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APA STYLE MANUAL 6TH EDITION PDF

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What is APA? Your assignment states – Please reference using the APA style - 6th ed. Refer to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) [from here . 6ABC0EA// DBSCH_SCR__pdf. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual is devoted in large part to interpreting these advances and incorporating them into the style lexicon, It is my hope that. The Publication Manual of the APA, 6th ed., is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, and educators in the Table of Contents (PDF, KB).


Apa Style Manual 6th Edition Pdf

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It is highly recommended to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological. Association, 6th ed., for additional information on APA style. Copies of the APA Publication . eBook without DOI (). Reference. Niemann, S. APA STYLE MANUAL – 6 th. Ed. HOW TO USE. Documenting Sources. APA requires the use of in-text parenthetical citations, not footnotes. These in-text citations lead readers . journals/releases/devpdf. Articles from an Internet-only. APA Style – 6 th edition. Latest revision: September examples and you can also look up the APA manual. We currently hold six copies of the.

Surveys in social research. Book chapter McKenzie, H. Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. Crouch Eds. Journal article Cheung, J. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 16 1 , Toward an understanding of the determinants of rural health.

APA Manual 6th Edition 1. Reza Fahmi. Sixth Edition Publication. All rights reserved. Except as permit- reproduced ted under the United States Copyright Act of , no part of this publication may be or distributed in any form or by any means, including, but not limited to, the process of scanning and digitization, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Box Washington, DC Tel: Jennifer L.

Includes bibliographical references and index. Psychology—Authorship—Style manuals. Social sciences—Authorship— Style manuals. American Psychological Association. P83 '. Writing Clearly and Concisely 61 Organization 61 3. Describe at the Appropriate Level of Specificity 71 Guideline 2: Be Sensitive to Labels 72 Guideline 3: Acknowledge Participation 73 Reducing Bias by Topic 73 3.

The Mechanics of Style 87 Punctuation 87 4. Crediting Sources When to Cite 6. References to Legal Materials A7. The Publication Process Editorial Process 8. The creators of the manuscript included psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers who convened under the sponsorship of the National Research Council.

They sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehen- sion. This goal was subsequently embraced not only by psychologists but also by schol- ars in other social and behavioral sciences who wished to enhance the dissemination of knowledge in their respective fields.

Uniform style helps us to cull articles quickly for key points and findings. Rules of style in scientific writing encourage full disclosure of essential information and allow us to dispense with minor distractions.

Style helps us express the key elements of quan- titative results, choose the graphic form that will best suit our analyses, report critical details of our research protocol, and describe individuals with accuracy and respect. It removes the distraction of puzzling over the correct punctuation for a reference or the proper form for numbers in text. Those elements are codified in the rules we follow for clear communication, allowing us to focus our intellectual energy on the substance of our research.

Today, Style sets a standard that is realized in APA journals, books, and electron- ic databases. In my tenure as APA publisher, the APA Journals program has grown from one that publishes 17, pages a year to one that publishes 37, pages a year. The APA Books program has grown from 12 books to over 1, books as well as psychother- apy training videos. APA electronic products have grown from one database to five data- bases that offer users immediate connection to abstracts, books, journals, reviews, and quality gray literature.

This profusion of scholarship has been supported and defined by the guidance provided in the Publication Manual. The Publication Manual is consulted not only by psychologists but also by stu- dents and researchers in education, social work, nursing, business, and many other behavioral and social sciences. Its standards are available in English as well as Spanish, Portuguese, Korean, Chinese, and many other languages. A central focus of delibera- tion for this edition has been the way in which web-based technological innovations have altered the way we conceptualize, conduct, and consume scientific research.

The sixth edition of the Publication Manual is devoted in large part to interpreting these advances and incorporating them into the style lexicon, It is my hope that, in concert with our other reference products, it will serve as a solid base for all of your scientific communications.

Gary R.

We rfo began the revision process in by looking closely at the fifth edition, ana- lyzing more than five years of accumulated user feedback; evaluating published criti- cism; and commissioning reviews from senior editors in psychology, education, nurs- ing, history, and business.

After deliberation of and debate about these comments, the APA Publications and Communications Board set broad parameters for the revision and appointed a panel of experienced editors and scientists from diverse specialty areas to collaborate with dedicated staff on the revision. They determined that revisions were needed in seven key areas: Working groups of experts were established to support the work of the task force in each area.

Those recommendations were passed along to working group and task force members for consideration. Thus, this edition of the Publication Manual is the result of creative collaboration with many groups and individuals.

Referencing and Citation Styles: APA 6th

They devoted many hours to analyzing reviews, consid- ering the scholarly publishing climate, identifying topics in need of greater coverage, meeting with working group members to generate and revise text, critiquing and dis- cussing new drafts, and poring over the final draft with a persistent commitment to getting it right. We are fortunate to have benefited so thoroughly from their enthusias- tic and generous support of this project.

They dialed in faithfully to join Webex confer- ence calls, collaborating to ensure accurate and comprehensive coverage for their respective areas.

We benefited from the welcome blend of tact, humor, and insight that they brought to this project. Early in the revision process, we solicited critiques from selected core users, that is, from senior editors and writers in the areas of psychology, nursing, education, and business. The overall recommendations gained from those individuals greatly influ- enced the approach taken in planning this edition of the Publication Manual.

Schroth, Martha Storandt, and Sandra P. On a related note, we are indebted to Linda Beebe and the PsycINFO staff for their invaluable guidance on how evolving technolo- gies continue to affect the reading, storage, and retrieval of scholarly work.

To guide us in our commitment to provide sound and timely instruction on scien- tific reporting, we solicited comments from several APA boards and committees. Several writing instructors and coaches contacted us with suggestions for making APA Style more accessible for students. Nora Kisch, Julianne Rovesti, Peter Gaviorno, and the entire sales and marketing team have worked tirelessly to inform the broad social science community about the new edition.

We are particular- ly grateful to Jennifer Macomber for her skilled and meticulous care in shepherding the manuscript through production. Finally, we thank Anne Woodworth Gasque, who man- aged the process with ingenuity and grace, for her superb stewardship of this project. Maxwell Kevin Cokley Valerie F.

Reyna Sari H. Dworkjn Kenneth J. Sher Alba A. Fisher Statistics Lenore W. Eighty years later, we launch the sixth edition of the Publication Manual in the same spirit. Over the years, the Publication Manual has grown by necessity from a simple set of style rules to an authoritative source on all aspects of scholarly writing, from the ethics of duplicate publication to the word choice that best reduces bias in language.

The rules of APA Style are drawn from an extensive body of psychological litera- ture, from editors and authors experienced in scholarly writing, and from recognized authorities on publication practices. This edition of the Publication Manual has been extensively revised to reflect new standards in publishing and new practices in infor- mation dissemination. Since the last edition of the manual was published, we have gone from a population that reads articles to one that "consumes content.

To provide readers with guidance on how these and other developments have affected scholarly publishing, we have reordered and condensed the manual signifi- cantly. Our first goal was to simplify the reader's job by compiling all information on a topic in a single place.

We have ordered information in accordance with the publica- tion process, beginning with the idea stage and ending with the publication stage. We have retained and strengthened the basic rules of APA writing style and the guidelines on avoiding bias in language that were first published by APA more than 30 years ago.

Most important, we have significantly expanded guidance on ethics, statistics, journal article reporting standards, electronic reference formats, and the construction of tables and figures.

At www. Organization of the Sixth Edition In Chapter 1, we acquaint readers with the types of articles common in scholarly pub- lications. We also describe the role of ethics in publishing and offer guidance in follow- ing best practices for compliance. In Chapter 2, we define all parts of a scholarly manuscript, from title to appendix, emphasizing both function and form.

We also summarize current reporting standards for journal articles. The chapter ends with sample papers that illustrate the rules of APA Style. In Chapter 3, we offer basic guidance on planning and writing the article. We advise readers on how to organize their thoughts, choose effective words, and describe individuals with accuracy and sensitivity. In Chapter 4, we instruct readers on the nuts and bolts of style: Consistency in the use of these basic aspects of style is key to clear scientific communication.

In Chapter 5, we describe the effective use of graphic elements in text and provide readers with illustrations of graphic elements that are useful for the presentation of data in tables and figures. In Chapter 6, we provide guidance on citing sources.

We discuss ground rules for acknowledging contributions of others and for formatting quotations. We instruct readers on when and how to cite references in text and on how to construct a refer- ence list that contains everything readers need to locate each source. The examples cover a range of categories, from periodicals to podcasts, with an emphasis on references to electronic formats. In Chapter 8, we provide an overview of the journal publishing process.

We emphasize the author's responsibilities in manuscript preparation and at each subse- quent stage of publication. First, given the wide use of the Publication Manual by readers outside the field of psychology, to what extent should this edition focus specifically on the APA journals program?

Detailed infor- mation on APA journals is available on the web see http: We decided to remove from the Publication Manual much of the APA-specific information that is readily accessible on the web, where guidelines are kept current.

In this edition of the Publication Manual, we emphasize general principles that researchers need to know as well as principles of clear textual and visual communication.

A section in the foreword to the fourth edi- tion is reJevant: The Publication Manual presents explicit style requirements but ackndWledges that alternatives are sometimes necessary; authors should balance the rules of the Publication Manual with good judgment. Because the written language of psychology changes more slowly than psychology itself, the Publication Manual does not offer solutions for all stylistic problems.

In that sense, it is a transition- al document: Its style requirements are based on the existing scientific literature rather than imposed on the literature. American Psychological Association, , p.

New and Expanded Content Chapter 1.

Because of the importance of ethical issues that affect the conduct of scien- tific inquiry, we have placed ethics discussions in this opening chapter and have signif- icantly expanded coverage of several topics. New guidance is included on determining authorship and terms of collaboration, duplicate publication, plagiarism and self- plagiarism, disguising of participants, validity of instrumentation, and making data available to others for verification. Chapter 2. In Chapter 2, we provide comprehensive information on specific manuscript parts, which were located in several chapters in the last edition.

For each manuscript part, we describe purpose and core content as well as how it should appear in text. This chapter has been significantly expanded with the addition of journal article reporting standards to help readers report empirical research with clarity and preci- sion. We also provide an expanded discussion of statistical methods, including guid- ance on reporting effect sizes.

In addition, we provide a new section on the use and preparation of supplemental materials for the web. We close the chapter with a new selection of sample papers that instantiate elements of APA Style. Chapter 3. In this chapter, we offer two areas with significantly changed content. First, we have simplified APA heading style to make it more conducive to electronic publi- cation. Second, we have updated guidelines for reducing bias in language to reflect cur- rent practices and preferences.

A new section on presenting historical language that is inappropriate by present standards has been added, and examples of good and bad language choices have been expanded and moved to the web, where they are more accessible to all and can be easily updated. Chapter 4. New content in Chapter 4 includes guidelines for reporting inferential statistics and a significantly revised table of statistical abbreviations. A new discus- slon of using supplemental files containing lengthy data sets and other media is also included.

Procedures for developing graphic material have changed dramatically since the last edition of the Publication Manual was published. This chapter contains signif- icantly expanded content on the electronic presentation of data.

It will help readers understand the purpose of each kind of display and choose the best match for commu- nicating the results of the investigation. We provide new examples for a variety of dis- plays, including electrophysiological, imaging, and other biological data.

Chapter 6. In this chapter, we have consolidated information on all aspects of citations, beginning with guidance on how much to cite, how to format quotations, and how to navigate the permission process.

Basic in-text citation styles and reference compo- nents are covered in detail. The discussion of electronic sources has been greatly expanded, emphasizing the role of the digital object identifier as a reliable way to locate information. Chapter 7. Chapter 7 contains a significantly expanded set of reference examples, with an emphasis on electronic formats, for readers to use in mastering the changes described in Chapter 6.

New examples have been added for a number of online sources, from data sets and measurement instruments to software and online discussion forums. Chapter 8. Chapter 8 has been revised to focus more on the publication process and less on specific APA policies and procedures. It includes an expanded discussion of the func- tion and process of peer review; a discussion of ethical, legal, and policy requirements in publication; and guidelines on working with the publisher while the article is in press.

How to Use the Publication Manual The Publication Manual describes requirements for the preparation and submission of manuscripts for publication. Chapters in the Publication Manual provide substantive- ly different kinds of information and are arranged in the sequence in which one con- siders the elements of manuscript preparation, from initial concept through publica- tion. Although each chapter is autonomous, individuals new to the publication process may benefit from reading the book from beginning to end to get a comprehensive overview.

Organizational Aids We have included checklists throughout the book to help you organize tasks and review your progress. These are listed below.

These include a one-experiment paper Figure 2. This typeface is intended to help you locate examples quickly. This is an example of the typeface used to illustrate style points. The following are other formatting aids that are designed to help the reader locate specific information quickly: We hope that these format aids will assist you in finding the instruction you need in the pages that follow. For example, sections may not be double-spaced and may not be in point Times Roman typeface.

APA Style rules are designed for ease of reading in manuscript form. Published work often takes a different form in accordance with professional design standards. Writing for the Behavioral and Social Sciences esearch is complete only when the results are shared with the scientific com- R munity.

Style Manual - 6th Edition (2002)

Although such sharing is accomplished in various ways, both formal and informal, the traditional medium for communicating research results is the scientific journal. The scientific journal is the repository of the accumulated knowledge of a field.

The findings and analyses, the successes and failures, and the perspectives of many investigators over many years are recorded in the literature. Familiarity with the liter- ature allows an individual investigator to avoid needlessly repeating work that has been done before, to build on existing work, and in turn to contribute something new.

Just as each investigator benefits from the publication process, so the body of sci- entific literature depends for its vitality on the active participation of individual inves- tigators. Authors of scientific articles contribute most to the literature when they com- municate clearly and concisely.

In this chapter, we discuss several considerations that authors should weigh before writing for publication—considerations both about their own research and about the sci- entific publishing tradition.

We begin by identifying the types of articles that appear in sci- entific journals. In the rest of the chapter, we focus on overarching ethical and legal stan- dards in publishing that must be addressed as a first step in planning an investigation.

Types of Articles Journal articles are usually reports of empirical studies, literature reviews, theoretical articles, methodological articles, or case studies. They are primary or original publica- tions.

Members of the scientific community generally agree that the characteristics of these publications are that a articles represent research not previously published i. These include secondary analyses that test hypotheses by presenting novel analyses of data not considered or addressed in previous reports. They typically consist of distinct sections that reflect the stages in the research process and that appear in the following sequence: In meta-analyses, authors use quan- titative procedures to statistically combine the results of studies.

By organizing, inte- grating, and evaluating previously published material, authors of literature reviews consider the progress of research toward clarifying a problem. The components of literature reviews can be arranged in various ways e. Literature reviews and theoretical articles are often similar in structure, but theoretical articles present empirical information only when it advances a theoretical issue.

Authors of theoretical articles trace the development of theory to expand and refine theoretical constructs or present a new theory or analyze existing theory, pointing out flaws or demonstrating the advantage of one theory over another. In this type of article, authors customarily examine a theory's internal consistency and external validity.

The sections of a theoretical article, like those of a literature review, can vary in order of their content. These articles focus on methodological or data analytic approaches and introduce empirical data only as illustrations of the approach.

Further, the article allows the reader to compare the proposed methods with those in current use and to implement the pro- posed methods.

In methodological articles, highly technical materials e. In writing case studies, authors carefully consider the bal- ance between providing important illustrative material and using confidential case material responsibly.

See section 1. Consult with the editor of the journal to which you are con- sidering submitting the manuscript for specific information regarding these kinds of articles. Style involves no inherent right or wrong. It is merely a conventional way of presenting information that is designed to ease communication.

Different scholarly disciplines have different pub- lication styles. In contrast, basic ethical and legal principles underlie all scholarly research and writing. These long-standing principles are designed to achieve three goals: Writers in the social and behavioral sciences work to uphold these goals and fol- low the principles that have been established by their professional associations.

Updates appear on the website as they become available. Modifying results, including visu- al images for more discussion on visual images, see Chapter 5, section 5. Ola, Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements. Careful preparation of manuscripts for publication is essential, but errors can still occur. Authors are responsible for making such errors public if the errors are discov- ered after publication. First, inform the editor and the publisher so that a correction notice can be published.

The goal of such a notice is to correct the knowledge base so that the error is brought to the attention of future users of the information. Each cor- rection notice is appended to the original article in an online database so that it will be retrieved whenever the original article is retrieved for more details on correction notices, see section 8.

Refusal to do so can lead to rejection of the submitted manuscript without further con- sideration. In a similar vein, once an article is published, researchers must make their data available to permit other qualified professionals to confirm the analyses and results APA Ethics Code Standard 8. Authors are expected to retain raw data for a minimum of five years after publication of the research. Other information related to the research e.

APA encourages the open sharing of data among qualified investigators. Authors are expected to comply promptly and in a spirit of cooperation with requests for data sharing from other researchers. Before sharing data, delete any personally identifiable information or code that would make it possible to reestablish a link to an individual participant's identity. In addition to protecting the confidentiality of research partici- pants, special proprietary or other concerns of the investigator or sponsor of the research sometimes must be addressed as well.

Generally, the costs of complying with the request should be borne by the requester. To avoid misunderstanding, it is important for the researcher requesting data and the researcher providing data to come to a written agreement about the conditions under which the data are to be shared. Such an agreement must specify the limits on how the shared data may be used e.

Furthermore, the agreepierit should specify limits on the dissemination conference presentations, internal journal articles, book chapters, etc. Data-sharing arrangements must be entered into with proper consideration of copyright restrictions, consent provided by subjects, ments of funding agencies, and rules promulgated by the employer of the holder of the data APA Ethics Code Standard 8.

Thus, reports in the literature must accurately reflect the independence of separate research efforts. Both duplicate and piecemeal publication of data constitute threats to these goals. Duplicate publication is the publication of the same data or ideas in two separate sources. Piecemeal publi- cation is the unnecessary splitting of the findings from one research effort into multi- pie articles.

Duplicate publication. Misrepresentation of data as original when they have been pub- lished previously is specifically prohibited by APA Ethics Code Standard 8. Duplicate publication distorts the knowledge base by making it appear that there is more information available than really exists. It also n- wastes scarce resources journal pages and the time and efforts of editors and review- ers.

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The prohibition against duplicate publication is especially critical for the cumula- id tive knowledge of the field. Duplicate publication can give the erroneous impression that findings are more replicable than is the case or that particular conclusions are more strongly supported than is warranted by the cumulative evidence.

Duplicate pub- nt lication can also lead to copyright violations; authors cannot assign the copyright for in the same material to more than one publisher. Authors must not submit to an APA journal a man- uscript describing work that has been published previously in whole or in substantial Ic part elsewhere, whether in English or in another language.

More important, authors should not submit manuscripts that have been published elsewhere in substantially rs similar form or with substantially similar content. Authors in doubt about what con- ta stitutes prior publication should consult with the editor of the journal in question. This policy does exclude from consideration the same or overlapping mate- rial that has appeared in a publication that has been offered for public sale, such as conference proceedings or a book chapter; such a publication does not meet the crite- rion of "limited circulation.

Acknowledging and citing previous work Authors sometimes want to publish what is essentially the same material in more than one venue to reach different audiences. However, such duplicate publication can rarely be justified, given the ready accessibil- ity of computerized retrieval systems for published works. If it is deemed scientifically necessary to re-present previously published material—for instance, in reports of new analyses or to frame new research that follows up on previous work from the authors' laboratory—the following conditions must be met: The amount of duplicated material must be small relative to the total length of the text.

The text must clearly acknowledge in the author note and other relevant sections of the article i. Any republished tables and figures must be clearly marked as reprinted or adapted, and the original source must be provided both in the text and in a footnote to the table or figure.

The original publication venue must be clearly and accurately cited in the reference list see also the discussion on self-plagiarism in section 1. When the original publication has multiple authors and the authorship is not iden- tical on both publications, it is important that all authors receive agreed-upon credit e. Piecemeal publication. Authors are obligated to present work parsimoniously and as completely as possible within the space constraints of journal publications.

Data that can be meaningfully combined within a single publication should be presented to- gether to enhance effective communication. Piecemeal, or fragmented, publication of research findings can be misleading if multiple reports appear to represent independ- ent instances of data collection or analyses; distortion of the scientific literature, espe- cially in reviews or meta-analyses, may result.

Piecemeal publication of several reports of the results from a single study is therefore undesirable unless there is a clear benefit to scientific communication. It may be quite difficult to determine whether such a ben- efit exists when multiple dependent variables that were observed in the same sample and at the same time are reported in separate manuscripts.

Authors who wish to divide the report of a study into more than one article should inform the editor and provide such information as the editor requests. Whether the publication of two or more reports based on the same or on closely related research constitutes fragmented publi- cation is a matter of editorial judgment. Reanalysis of published data. There may be times, especially in instances of large- scale, longitudinal, or multidisciplinary projects, when it is both necessary and appro- priate to publish multiple reports.

Multidisciplinary projects often address diverse top- ics, and publishing in a single journal may be inappropriate. Repeated publication from a longitudinal study is often appropriate because the data at different ages make unique scientific contributions. Further, useful knowledge should be made available to others as soon as possible, which is precluded if publication is withheld until all the studies are completed.

For example, in the early years of a longitudinal study, one might cite all previous publications from it. For a well-known or long-term longitudinal study, one iat might cite the original publication, a more recent summary, and earlier articles that es. Authors may refer the reader to an earli- er publication for this detailed information. It is important, however, to provide suffi- rs cient information so that the reader can evaluate the current report.

It is also important to make clear the degree of sample overlap in multiple reports from large studies. Again, authors should inform and consult with the editor prior to the submission of a manuscript of this type. Whether the publication of two or more reports based on the same ed or closely related research constitutes duplicate publication is a matter of editorial judgment, as is the determination of whether the manuscript meets other publication d, criteria.

Any prior publication should be noted see previous section on acknowledg- he ing and citing previous work and referenced in the manuscript, and authors must inform the journal editor of the existence of any similar manuscripts that have already ce been published or accepted for publication or that may be submitted for concurrent consideration to the same journal or elsewhere.

The editor can then make an informed judgment as to whether the submitted manuscript includes sufficient new information lit to warrant consideration. If, during the review or production process, a manuscript is discovered to be in violation of duplicate publication policies and authors have failed to inform the editor of the possible violation, then the manuscript can be rejected with- as out further consideration.

If such a violation is discovered after publication in an APA tat journal, appropriate action such as retraction by the publisher or notice of duplicate publication will be taken. Authors d- have a responsibility to reveal to the reader that portions of the new work were previ- ously published and to cite and reference the source. If copyright is owned by a pub- lisher or by another person, authors must acknowledge copyright and obtain permis- fit sion to adapt or reproduce.

Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they re give credit where credit is due APA Ethics Code Standard 8. Ii- Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Each time you paraphrase another author i. The following paragraph is an example of how one might appropriately paraphrase some of the foregoing material in this section.

As stated in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American to Ps ychological Association APA, , the ethical principles of scientific publica- Eie tion are designed to ensure the integrity of scientific knowledge and to protect the intellectual property rights of others. The key element of this principle is that authors do not present the work of anoth- er as if it were their own work. This can extend to ideas as well as written words.

If authors model a study after one done by someone else, the originating author should be given credit. If the rationale for a study was suggested in the Discussion section of someone else's article, that person should be given credit. Given the free exchange of ideas, which is very important to the health of intellectual discourse, authors may not know where an idea for a study originated.

If authors do know, however, they should acknowledge the source; this includes personal communications. For additional infor- mation on quotations and paraphrasing, see sections 6. Just as researchers do not present the work of others as their own pla- giarism , they do not present their own previously published work as new scholarship self-plagiarism.

There are, however, limited circumstances e. When the duplicated words are limited in scope, this approach is permissible. When duplication of one's own words is more extensive, citation of the duplicated words should be the norm. What constitutes the maximum acceptable length of duplicated material is difficult to define but must conform to legal notions of fair use. The general view is that the core of the new document must consti- tute an original contribution to knowledge, and only the amount of previously pub- lished material necessary to understand that contribution should be included, primarily in the discussion of theory and methodology.

When feasible, all of the author's own words that are cited should be located in a single paragraph or a few paragraphs, with a citation at the end of each. Opening such paragraphs with a phrase like "as I have pre- viously discussed" will also alert readers to the status of the upcoming material.

Protecting the Rights and Welfare of Research Participants 1. Standards 8. Authors, regardless of field, are required to certify that they have followed these standards as a precondition of publishing their articles in APA journals see http: Authors are also encouraged to include such certifications in the description of participants in the text of the manuscript.

Failure to fol- low these standards can be grounds for rejecting a manuscript for publication or for retraction of a published article. Protecting confidentiality. Confidentiality in case stud- ies is generally handled by one of two means. One option is to prepare the descriptive case material, present it to the subject of the case report, and obtain written consent for its publication from the subject. In doing so, however, one must be careful not to exploit persons over whom one has supervisory, evaluative, or other authority such as clients, ild patients, supervisees, employees, or organizational clients see APA Ethics Code of Standard 3.

The other option is to disguise some aspects of of the case material so that neither the subject nor third parties e. Four main strategies have emerged for achieving this: Such disguising of cases is a delicate issue because it is essential not to change vari- ables that would lead the reader to draw false conclusions related to the phenomena [a- being described Tuckett, For example, altering the subject's gender in a case illus- tip trating a promising therapy for rape trauma might compromise its educative value if the ils client—patient's gender played a significant role in the treatment.

Subject details should be Lte omitted only if they are not essential to the phenomenon described. Subject privacy, how- If- ever, should never be sacrificed for clinical or scientific accuracy. Cases that cannot ade- quately disguise identifiable subject information should not be submitted for publication. An author's in economic and commercial interests in products or services used or discussed in a paper may color such objectivity.

Whether an interest is significant will depend on individual circumstances and can- not be defined by a dollar amount. Holdings in a company through a mutual fund are not ordinarily sufficient to warrant disclosure, whereas salaries, research grants, con- sulting fees, and personal stock holdings would be. Participation on a board of directors or any other relationship with an entity or person that is in some way part of the paper should also be carefully considered for possible disclosure.

In addition to disclosure of possible sources of positive bias, authors should also carefully consider disclosure when circumstances could suggest bias against a product, service, facility, or person.

For example, having a copyright or royalty interest in a competing psychological test or assessment protocol might be seen as a possible source of negative bias against another test instrument.

Referencing and Citation Styles: APA 6th

The previous examples refer to possible conflicts of interest of a researcher in the con- duct of the research. It is important to recognize that reviewers of research reports also have potential conflicts of interest.

In general, one should not review a manuscript from a Colleague or collaborator, a close personal friend, or a recent student. Reviewers also have an ethical obligation to be open and fair in assessing a man- uscript without bias. If you have the DOI for the journal article, you should include it in the reference, otherwise, it is not necessary. Book De Vaus, D. Surveys in social research. Book chapter McKenzie, H. Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge.

Crouch Eds. Journal article Cheung, J.Combinations of these and other tasks, however, may justify authorship. Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. First, we have simplified APA heading style to make it more conducive to electronic publi- cation. The notice need not appear on unpublished works; nonetheless, it is recommended that a copy- right notice be included on all works, whether published or not.

Psychology rauudAging, 7,— Like the main text, an appendix may include headings and subheadings as well as tables, figures, and displayed equations. Updates appear on the website as they become available. These contributions may include such supportive functions as designing or building the apparatus, suggesting or advising about the statistical analysis, collecting or entering the data, modifying or structuring a computer program, and recruiting participants or obtaining animals.

Consider putting the detailed results of these analyses on the supplemental online archive.