CISCO PRESS OPTICAL NETWORK DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION PDF
A comprehensive guide to understanding and configuring multiservice DWDM, SONET, and SDH architectures Optical Network Design and. A comprehensive book on DWDM network design and implementation solutions. Design and evaluate optical components in a DWDM network (PDF), which is defined as the first order derivative of the distribution function F(x), shown in. Optical Network Design and Implementation provides in-depth coverage of the following: This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press, books online, books to read online, online library, greatbooks to read, PDF.
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Optical Network Design and Implementation. 1 review. by Vivek Alwayn. Publisher: Cisco Press. Release Date: March ISBN: View table of. Optical Network Design and Implementation (eBook, PDF) - Alwayn, Vivek . Inc. This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press, which. —Alan Repech, System Architect, Cisco Systems Optical Transport. This book Wide Area Network Design: Concepts and Tools for Optimization. Robert S. Cahn on capacity provided by public networks to implement their private networks, par- ticularly if these these days from the business press. A number of.
Another type of fiber-optic cable is called multi-mode. Each optical fiber in a multi-mode cable is about 10 times bigger than one in a single-mode cable.
This means light beams can travel through the core by following a variety of different paths yellow, orange, blue, and cyan lines —in other words, in multiple different modes. Multi-mode cables can send information only over relatively short distances and are used among other things to link computer networks together.
Even thicker fibers are used in a medical tool called a gastroscope a type of endoscope , which doctors poke down someone's throat for detecting illnesses inside their stomach. A gastroscope is a thick fiber-optic cable consisting of many optical fibers.
At the top end of a gastroscope, there is an eyepiece and a lamp. The lamp shines its light down one part of the cable into the patient's stomach.
When the light reaches the stomach, it reflects off the stomach walls into a lens at the bottom of the cable. Then it travels back up another part of the cable into the doctor's eyepiece.
Other types of endoscopes work the same way and can be used to inspect different parts of the body. There is also an industrial version of the tool, called a fiberscope, which can be used to examine things like inaccessible pieces of machinery in airplane engines. Try this fiber-optic experiment! This nice little experiment is a modern-day recreation of a famous scientific demonstration carried out by Irish physicist John Tyndall in It's best to do it in a darkened bathroom or kitchen at the sink or washbasin.
You'll need an old clear, plastic drinks bottle, the brightest flashlight torch you can find, some aluminum foil, and some sticky tape. Take the plastic bottle and wrap aluminum foil tightly around the sides, leaving the top and bottom of the bottle uncovered. If you need to, hold the foil in place with sticky tape. Fill the bottle with water.
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Switch on the flashlight and press it against the base of the bottle so the light shines up inside the water. It works best if you press the flashlight tightly against the bottle. You need as much light to enter the bottle as possible, so use the brightest flashlight you can find.
Standing by the sink, tilt the bottle so the water starts to pour out. Keep the flashlight pressed tight against the bottle. If the room is darkened, you should see the spout of water lighting up ever so slightly. Notice how the water carries the light, with the light beam bending as it goes!
If you can't see much light in the water spout, try a brighter flashlight. Photo: Seen from below, your water bottle should look like this when it's wrapped in aluminum foil. The foil stops light leaking out from the sides of the bottle. Don't cover the bottom of the bottle or light won't be able to get in.
The black object on the right is my flashlight, just before I pressed it against the bottle. You can already see some of its light shining into the bottom of the bottle. Uses for fiber optics Shooting light down a pipe seems like a neat scientific party trick, and you might not think there'd be many practical applications for something like that.
But just as electricity can power many types of machines, beams of light can carry many types of information—so they can help us in many ways. We don't notice just how commonplace fiber-optic cables have become because the laser-powered signals they carry flicker far beneath our feet, deep under office floors and city streets. The technologies that use it—computer networking, broadcasting, medical scanning, and military equipment to name just four —do so quite invisibly.
Computer networks Fiber-optic cables are now the main way of carrying information over long distances because they have three very big advantages over old-style copper cables: Less attenuation: signal loss Information travels roughly 10 times further before it needs amplifying—which makes fiber networks simpler and cheaper to operate and maintain.
No interference: Unlike with copper cables, there's no "crosstalk" electromagnetic interference between optical fibers, so they transmit information more reliably with better signal quality Higher bandwidth: As we've already seen, fiber-optic cables can carry far more data than copper cables of the same diameter.
You're reading these words now thanks to the Internet. You probably chanced upon this page with a search engine like Google, which operates a worldwide network of giant data centers connected by vast-capacity fiber-optic cables and is now trying to roll out fast fiber connections to the rest of us. Having clicked on a search engine link, you've downloaded this web page from my web server and my words have whistled most of the way to you down more fiber-optic cables. Indeed, if you're using fast fiber-optic broadband, optical fiber cables are doing almost all the work every time you go online.
With most high-speed broadband connections, only the last part of the information's journey the so-called "last mile" from the fiber-connected cabinet on your street to your house or apartment involves old-fashioned wires. It's fiber-optic cables, not copper wires, that now carry "likes" and "tweets" under our streets, through an increasing number of rural areas, and even deep beneath the oceans linking continents.
If you picture the Internet and the World Wide Web that rides on it as a global spider's web, the strands holding it together are fiber-optic cables; according to some estimates, fiber cables cover over 99 percent of the Internet's total mileage , and carry over 99 percent of all international communications traffic.
The faster people can access the Internet, the more they can—and will—do online. The arrival of broadband Internet made possible the phenomenon of cloud computing where people store and process their data remotely, using online services instead of a home or business PC in their own premises.
In much the same way, the steady rollout of fiber broadband typically 5—10 times faster than conventional DSL broadband, which uses ordinary telephone lines will make it much more commonplace for people to do things like streaming movies online instead of watching broadcast TV or renting DVDs.
With more fiber capacity and faster connections, we'll be tracking and controlling many more aspects of our lives online using the so-called Internet of things. But it's not just public Internet data that streams down fiber-optic lines. Computers were once connected over long distances by telephone lines or over shorter distances copper Ethernet cables, but fiber cables are increasingly the preferred method of networking computers because they're very affordable, secure, reliable, and have much higher capacity.
Instead of linking its offices over the public Internet, it's perfectly possible for a company to set up its own fiber network if it can afford to do so or more likely buy space on a private fiber network. Many private computer networks run on what's called dark fiber, which sounds a bit sinister, but is simply the unused capacity on another network optical fibers waiting to be lit up.
The Internet was cleverly designed to ferry any kind of information for any kind of use; it's not limited to carrying computer data. While telephone lines once carried the Internet, now the fiber-optic Internet carries telephone and Skype calls instead.
Optical network design and implementation
Where telephone calls were once routed down an intricate patchwork of copper cables and microwave links between cities, most long-distance calls are now routed down fiber-optic lines. Vast quantities of fiber were laid from the s onward; estimates vary wildly, but the worldwide total is believed to be several hundred million kilometers enough to cross the United States about a million times.
In the mids, it was estimated that as much as 98 percent of this was unused "dark fiber"; today, although much more fiber is in use, it's still generally believed that most networks contain anywhere from a third to a half dark fiber.
Photo: Fiber-optic networks are expensive to construct largely because it costs so much to dig up streets. Because the labor and construction costs are much more expensive than the cable itself, many network operators deliberately lay much more cable than they currently need. Broadcasting Back in the early 20th century, radio and TV broadcasting was born from a relatively simple idea: it was technically quite easy to shoot electromagnetic waves through the air from a single transmitter at the broadcasting station to thousands of antennas on people's homes.
These days, while radio still beams through the air, we're just as likely to get our TV through fiber-optic cables. Cable TV companies pioneered the transition from the s onward, originally using coaxial cables copper cables with a sheath of metal screening wrapped around them to prevents crosstalk interference , which carried just a handful of analog TV signals.
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As more and more people connected to cable and the networks started to offer greater choice of channels and programs, cable operators found they needed to switch from coaxial cables to optical fibers and from analog to digital broadcasting. Fortunately, scientists were already figuring out how that might be possible; as far back as , Charles Kao and his colleague George Hockham had done the math, proving how a single optical fiber cable might carry enough data for several hundred TV channels or several hundred thousand telephone calls.
It was only a matter of time before the world of cable TV took notice—and Kao's "groundbreaking achievement" was properly recognized when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. Apart from offering much higher capacity, optical fibers suffer less from interference, so offer better signal picture and sound quality; they need less amplification to boost signals so they travel over long distances; and they're altogether more cost effective.
In the future, fiber broadband may well be how most of us watch television, perhaps through systems such as IPTV Internet Protocol Television , which uses the Internet's standard way of carrying data "packet switching" to serve TV programs and movies on demand. While the copper telephone line is still the primary information route into many people's homes, in the future, our main connection to the world will be a high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable carrying any and every kind of information.
Medicine Medical gadgets that could help doctors peer inside our bodies without cutting them open were the first proper application of fiber optics over a half century ago.
Today, gastroscopes as these things are called are just as important as ever, but fiber optics continues to spawn important new forms of medical scanning and diagnosis. One of the latest developments is called a lab on a fiber, and involves inserting hair-thin fiber-optic cables, with built-in sensors, into a patient's body.
These sorts of fibers are similar in scale to the ones in communication cables and thinner than the relatively chunky light guides used in gastroscopes. How do they work? Light zaps through them from a lamp or laser, through the part of the body the doctor wants to study. Fibre optic metropolitan area networks were operated by telephone companies as private networks for their customers, and did not necessarily have full integation with the public wide area network WAN through gateways.
In West Berlin the BERCOM project built up a multifunctional broadband communications system to connect the mainframe computers that publicly funded universities and research institutions in the city housed. Like other metropolitan dark fibre networks at the time, the dark fibre network in West Berlin had a star topology with a hub somewhere in the city centre. MANs thus became cheaper to build and maintain. Thus companies that paid for a MAN to connect different office sites within a city could increase the bandwidths of their MAN backbone as part of their subscription.
Effectively it gave companies wishing to establish a MAN choice of protocol.
Optical Network Design and Implementation
Between and the Sprint Corporation build five Metro Ethernet rings to connect the metropolitan areas. Metro Ethernet , where a fibre optic ring within a larger city was built as MAN backbone carrying Gigabit Ethernet , became common. The ring topology was implemented using the Internet protocol IP , so that data could be rerouted if a link was congested or one of the links that was part of the ring failed.
Between and Sprint build three MAN rings to cover San Francisco , Oakland and San Jose , and in turn connected these three metro rings with a further two rings.The Amsterdam metropolitan area network has benefited too from high speed Internet access.
ONS Timing. SDH Network Management. The Sprint metro rings routed voice and data, were connected to several local telecom exchange points, and totalled miles of fibre optic cable. The book explains the differences among various MAN technologies, getting you up to speed on the solutions you need to use. Fibre optic metropolitan area networks were operated by telephone companies as private networks for their customers, and did not necessarily have full integation with the public wide area network WAN through gateways.
Fiber-Optic Communications System.
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