HEPATITIS C PDF
HEPATITIS C. General Information. What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the. The hepatitis C virus was considered by a previous IARC Working Group in (IARC,. ). .. Tablepdf) provides a detailed summary of the cohort. The goals of treatment is to eliminate HCV infection, stop or reverse histological changes, Diseases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) aetiology are.
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Information Booklet. HEPATITIS C. A Guide for Drug Users and their Families. Dr. Shay Keating, MB, PhD. providing adapting nurturing developing. Informing. The Natural History of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and. There has long been evidence that hepatitis C can lead to persis- tent infection in a high proportion of infected individuals, and can progress to chronic liver.
There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. More than 3 million people in the United States are living with chronic hepatitis C, and most do not feel ill or know they are infected. There are approximately 17, new hepatitis C cases each year in the United States, many of which go unreported.
Hepatitis C is transmitted through direct contact with blood from an infected person. The virus is most commonly transmitted through sharing of needles and syringes by injection drug users.
Healthcare providers are at risk through needle-stick injuries. Babies born to mothers with hepatitis C are also at risk. Less commonly, the hepatitis C virus is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected partner.
The risk of transmission increases for those who have multiple sex partners, have a sexually transmitted disease STD , engage in rough sex, or are infected with human immunodeficiency virus HIV.
Always use a condom or other latex barrier like a dental dam when you have sex to reduce risk of infection. Very rarely, hepatitis C is spread by sharing household objects such as razors and toothbrushes that have come in contact with another person's blood.
The degree of risk involved with getting a tattoo or piercing is less understood. No studies have shown hepatitis C to be spread through licensed, commercial tattoo facilities, however, transmission of hepatitis C is possible when poor infection-control practices are used.
Hepatitis C is not spread through sharing cups and utensils, or through hugging, kissing, shaking hands, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.
Hepatitis C: Screening
It is also not spread through food or water. Out of people with acute hepatitis C, about 70 to 80 of them have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they show up from six to seven weeks after exposure on average, or any time between two weeks and six months later. Symptoms might include:. Most people with chronic hepatitis C do not have symptoms and do not look or feel sick.
Even without symptoms, the liver may be damaged.
Diseases and Conditions
People with chronic hepatitis C are at risk for serious liver diseases such as cancer, cirrhosis scarring of the liver , or liver failure, all of which can be fatal but may not show signs for years.
Diseases caused by chronic hepatitis C are the leading cause of liver transplants in the United States. A risk factor is the chance that something will harm or otherwise affect a person's health. There are several blood tests available for hepatitis C, and they can be done as a single test or as a combination of tests. If you fall under any of the following categories, you should be tested for hepatitis C:.
Acute hepatitis C is typically an infection of short duration and is treatable. Acute infection can clear on its own without treatment in about 25 of every people. Two to twenty five weeks although the average is six to nine weeks. Typical Symptoms Most people who are infected with the hepatitis C virus do not have symptoms and lead normal lives. If symptoms are present they are generally mild flu-like symptoms, dark urine, light stools, jaundice, fatigue, and fever.
Diagnosis A simple blood test will tell if you have been exposed to the hepatitis C virus. More specific blood tests can assist in determining the status of the infection.
There are three stages. Persons may be in an acute stage in which the virus is rapidly attacking the liver. Persons in the acute stage may have symptoms but the majority are asymptomatic.
The virus may also be in a chronic stage during which time the virus is slowly attacking the liver. These data have been used periodically by the HCV Guidance Panel to explore HCV testing recommendations globally for comparison to the United States for consideration in updating the HCV Panel guidance when additional peer-review data is available to support inclusion of the category in the United States.
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Research methods A comprehensive search for current HCV testing recommendations from the top quartile of HDI countries was performed using a Google search with a combination of free text terms. Relevant terms included: country name, hepatitis C, HCV, screening, testing, recommendations, and guidelines. The Google results were then reviewed with experts in the field of hepatitis C including email and in-person interviews inquiring about any additional countries known to have HCV testing recommendations.
Testing recommendations were considered if they were from a government body or represented collaborative recommendations between a government and a medical organization. To be included in our analysis, recommendations needed to be available online May 1, October 2, From May 1-October 30, , two reviewers performed the initial searches and engaged consultants to identify HCV testing recommendations from very high HDI countries.
Two reviewers re-reviewed HCV testing recommendations through Google searches and follow up with expert consults from April 1-October 2, to identify and update any changes.
Research results Of the 51 countries identified, 16 had HCV testing recommendations from a government body or recommendations issued collaboratively between a government and a medical organization. Of these 16 countries, 15 had HCV testing recommendations that were primarily risk-based and highlight behaviors, exposures, and conditions that are associated with HCV transmission in that region. In addition to risk-based testing, the HCV Guidance Panel United States incorporates recommendations for a one-time test for individuals born during the birth cohort without prior ascertainment of risk into their guidance.
In addition to the United States, six other countries either have an age-based testing recommendation or recommend one-time testing for all adults independent of risk factors typical of the region.
After additional review of the available literature on the subject, donors were added to the HCV Panel guidance in and given an evidence of rating of Class I, Level B. Research perspectives HCV testing recommendations from very high HDI countries will be continually reviewed and as new risk categories or universal screening recommendations are identified, they will be considered for incorporation into the HCV Panel guidance when peer-reviewed evidence is available to support the incorporation of the HCV testing practices in the United States.
Footnotes Conflict-of-interest statement: Dr. Irvin has nothing to disclose. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
References 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV and Viral Hepatitis Alqahtani S, Sulkowski M. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. N Engl J Med.
The treatment cascade for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Epidemiology and management of hepatitis C virus infections in immigrant populations
Preventive Services Task Force.These data have been used periodically by the HCV Guidance Panel to explore HCV testing recommendations globally for comparison to the United States for consideration in updating the HCV Panel guidance when additional peer-review data is available to support inclusion of the category in the United States.
Cirrhosis and complications - General hepatology. The identified HCV recommendations were evaluated for similarities and differences. Resistance-associated variants are naturally produced during the HCV replication.
Therefore, pretreatment assessments are needed for the anti-HCV treatments containing interferon, including HCV genotype determination, liver disease staging e.