention may be concentrated.

These departures which are made in this Bill undoubtedly requiresjustification, but I think it would be a waste of time if I at this stage undertook any defence of the departures enacted by this Bill. I propose to hear Honourable Members as to what they have to say on the points which I have enumerated and if I Find that it is necessary for me to enter upon a justification, I propose to do so in the course of my reply.

Sir, I move. Anantihasayanam Ayyangar, Shrimati G. Kesava Rao and the Mover, with instructions to report not later than the last day of the first week of the next session of the Assembly and that the number of members whose presence shall be necessary to constitute a meeting of the Committee shall be five.

Pattabhi Sitaramayya Madras: General : Mr. Chairman, Sir, I rise 'at an early moment in order to catch your eye in the hope that I shall have the ear of the House while having the eye of the Chairman. This is a very interesting piece of legislation which has been presented to this House, a piece of legislation for which the country has been whiting for long. This country having passed under the rule of foreigners for nearly a thousand years has not been able to effect that social progress which is incidental to changes in society in the world and which takes place imperceptibly by force of ever-changing custom.

Custom is a force which is generally patronised, appreciated and recognised by the rulers. Unfortunately, this country has had no kings for a long time to whose inspiring example the subjects could look up for any changes in society.

In the West, even today, if a social change is required all that is to be done is for the King to initiate that change and all the people will follow as a matter of course. You might have heard the story of Edward the Eighth, who, when he was Prince of Wales, went to a far distant island and having heard from the people that their occupation was gone because of the change of fashions, asked what the fashion was which had mined the occupation.

They said formerly they were manufactures of straw hats and now straw hats had given place to felt hats and therefore, they had lost their occupation.

The next day he appeared in public on a ceremonial occasion with a straw hat and the straw hat industry was at once revived.

That is the power of the king; he is not merely the political head of a State, but head of society, the exemplar, the mentor and the monitor. As such he evaluates the customs age long, traditional and hoarysanctified by age and it lies in his power to change that custom one way or the other. But what has been our fate since the British rule had come into existence? So long as the Muslims were ruling this country, they copied our customs and we copied their customs; there was an inter-mixture and intercurrency of customs and therefore, some measures of social progress.

But after the British came, when they came to be looked upon as untouchables and even unapproachables by the vast majority of the population of this country, the situation was that they were afraid to touch the customs of this country with the longest pole. They were afraid of any interference with the socioreligious structure which was a delicate structure almost like a chemical balance and bore the Page 8 of repercussions of the smallest change coming from abroad and from adventitious sources.

They were afraid that such repercussions would be ruinous to the stability of their empire in this country and therefore, they adopted the plausible and seemingly reasonable attitude of not interfering with the religion or the custom of the land.

In this manner the Judges of the High Courts always helped to register the custom as it had existed for long centuries behind, and never registered a change in the custom as marking a progress in society. Thus custom became petrified and when custom became petrified, progress became impeded altogether, and for a hundred and fifty years our society has not been able to make any progress.

If social evils had been pointed out by missionaries at one stage they were so pointed out in a spirit of carping criticism rather than in a spirit of progressive helpfulness. And as time advanced and English education took root and as democracy spread its tentacles and got firm hold upon the affections of the people another change came into being. The very missionaries and clergymen who were so keen on educated Indians throwing off the trammels of their orthodoxy became suddenly conservative and critical of the drastic changes which the English educated people were taking to with a certain amount of irresponsible case.

They began to inquire whether after all these people who were so readily taking to these changes meant to take to these changes or whether they were simply growing away by way of relaxation the rigid customs of age and of society. They did not like it because the spirit of reform is always destructive of their own power. In the encouraging of reform themselves they saw the dangers to their rule and the missionary saw at once that he was encouraging a certain amount of rebellious spirit in the nation.

Now Brahmoism was looked upon as the saving factor in this country, but Brahmoism was thereupon condemned by the missionary because it provided a halting house for the reform spirit of the nation.

Thus the missionary himself became conservative. Englishmen became conservative, custom became rigid, society became petrified and congealed and coagulated, as it were, in a chamber which was not wide or expansive, thus, we have suffered, so much so that the issue of a post-puberty marriage in the Punjab was declared illegitimate by the High Court. This was the last straw that broke the back of progressive society.

Immediately, there was an attempt to break the bones of custom, by trying to reform the marriage law. Therefore, it did not become popular.

Later on the Sarda Act came into being; fortunately it has set the seal of authority upon that piece of social reform which the heads of orthodoxy were imposing and were impeding. A new era has begun. The Indian National Congress which had started in had till associated with it as an ancillary and an auxiliary a social reform organisation which dealt with the social evils of the country and suggested various legislative measures also.

But there was a non willingness on the part of the British Government to effect those legislative changes and as time progressed there was also an unwillingness on the part of society to accept the social reform at the hands of foreigners in this country. Fortunately, Sir, today we have survived those times, I am glad I am alive to see the age when on the initiative of the National Government aprogressive measure of reform, comprehensive in outlook, far-reaching in its result, medical in its nature, is being put forward, which embraces the rights of women in regard to inheritance, in regard to marriage, in regard to property, in regard to divorce, in regard to personal freedom.

And I hope, as lime advances we shall have more and more of reforms in this direct ion to which this measure points today. Page 9 of Let us start with the full rights that have been conferred upon the woman after the death of her husband. In our Shastras it has been briefly described that the woman is the bond slave of her father when she is young, to her husband when she is middle aged and to her son when she is a mother. Of course all epigrams, aphorisms, proverbs, platitudes and truisms are half truth's.

There is a core of truth about them. We sometimes find it useful to quote these things but there is a core of untruth also about them and we should try to understand the full significance of all these.

According to the measures before us, a woman will have property in her own right and be able to dispose of her property. I have been trying to see whether the Law Minister would explain when these rights would come into force.

Supposing after the passing of this measure a man dies and his widow inherits his property: what are her rights compared with the rights of a widow whose husband died one year ago? The latter possesses limited estates. What is the change sought to be introduced? Can widows with only limited estates convert those limited estates into full right estates with the right to give away, to mortgage, to sell and so on, irrespective of whether there is legal necessity in the interests of the family or not?

That is a point which I have been trying to understand by turning up the pages of the measure before me but I have not been able to understand it. I dare say, in his reply the Mover of the Bill will be so good as to elucidate the point.

The ' rights ' of the daughter is a matter on which I have been feeling very keenly. When speaking to English people or when discussing Indian conditions and society with savants and scholars coming from abroad, I have never been tired of-praising my own system.

If you wish to understand the basis of a system, or appraise any of its social customs or practices, you must not take it in its present degenerate condition. But you must take it in all its pristine purity and glory. I look upon child marriage as a splendid institution as our ancients conceived it because they conceived it good for the average man and the average woman to be married. And this marriage is a good thing because the child has to be grafted into another family and grafting should take place while the plant is young and not when the plant has become old.

But then, the conception itself has changed. Now we live in an age when it is much more happy to be bachelors and criticise others' wives than to marry and beget children.

Therefore, our ideals have changed and therefore, the principle of child marriage may not be binding upon us. Each one is at liberty to live his or her own life according to her or his pleasure and there is no obligation imposed by society and social conditions have changed.

Under the circumstances we should not indeed be the victims of past tradition, past customs, past events. But how shall we deal with the facts which exist at the present day: so many daughters and so many sisters are not merely vegetating but they are rotting in their homes.

While we praise our systems to others, we cannot shut from our own eyes the fact that our sisters and daughters and other relations are rotting in their own homes unable to get any relief. Latterly I have suggested a love strike for our women. That is the only remedy which I have thought out and I have been able to think it out as a remedy directed against this custom.

There was a war in England and all the women wanted to resist the war. How could they resist? The men are greedy. The men are pugnacious and blood-thirsty. They want to fight. They want to measure the strength of the tiger and ape it them with the strength of the ape and tiger in others. Therefore, the women said: let us have a love strike.

Hindu Code Bill

No young maiden would speak to her lover; no wife would speak to her husband; no mother would speak to her son. The men were boycotted. There was no social life between men and women until the war about to be declared was cancelled. They said they would not mix with Page 10 of these people. But, I will not push the matter further. I Suggest that if in a village, or town, or mohalla, there is ill-treatment of a single woman, all our wives had better have a club and go away from our houses and live there for 24 hours and very soon the recalcitrant husband will be brought to his senses.

All the men will bring their moral influence to bear upon this man and they will tell him: " What the hell are you doing? All our homes are broken up and they will remain broken unless you take back your wife. But what else are you going to do? Are you going to prosecute the man? He will bring up his charges. Are you going to prosecute the wife? She will bring a number of charges. You should not enter into the quarrels between husband and wife. Once I found a husband beating his wife.

I went and interfered. The woman turned round and came down on me like a wolf on the fold. She said: " It is my husband who is beating me. Who the hell are you to interfere? After all the Kowravas and Pandawas when they fought, they used to say : " we are I X against 5 but against a third party they said we are plus 5 " So in these domestic quarrels both are against us when we meddle in their affairs. So if the daughter is to be happy she must be able to inherit property in her own right I find that the position of a wife is most obsequious.

Her sister's son comes. Her brother comes. She wants to give them a good present. But the wife has to wait upon the goodwill of her husband in order to get even Rs. And he may be in a good mood or a bad mood. So she must have some property which she can call her own. Would you wish her to get rid of some of her jewels? The idea is fantastic. No woman will sell away her jewellery even after her husband's death because after her husband's death that jewellery stands as the symbol of the unity of herself and her deceased spouse.

I know it. I have spoken to many women. Chairman : Does the Honourable Member want to speak for a longer time? Pattabhi Sitaramayya: I am sorry. I was not looking at the time.

I would like to continue. Speaker The Honourable Mr. Mavalankar in the Chair.

Pattabhi Sitaramayya: Mr. Speaker, I was dealing with the question of a share for the daughter from the patrimony. I am in the habit of twitting my lady friends by asking them " Why do you want a share? You are going to become the queens of another home. My wife has become the queen of my home and she is the unquestioned head of the family.

She is getting the keys of her own safe and so will you get the keys of the safe of another home. It is not enough to be at the mercy of a husband, however dear that husband may be. A woman must have her own right and when she has her own right she is better respected by the husband and although the doctrine of self-effacement on the part of the woman has been carried on in our country and society for ages long, yet the fact remains that in the modern day the conception of self-respect has completely altered the position.

One must be able to say that she has a little money to deal with in her own right. Hitherto I have had a little doubt as to whether we are not depriving all the sons of the share to which they are legitimately entitled if the daughter also comes in for her share.

Now the Bill before us gives a share in the stridhana to the sons to the same extent to which the daughter is given a Page 11 of share in the father's property. That largely equalises things and warns all parents that they should have an equal number of sons and daughters.

That is the only condition that is imposed upon us and that will be able to balance our economy. We must also balance our progeny. But there is another difficulty. After all as things stand, it looks as though we cannot say hereafter in marriage invitations that my daughter is being given in marriage to so and so. My daughter and so and so will marry each other. That is the new language adopted. Still the fact remains that except in Malabar, where the husbands go to their wives' houses, here our daughters generally go to their husbands' houses.

Of course the position in Malabar is entirely the reverse of our conditions and it will take hours to deal with the question. I am not going to stray into that very interesting topic. Yet the fact remains when the daughter goes away from her father's home, the wonder is whether she is able to enjoy the property that is given to her by her parents. I have asked my Muslim sisters and brothers as to whether the age-long custom of giving a half share to a daughter, half of the son's, is really practically, enjoyed.

They said that except in towns it is not enjoyed. Somehow or other the brother does the sister in the eye and knocks off her property and gives her some compensation. That may or may not be so but the fact remains that there is that supreme danger and the greatest danger in this matter is that when you recognise the fact that 80 per cent of pattadara are able to pay only Rs. I doubt very much from the practical side but on the theoretical side at any rate the thing is unquestionably quite correct.

When thus you have raised the status of women in society and when you have conferred upon her the right to absolute property then you must also give her certain rights which self-respect engenders in her naturally. The conditions of marriage are not conditions of slavery. It is all very well to say that marriages are made in heaven and that once a husband always a husband or once a wife always a wife. It is a very good rule but at the same time there are conditions like drunkenness, persistent cruelty, immoral character on the part of the husband, diseases like leprosy, impotency and various other conditions which are enumerated by the Law Minister which justify a separation of the husband from the wife.

If a man feels free and has the right to stray abroad and to whatever he wants to do, if he can marry a second time when the first wife is alive, then of course it must be equally open for the wife also to marry a second husband while the first one is alive. Imagine that condition. I sometimes ask friends when I see a young man dressed in hat, boot and suit and by the side goes a nicely clad Hindu lady dressed in all the beautiful folds of the Hindu saree " Will you kindly reverse your dresses?

Will the husband wear a dhothi and the wife a hat and skirt of a European woman.. Once an officer asked me not to sign in Telugu over an English document. Then I said that the reverse situation of an English signature over a Telugu document is equally incongruous. Therefore, we must give full freedom to our sisters, mothers and daughters and enable them to have judicial separation, if necessary and divorce.

But I trust and hope that the distinguished ladies who are here and who have been labouring for years in the cause of rights for women will preach and propagate the fact and the doctrine that divorce is a reserve fund not to be drawn upon for current expenses, that divorce should be the ultimate resort for causes which are otherwise irremediable.

Public opinion, personal influence, family persuasion, all these are there. You must remember that the quarrels Page 12 of between a husband and wife during the day are generally closed up in the night and therefore, there is not much chance of perpetuating these quarrels.

We should not make much of them. In America there is a State called Indianopolis, where the porter cries " Indianopolis Station, Twenty minutes for divorce. Any husband and wife having a quarrel in the train, could apply for divorce and get it before the train departs. That should not be our position.

Our divorce must be a kind of reserve fund like the jewellery on a woman's person, always to be drawn upon under conditions of the greatest necessity and never to be lightly utilised. The question of adoption is a very difficult question, the Honourable Law Minister has assimilated the Mitakushara practice to that of the Dayabhaga.

I suppose Dayabhaga obtains in Bengal and Mitakashara in South India and in Bombay there is a law called Muyuka,according to which amongst the non-Brahmins it is not necessary for the husband to give permission and the widow can adopt a child.

I had read a judgment of the Privy Council some ten or twelve years ago. I want that law to be copied in other parts, where such adoption is not permissible according to Mitakshara. After all why does a family adopt a boy? To perpetuate the family.

Is it not the right of the widow to perpetuate the family as much as of the deceased husband? Is it only the exclusive right of the man who is deceased to perpetuate the family. If a boy could inherit the property, why should it not be open to the mother to adopt the boy in her own right apart from the written or the registered permission of her husband either by a document or by a will.

In English law oral wills are permissible; whereas written wills require two signatures, oral wills require no such thing. After all, by oral wills properties worth lakhs and crores are alienated. Then why should it not be permissible in law for a husband to give permission orally to his wife in order that she can adopt. These are points which the Select Committee will have to give its consideration to.

An Honourable Member: " Why permission at all? If permission is necessary why not oral permission? Relax the law regulating adoption as much as possible.

Then there is the question of monogamy. I am very sorry to note that young girls in their blooming youth do not understand all the conditions that must be observed in regard to the proper selection of match for marriage. We have an ancient saying which when rendered into English says: You must consider the prosperity, good looks, tradition, pedigree, cultureall these things you must consider before you select a husband.

But now it has become rather commonand a very distinguished authority has confirmed the statementthat educated girls have the habit of picking readymade husbands who have already got a wife and five or six children. Why does this happen? It is due to the want of education during their college days about these matters.

What Was Hindu Code Bill

Somehow these things are considered taboo and everybody shrinks from talking about them although a lot of private talk is inevitably done in regard to these matters. The forbidden fruit has never remained untasted. Therefore, it is necessary that we provide teaching in regard to these matters.

I once spoke to a certain friend of minehe has given freedom to his daughter with regard to the selection of his son-in-lawand in the course of his conversation he told me a story which I later related to his daughter and son-in-law much to their amusement.

She was asked by him, " Do you wish to marry so and so, a boy who is handsome, good-looking, is well educated, passed B. If he has got a motor car and electric lights, no matter to whom you give me in marriage I am willing to marry him". Such are the Page 13 of temperaments, tendencies and trends of untutored youth and therefore, it is very necessary that we should teach them about all these matters.

It is not enough to make laws: but it is necessary to propagate these laws and propagandise these laws in order to educate our young girls in the direction of monogamy. That is very necessary. I welcome every aspect of this Bill. If there are defects which are obvious here and there I daresay they will be remedied by all the distinguished personalities whose names have been mentioned in connection with the formation of the Select Committee. I have taken a little more time than necessary.

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Perhaps, I can hold forth for hours together. I have got the experience of 68 years covering a careful study of all kinds of conditions and I would have liked very much to continue except for the fact that today's time is limited and we must apply the guillotine at 7 O'clock and some of our sisters and brothers are very anxious to speak and I am also anxious to hear them. Naziruddin Ahmad West Bengal : Muslim : Sir, I am in the most unfortunate position of having been charged with the communication of certain views which have been entrusted to me by some of my friends.

They are some criticisms of the Bill. I must however assure the House that personally I would fully support the Bill. Its provisions are largely in accord with the laws which prevail in my own community and the Bill tries to do absolute justice to all regardless of practical results.

It is however, with some amount of nervousness that I have risen to speak. When I find that sturdy members of the House who would have spoken against the Bill have quailed before a powerful array of five distinguished members of the fair sex, ready to stand to their guns, little courage can I muster in giving out the views which I am charged to communicate. Sir, the Honourable the Law Minister has not told us anything about the opinions that have been collected and printed in the pamphlets which have been circulated to us.

They were made available to us at a very late stage. If it was desired that Honourable Members should read them, analyse them and tell the House the result of their analysis I think the time is too short. There is a pamphlet the Report of the Hindu Law Committee which contains a large number of opinions.

I am sorry this was not circulated amongst the members. An Honourable Member : " It was circulated ". It was not. This book was not circulated. Ambedkar : It was kept in the Library for a very long time. Naziruddin Ahmad : It was not kept in the Library for a very long time. It has been placed in the Library very recently. I had to buy it from the market.

It is only recently that some copies were kept in the Liberary. Ranga Madras: General : What is it? Ranga: I asked what is it you are referring to. Prof, N. Ranga: That is, the Rao Committee. Its Report has been before the public for a year. Speaker: Whatever it be, the Honourable Member may proceed. Naziruddin Ahmad: The Report has been published only recently. I submit that in this Report there is a dissentient minute of the late Justice D. He has collected a large number of opinions against the Bill.

I do not wish to read them. He has classified them province by province Page 14 of and subject by subject. There is no time to deal with them, but he has said that the principles of the Bill are opposed by the entire Hindu community, that is the orthodox section of the community.

I have studied as carefully as it was possible for me within the short time available, the recent opinions on the Bill obtained by the Government and circulated to us. I find there is a volume of opinion against the Bill. In fact, at the time when the Committee was hearing evidence the evidence in Bengal was also all one way. Now in the opinions circulated I find the opinion in West Bengal is all one way. It is clearly against the Bill. What is remarkable is that there is an opinion by the Secretary of the Government of Bengal in the Ministry of Law.

That opinion is to be found in paper No. That opinion is against the Bill. It says that this is not a proper time to take the Bill. An Honourable Member : ' When was that '? It bears no date. It has been circulated only recentlyfive or six days ago. In fact it says that the Bill is of far-reaching importance and enough consideration has not been given to the opinions expressed. The House will be pleased to consider the different categories of objections. One is that, this Bill should not be considered by a mixed Legislature consisting of members of various communities.

This ideal concept of religion as a private matter implied a reduction in its sphere of influence through the impact of state in its capacity as the agent of 'modernisation'. Nehru's principal achievement in this voluntarist perspective was undoubtedly the Hindu Code Bill. The Hindu Code Bill was intended to provide a civil code in place of the body of Hindu personal law, which had been amended to only a limited extent by the British authorities.

The bill was presented to the Constituent Assembly on 9 April but it caused a great deal of controversy and was subsequently broke down to three more specialised bills which came before the Lok Sabha in its term.

The Hindu Marriage Bill outlawed polygamy and contained provisions dealing with inter caste marriages and divorce procedures; the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Bill had as its main thrust the adoption of girls, which till then had been little practised; the Hindu Succession Bill placed daughters on the same footing as widows and sons where the inheritance of family property was concerned.

These bills aroused strong opposition from the Hindu nationalists. In Parliament N. Chatterjee, the Hindu Mahasabha leader, and S. Mokerjee protested vehemently against what they took to be a threat to file stability and integrity of traditional forms of marriage and the family in Hindu society. However, one of the most vehement critics of the government's proposals was Swami Karpatriji, a sanyasi who belonged to the Dandis, one of the orders founded by Shankara.

He had won respect for his knowledge of Sanskrit texts, his asceticism he had spent long periods in solitude in the Himalayas and for his skill as an orator.

It was a measure of his authority that he had been involved in the selection of the four major Shankarachryas. In he had founded the Dharma Sangh Association of Dharma , a cultural association for the defence of traditional Hinduism.One is this, that while the existing law requires identity of caste and sub-caste for a valid sacramental marriage, the Bill dispenses with this condition.

But the opinions collected in the Report of the Hindu Law Committee were collected before the drafting of the Bill, that is during the enquiry stage.

Thephysicalpresenceofwomenengagedinpicketing,boycottand other non-cooperative activities added a new dimension to the movement. It is also impossible to deal with some of the objections except from the border point of view. Coming to the provisions relating to maintenance, there is mostly nothing new in this part of the Bill.

Unfortunately, this country has had no kings for a long time to whose inspiring example the subjects could look up for any changes in society. The law reflects the society. Chairman : Does the Honourable Member want to speak for a longer time?