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APOSTILA ARRAIS PDF

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The relay on the bottom board is damaged. Replace with a new relay. The fan is on, the Contact the manufacturer or certified service personnel.

The abnormal pilot light is 1. The welding cable is broken. The ground is improperly connected to the work piece. The problem pilot light is 1.

The nozzle is oxidized or too far away. Remove the oxidization on not on.

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Otherwise, contact the manufacturer or certified service personnel. Over-current protection may have initialized. Either wait for 2 or on. The output current is not 1. Check connections on the front panel. The machine does not cut 1. The input voltage is too low. The ground cable is not well-connected.

The air pressure is too high or too low. The nozzle and electrode of the torch do not fit well, or the input current is too low. Plug Wiring Instruction Do not attempt to wire or handle high voltage without proper training. Contact an electrician to help you install an electrical outlet or connect an electrical plug to your machine.

Regardless of which machine you have, it will require power to operate properly. Do not assume you know which wires to connect until you read this manual completely as colors may be deceiving. All machines are 1 phase unless otherwise stated.

Whenever a narrow base is used, the structure must be most carefully considered. The power to carry sail is quite different from stability range. A naval architect evaluates both at small heel angles by measuring the vertical span between the centre of gravity and the metacentre where, at a small heel angle, a vertical line through the centre of buoyancy cuts the heeled centre plane.

The product of this height and the tangent a trigonometrical function of the heel angle gives the righting arm at small angles, which, multiplied by the displacement, gives the righting moment. The displacement is constant but with increasing heel the righting moment is strongly dependent on hull shape and the ratio of beam-to-hull body depth.

A beamy shoal-bodied boat will have great upright metacentric height but without a large heeled righting moment.

With increasing heel the righting moment will diminish as the righting arm shrinks and becomes negative. The first example, the beamy boat, will feel stiff but must be kept upright to use the power of her rig while the deeper boat can benefit from plenty of sail power up to a large heel angle.

The beamy, lighter yacht depends greatly on crew weight to minimise heel so as to maintain sail power and speed. Comfort is another characteristic related to beam. In respect of reducing the ingress of water into the cabin, I should like to refer favourably to the Dorade ventilator.

Despite its appearance and the many efforts to do something better it still leads in supplying maximum air and minimum water. Like other vents, the Dorade can admit solid water if fully immersed in a capsize. Preparation for the most extreme conditions should include replacement of the cowl with a deck plate.

It is well to avoid companionways and other deck openings that are away from the centreline where they are at increased risk of down-flooding. Galleys should be arranged so that cooks can wedge or strap themselves in place and, if possible, out of the path of spilled hot food.

The water supply must be divided between several tanks, each with its individual shutoff valve. This will save the supply in case of leakage or contamination and also helps weight distribution and thus trim.

The effect of water surging about within the tank is reduced. Engine exhaust systems may admit water in bad weather, though careful design can minimise that problem. Rigs must be designed for the high but uncertain loads of heavy weather. It seems evident that many racing rigs lack the strength to stay in place. Improved analytical methods such as finite element design have not replaced basic calculations based on the righting moment and the consequent rigging loads that apply tension at the chain plates and compression in the mast.

Most designers use Euler column methods often with assumptions on end fixity and safety factors based on their experience. Such assumptions will vary but they must be generous so as to allow for the unexpectedly severe conditions of heavy weather sailing. Rig geometry and sail shape seem to be a matter of personal preference.

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Under severe conditions two independently supported masts can be recommended. Strong storm sails and arrangements to set them quickly and easily are essential to a well-found offshore yacht. The storm sails should not be too large. No more than one third of mainsail area is suggested for the storm trysail and about 5 per cent of forestay length squared for the storm jib.

Sail area, relative to stability, can often relate to the home port and cruising grounds, and is usually influenced by comfort more than by safety. Sail can always be shortened but too large a working rig means frequent reefing or sailing at an uncomfortable angle of heel. Although drawn up for racing yachts there is a great deal of good sense in these regulations.

I recommend a study and implementation of these regulations to anyone preparing to sail offshore.

On the subject of hull geometry I have stressed the ratio of beam to hull depth. There are other considerations, less vital but still important.

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Positive and easy steering control is one such. In this day of analytical yacht design there is still no subject more deserving of intensive study than that of balance and steering control. Possibly the lack of understanding explains why there are few subjects that stir greater differences of opinion than the shape of the lateral plane including keel and rudder.

Course stability is often characterised as that condition in which, without the adjustment of the steering mechanism, a boat sailing a given course when diverted by an external force will return to the initial course. This could be a definition of self-steering ability. Many boats can be trimmed to steer themselves under the right conditions but few will do so on all courses and wind strengths.

The forces involved and the direction of their application and the tendency of the hull to turn one way or another at different heel angles and speeds form a very complex system. We can accept these difficulties and yet still ask for steering that is light and responsive; this can be hard for the designer to attain.

A long keel is frequently cited as the best solution. Probably it is, if light weather speed is less important than good manners on the helm, and if the length extends well aft. The disadvantage is the great wetted area associated with the long keel. With such a keel, turning is necessarily less abrupt, and second, a large part of the lateral plane is abaft the centre of gravity.

Consider the converse with keel area forward, and visualise a sea turning the boat. If the balance between spinnaker and mainsail is lost, the boat will heel over and forces may be generated that are more than the rudder can correct.

The yacht will adopt the angle shown, and due to the buoyancy of the wide stern the rudder may be partly out of the water, making recovery difficult. Although this is a frequent occurrence with modern racing yachts, and unnerving for those who are not accustomed to it, damage to the yacht or injury to the crew is rare. Photo: PPL to turn continually further from the intended direction. Conversely if the tow point, the centre of gravity, where the force is applied, is forward of the pivot, the centre of lateral resistance CLR , then the more the course changes the more the direction of the inertial, or tow, force is directed back toward the original course.

I should add that this principle of sailing balance is not universally accepted, though to some it seems evident.

Small wetted area carries with it advantages that have resulted in the almost universal adoption of the short keel and separate rudder. Comparatively it means equal performance with less sail area, especially in light weather, or to windward when speeds are low.

Using a short keel the required position of the ballast dictates the location of the keel that further dictates the location of the CLR. This disadvantage can be lessened by locating disposable weights as far forward as possible, permitting the ballast keel to come aft, but such gains are limited and the best available strategy to move the CLR aft seems to be to use a large skeg and rudder.

These serve the function of feathers on the arrow. Most new boats follow this pattern and they can behave well, exhibiting no loss of steering control, the ability to heave to or other good seagoing characteristics. Other characteristics that seem to contribute to good manners are reasonably balanced, yet buoyant, ends and moderate to light displacement see Figs 1.

Easy and positive control is valuable in a big sea. For the sake of an easy and steady helm the pressure of the water on the hull must be evenly distributed and constant over the range of speed and heel. Long lines, minimally rounded, with relatively constant curvature make for constant water velocity, and thus constant pressure, over the hull surface. The centre of gravity, so crucial to stability, will be affected by sails, especially those that are roller furled.

This suggests the need for some allowance over a stated minimum. At least the IMS rule favours hulls with a low centre of gravity, a better situation than the IOR that encouraged an unwholesomely high centre of gravity.

For beam and hull depth, moderation is the best course. Beam offers initial stability and roominess, but too much of it reduces the range of positive stability and results in quick motion. Depth provides easier motion, headroom, structural continuity and space for some bilge water; all desirable but less conducive to high speed.

Heavy ballast contributes to range of stability but also gives quick motion. The damage to Vertue XXXV, described in earlier editions of Heavy Weather Sailing, was caused by a breaking sea which threw her over and down smashing the lee side of her cabin trunk coach roof , a vulnerable structure, at best, due to structural discontinuity. A similar occurrence was the damage to Puffin, one of my own designs and not quite so small, but hit hard at a weak point.

The potential weakness of the coach roof in the smaller boat should not be seen as a condemnation. The coach roof provides headroom. It can also contribute usefully to range of stability by virtue of its volume if the hull is free of water. It is simply a reminder that any structural discontinuity and all corners can be sources of weakness and should be carefully designed and built.

It is clear that the trend to thin keels, narrow at the hull juncture, weakens an already highly loaded spot. High loads in that area cause stress in keel bolts, the keel and the associated hull structure. Whenever a narrow base is used, the structure must be most carefully considered. The power to carry sail is quite different from stability range. A naval architect evaluates both at small heel angles by measuring the vertical span between the centre of gravity and the metacentre where, at a small heel angle, a vertical line through the centre of buoyancy cuts the heeled centre plane.

The product of this height and the tangent a trigonometrical function of the heel angle gives the righting arm at small angles, which, multiplied by the displacement, gives the righting moment. The displacement is constant but with increasing heel the righting moment is strongly dependent on hull shape and the ratio of beam-to-hull body depth.

A beamy shoal-bodied boat will have great upright metacentric height but without a large heeled righting moment. With increasing heel the righting moment will diminish as the righting arm shrinks and becomes negative. The first example, the beamy boat, will feel stiff but must be kept upright to use the power of her rig while the deeper boat can benefit from plenty of sail power up to a large heel angle. The beamy, lighter yacht depends greatly on crew weight to minimise heel so as to maintain sail power and speed.

Comfort is another characteristic related to beam. In respect of reducing the ingress of water into the cabin, I should like to refer favourably to the Dorade ventilator. Despite its appearance and the many efforts to do something better it still leads in supplying maximum air and minimum water.

Like other vents, the Dorade can admit solid water if fully immersed in a capsize. Preparation for the most extreme conditions should include replacement of the cowl with a deck plate. It is well to avoid companionways and other deck openings that are away from the centreline where they are at increased risk of down-flooding.

Galleys should be arranged so that cooks can wedge or strap themselves in place and, if possible, out of the path of spilled hot food. The water supply must be divided between several tanks, each with its individual shutoff valve. This will save the supply in case of leakage or contamination and also helps weight distribution and thus trim. The effect of water surging about within the tank is reduced. Engine exhaust systems may admit water in bad weather, though careful design can minimise that problem.

Rigs must be designed for the high but uncertain loads of heavy weather. It seems evident that many racing rigs lack the strength to stay in place. Improved analytical methods such as finite element design have not replaced basic calculations based on the righting moment and the consequent rigging loads that apply tension at the chain plates and compression in the mast. Most designers use Euler column methods often with assumptions on end fixity and safety factors based on their experience.

Such assumptions will vary but they must be generous so as to allow for the unexpectedly severe conditions of heavy weather sailing. Rig geometry and sail shape seem to be a matter of personal preference.

Under severe conditions two independently supported masts can be recommended. Strong storm sails and arrangements to set them quickly and easily are essential to a well-found offshore yacht.

The storm sails should not be too large. No more than one third of mainsail area is suggested for the storm trysail and about 5 per cent of forestay length squared for the storm jib. Sail area, relative to stability, can often relate to the home port and cruising grounds, and is usually influenced by comfort more than by safety.

Sail can always be shortened but too large a working rig means frequent reefing or sailing at an uncomfortable angle of heel. Although drawn up for racing yachts there is a great deal of good sense in these regulations.

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I recommend a study and implementation of these regulations to anyone preparing to sail offshore. On the subject of hull geometry I have stressed the ratio of beam to hull depth. There are other considerations, less vital but still important. Positive and easy steering control is one such. In this day of analytical yacht design there is still no subject more deserving of intensive study than that of balance and steering control.

Possibly the lack of understanding explains why there are few subjects that stir greater differences of opinion than the shape of the lateral plane including keel and rudder. Course stability is often characterised as that condition in which, without the adjustment of the steering mechanism, a boat sailing a given course when diverted by an external force will return to the initial course.

This could be a definition of self-steering ability. Many boats can be trimmed to steer themselves under the right conditions but few will do so on all courses and wind strengths. The forces involved and the direction of their application and the tendency of the hull to turn one way or another at different heel angles and speeds form a very complex system.

We can accept these difficulties and yet still ask for steering that is light and responsive; this can be hard for the designer to attain. A long keel is frequently cited as the best solution.

Probably it is, if light weather speed is less important than good manners on the helm, and if the length extends well aft. The disadvantage is the great wetted area associated with the long keel.

With such a keel, turning is necessarily less abrupt, and second, a large part of the lateral plane is abaft the centre of gravity. Consider the converse with keel area forward, and visualise a sea turning the boat. If the balance between spinnaker and mainsail is lost, the boat will heel over and forces may be generated that are more than the rudder can correct.Related to freeboard is sheer.

Ensure that copper screw at the opposite end of the torch is securely connected to the torch. Connect the mobile plug at one end of the grounding cable pincer to the positive terminal located on the front panel. The way in which it works is when a gasoline station within your region drops costs, the website Discount Tire alerts you electronically in order that you are able to fill up when rates are very low. It is measured by the moment of inertia and is usually expressed as the gyradius that relates the moment of inertia to displacement.

It was apparent that the hull, which was bending significantly under load, did not properly support the keel.

Eldio Klen. Please allow me to have the chance to express my satisfaction with Host Gator web hosting. Check that you are connected to the network, and that your network is functioning correctly. Even some slight rounding on a long radius extends the period of impact, reducing the tendency to slam.