Politics Biodiversity Notes Pdf


Friday, October 25, 2019

Biodiversity - Teachers' Notes plus Activities. Biodiversity is one of those words which have crept into our consciousness since the s. Biodiversity is short for . UNIT 4: Biodiversity. INTRODUCTION – DEFINITION: GENETIC, SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY. Genetic diversity. Species diversity. at which biodiversity can be measured: ecosystems or organisms. .. On a final note, it is crucial to realize that behavioral ecology concerns itself with the.

Biodiversity Notes Pdf

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Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological Three levels of biodiversity are commonly discussed — genetic, species and. New York assessing the economics of biodiversity conservation and relates to a . Note that it will also pay not to retain the species if it can be .. or see lists in. Biodiversity Conservation. importance of biodiversity for our survival and well- being on this planet. . Note that on log scale the relationship.

The causes of these declines are multiple, but habitat destruction and the use of pesticide are especially important.

Biodiversity: Types, Importance and Conservation Methods (with diagram)

Estimates of the global annual monetary value of pollination vary widely, but they are in the order of hundreds of billions of dollars C Climate regulation Biodiversity influences climate at local, regional, and global scales, thus changes in land use and land cover that affect biodiversity can affect climate.

The important components of biodiversity include plant functional diversity and the type and distribution of habitats across landscapes. For example, forests have higher evapotranspiration than other ecosystems, such as grasslands, because of their deeper roots and greater leaf area. Thus forests have a net moistening effect on the atmosphere and become a moisture source for downwind ecosystems. In addition to biodiversity within habitats, the diversity of habitats in a landscape exerts additional impacts on climate across multiple scales.

This air is replaced by cooler moister air that flows laterally from adjacent patches advection. Climate models suggest that these landscape-level effects can substantially modify local-to-regional climate.

The State of the World’s

In Western Australia, for example, the replacement of native heath vegetation by wheatlands increased regional albedo. As a result, air tended to rise over the dark more solar-absorptive and therefore warmer heathland, drawing moist air from the wheatlands to the heathlands.

Some components of biodiversity affect carbon sequestration and thus are important in carbon-based climate change mitigation when afforestation, reforestation, reduced deforestation, and biofuel plantations are involved high certainty. Biodiversity affects carbon sequestration primarily through its effects on species characteristics, which determine how much carbon is taken up from the atmosphere assimilation and how much is released into it decomposition, combustion.

Particularly important are how fast plants can grow, which governs carbon inputs, and woodiness, which enhances carbon sequestration because woody plants tend to contain more carbon, live longer, and decompose more slowly than smaller herbaceous plants.

Plant species also strongly influence carbon loss via decomposition and their effects on disturbance. Plant traits also influence the probability of disturbances such as fire, windthrow, and human harvest, which temporarily change forests from accumulating carbon to releasing it C The major importance of marine biodiversity in climate regulation appears to be via its effect on biogeochemical cycling and carbon sequestration.

The ocean, through its sheer volume and links to the terrestrial biosphere, plays a huge role in cycling of almost every material involved in biotic processes.

Of these, the anthropogenic effects on carbon and nitrogen cycling are especially prominent. So, it is highly essential for the human beings to take care of their surrounding species and make optimum use of their service, for better economic development.

Thus, it is rightly told, survival of the man depends upon the survival of the biosphere.

Uses of Biodiversity: Biodiversity has the following uses for the development humanity: i It provides food of all types. All these services together are valued Threats to Biodiversity: Biodiversity is considered as a reservoir of resources to be used for the manufacture of food, medicine, industrial products, etc. But with an increased demand of rapid population growth, biodiversity is gradually depleting.


The different factors responsible for causing threat to biodiversity are as follows: 1. Habitat destruction: The primary cause of loss of biodiversity is habitat loss or destruction which is resulted due to the large industrial and commercial activities associated with agriculture, irrigation, construction of dams, mining, fishing etc.

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Habitat fragmentation: With increased population, the habitats are fragmented into pieces by roads, fields, canals, power lines, towns etc. The isolated fragment of habitats restricts the potential of species for dispersal and colonization.

In addition, the habitat fragmentation also brings about microclimatic changes in light, temperature, wind etc. Pollution: The most dreaded factor inducing loss of biodiversity is environmental pollution which include air pollution, Water pollution, industrial pollution, pollution due to chemical Pastes, pesticides radioactive materials etc. Over exploitation: The natural resources are over exploited to meet growing rural poverty, intensive technological growth and globalization of economy.

All these factors together may be responsible for the extinction of a number of species. Introduction of exotic species: The introduction of exotic species are due to: i horticulture iii European colonisation and iv accidental transport. It is seen that some exotic species may kill or eat the native species thereby causing its extinction. Diseases: Since the animals are more vulnerable to infection, the anthropological activities may increase the incidence of diseases in wild species, leading to their extinction.

Shifting or Jhum cultivation: The shifting or Jhum cultivation by poor tribal people greatly affects the forest structure which is a store house of biodiversity.Term germplasm refers to any of plant organ or its part living fromwhich new plants can be generated.

The insitu conservation strategies stress on protection of totalecosystems through a network of protected areas. Economic value: Biodiversity has great economic value because economic development depends upon efficient and economic management of biotic resources.

Some research andeducational activities are permitted here. In INDIA,the 1st botanical garden was established in Bombay in byagricultural society and in one more garden was established inmadras. Over 99 percent of bacteria and protist species remain unknown. SlideShare Explore Search You.

Biodiversity of the Earth 4.