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ANTONIO MANZINI ERA DI MAGGIO EPUB

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On a deeper level of analysis, the author identifies a system of musical references and carefully planned internal symmetries underlying the Comedy. An important tenet of medieval music theory was the necessity of a musical balance between body and soul, a sympathetic relationship, the lack of which needed to be cured with musical therapy. The musical architecture of the poem was influenced by well-established ideas of the Scholastic tradition, whose precepts conditioned both theoretical and practical aspects of music production.

The superiority traditionally attributed to vocal over instrumental music, for instance, is reflected in the Inferno through a preeminence of similes based on music instruments; one of the most famous examples is the lute-shaped character of Master Adam, whose abdomen sounds like a drum when hit by Sinon the Greek. In choosing the lute, Ciabattoni argues, Dante was well aware of its humble role among the chordophones as an instrument of Arabic origin, mostly used for popular entertainment; thus, the lute becomes a comic counterpart of the nobler cetra evoked in Paradiso in association with the eagle formed by the blessed Par.

Far from being merely a decorative element, music in the Comedy has a structural function: More simply, music is one of the means employed by Dante to get around the conundrum of having to put down in words an experience that transcends human senses. The desperate cry of a musicless soul opens the poem, like a strident anticipation of the infernal danse macabre; on the other end of the musical spectrum, the harmony formed by the angelic choirs is the greatest representation of a joy deriving from the sheer presence of God, something no words could ever fully express.

One can illustrate the shift from a bi-dimensional to a tridimensional plane by folding a sheet of paper to form a cube; the idea of a four-dimensional structure is much harder to grasp, and yet we can somehow fill this conceptual gap through a spatial metaphor, e.

Ciabattoni concludes his investigation with a chapter dedicated to the Music of the Spheres. Notes by Anthony Oldcorn. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.

Likewise both translators place their English version on pages facing the original Italian, inviting comparisons between ancient Italian and modern English.

The advantages to a classical background, steeped in mythology and Virgilian vocabulary, should be apparent even to the cursory reader of Dante, who according to Virgil-Character knew the Roman epic thoroughly: Sensitive to these classical echoes, allusions, and parallels, Lombardo often goes to great lengths to highlight them, which can be a bonus for the novice reader and an annoyance for the seasoned scholar see below.

Note, for example, the effortlessness of the rhymes and even an occasional hendecasyllable in the celebrated closing speech of Ulysses Inf. Five times had we seen it wax and wane, the light on the underside of the moon, since we began our journey on the main, And then a mountain loomed in the sky, still dim and distant, but it seemed to me I had never seen any mountain so high.

Three times it spun her around in the water, and the fourth time around, up the stern rose and the prow plunged down, as pleased Another, Until above us we felt the waters close. For example, Inferno 26 also begins with a rhyming of the first and third verses: Neither does Lombardo shy away from using slang terms when the original calls for it. Succinct prose synopses introduce each canto, and narrative divisions within cantos are separated by an extra line of space.

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Specialist readers may find it annoying when Dante is attempting to be allusive and the translator insists on being specific, especially when it means adding proper names not present in the original. A prime example occurs in Inferno 2. The poet makes a series of allusions comparing the pilgrim to Aeneas and St.

The translator removes the punch from that pivotal verse by inserting the names of Aeneas and Paul when he translates the preceding periphrastic expressions: None of these italicized names my emphasis appears in the Italian. Why are they not mentioned specifically by name until the Pilgrim claims he is neither?

Dante-Pilgrim literally is neither Aeneas nor Paul, but figuratively and dramatically he is both of them.

Anthony Oldcorn, emeritus professor of Italian Studies at Brown University, compiled the urbane notes accompanying the translation. He rarely misses a biblical reference or a classical allusion in the Dantean text, whether it is to Virgil, Ovid, Statius, or Lucan.

He makes excellent but sparing use of well- known twentieth-century commentators, such as Contini, Ferrante, and Freccero. Eliot, and Seamus Heaney invariably prove enlightening.

Only occasionally does the venerable Oldcorn stumble, as when he asserts, while annotating Inferno Such minor errors, however, can easily be remedied in the next printing.

In sum, this highly readable translation, with its impressive but comprehensible introduction and informative but not overpowering scholarly apparatus, is destined to become a new favorite in American high schools and college campuses.

The Hospital of Incurable Madness. Daniela Pastina and John W. Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Depictions of the mentally ill during the late Renaissance have never been as riveting as those presented in The Hospital of Incurable Madness. As one might surmise, the vernacularizing of literary canonical writings would not have been well received by the Church, given the times. Nonetheless, the use of the vernacular to educate the reading public allowed Garzoni to take a few liberties.

These are then subdivided into a variety of disorders that afflict the mad. The men inhabiting each area are given by far the most attention, whereas the women are relegated to the last eleven pages of the book, reflecting contemporary preconceptions.

Women, on the contrary, while also divided by the same disorders, are isolated in individual cells, are nude and are watched over by a Superintendent. They are involved in domestic activities and have no recourse to the gods for assistance. He presents Giacoma of Piangipane as follows: Such comments, however, are actually intended to mock the insane, thus drawing attention to their moral sins.

In fact, madness for Garzoni represents a failure of human reason.

Those who crossed the moral line were thus deemed prostitutes. Women were portrayed as engaged in domestic chores, for it was thought that this activity might reunite them with the outside world. In fairness to the translators, they do state that they were aiming for an idiomatic English translation.

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I would also have liked to see the original text on the facing page for comparison, but publishing requirements being what they are, this was probably unfeasible. The notes are exceptionally thorough and added to the understanding of the text for those not familiar with the more obscure mythological references and the like. Surprisingly, Lelia admits to enjoying her male role and being kissed by another female. The gender-swapping of this sixteenth-century comedy was further complicated by the fact that male actors were playing the kissing women.

Giannetti argues that seicento comic theater, with its characters and situations drawn from quotidian life, can serve as a lens through which to examine gender, homosexuality, and marriage during the Renaissance.

Their cross- dressing and feminization were often central to the humor and action of many plays. In Renaissance society, boys were labeled as male, but did not yet have the social or economic power of older men. Yet while the young theatrical characters successfully assumed the adult male role at the end of the play, the boy actors would continue play female roles for years. The pedant- student relationship, in such theater, reveals a more general power imbalance between older and younger men and perhaps served as a warning of how such a relationship could materialize in real life.

Often true love was contrasted with the misery of a loveless arranged marriage. On stage, the young lovers circumvented obstacles with clandestine marriages, while the unhappy married woman sought solace in extramarital affairs. Looking beyond the canonical comedies, Giannetti found a surprisingly rich discussion of married life, offering alternatives to arranged marriages.

Here, love wins, but often through adultery and premarital sex. The prominence and popularity of these themes in comedies suggest a general anxiety over the practice of arranged marriages and evidence that art imitated life and, perhaps in some instances, life imitated art.

Giannetti reveals a rich dialogue both on and off stage that portrayed, discussed, challenged, and contributed to seicento ideas on gender, homosexuality, and marriage. Dopo la consueta prefazione alla collana firmata dagli editori, in una lunga introduzione Haskins svolge il duplice compito di riassumere la storia del culto mariano dalle origini alla Controriforma e di contestualizzare storicamente i testi pubblicati Senza il sostegno di una vera e propria discussione filologica, vengono quindi pubblicate le traduzioni dei testi di Vittoria Colonna, Chiara Matraini e Lucrezia Marinella.

Essay and Studies Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, The volume presents a wide and multifaceted approach to Ovid, encouraged by the interdisciplinary subject, which places Ovid and later writers on the same level of interest. As a result, while highlighting the different practices of reading Ovid by authors from various historical contexts, the collection also displays different methods of scholarly reflection on Ovid and later artists.

In some papers, traditional approaches of textual analysis reveal a deep and enlightening dialogue between Ovid and subsequent authors: Some of the essays in this volume are particularly valuable in pointing out the evolving notion of Ovid as an authority on various matters. First, Ovid appears to be perceived as a literary authority, providing examples of narrative strategies see Fumo on Chaucer representing the Wife of Bath as a storyteller , and acting as a key to decode figures of speech.

Considering Ovid as a moral authority requires taking into account the problematic interaction between the pagan poet and Christian doctrine. Criticism in the Middle Ages found such models also in Ovid. A major result of inquiring into Ovidian authority is the revelation that he is a modern poet in a modern world. This is true in two ways.

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On the one hand, the Metamorphoses contains elements of originality appealing to writers ready to withdraw from medieval intellectual systems.

In general, the collection provides a rich and complex reflection, posing interesting problems of method and content, and suggesting perspectives for new studies. A rich bibliography and a remarkable corpus of illustrations complete the volume. This lively and thought-provoking book proves how the multiform content of Metamorphosis accounts for the continuity of its fortune, which is deeply rooted in European cultural history.

The poem changes its focus with the changing interests of the ages, thus mirroring the subject of the poem itself. King and Albert Rabil Jr. Their comments begin with sections on Greek philosophy, Roman law, and the establishment of Christian doctrine. King and Rabil state that it was with the advent of the humanist foundation that things began to change: Their series provides a forum for the publication of a variety of texts written by and about women.

The volume on Chiara Matraini fits in perfectly with the desire of the series editors to provide a new space for these voices, as there has been a rediscovery of Matraini in the last thirty years. The bulk of her comments are available in her previously published articles and book. This is, however, the first time this information is available in English. Maclachlan does not translate the Rime in its entirety.

Maclachlan chose two to three poems out of every five: She includes forty-six poems out of the original ninety-nine. The poems are presented in facing page translations. She does not concern herself with reproducing the rhyme present in the Italian, but does respect the form of the poems sonnet, madrigal. For all of these prose works, only the English translations of the texts are provided. When Matraini includes a poem with the prose, Maclachlan provides both Italian and English.

This volume is significantly different from the previous publication, for only twenty-eight poems out of eighty-seven are in common with Book A.

Through computerized searching, she was able to isolate poetic imitatio as it pertains to the poems included in this volume. Maclachlan has done a great service for the English speaking audience interested in Italian Renaissance poetry. She has provided translations of a variety of works and has also placed those works within a chronological framework.

Previously such a variety of selections had not been available to English speakers. This monograph could perhaps make the poet more readily known to scholars of the period. Matraini, as a student of writers such as Petrarch, Bembo and Vittoria Colonna, was an important feminine voice of the second half of the sixteenth century.

Her rich and intriguing poetry is deserving of further recognition by those interested in the early modern period. Donna oggetto del discorso letterario e soggetto della creazione poetica, quindi sguardi e voci, visages e paroles. Da questa doppia prospettiva, perennemente dialogante, deriva la divisione in due parti della raccolta.

Entrambi i saggi sono dotati di utili appendici: Raffa, professor of Italian at University of Texas at Austin.

The guide examines the cosmologic, spiritual and textual journey, canticle by canticle and region by region, in the same sequence as Dante the pilgrim experiences it. Ma Gabriel trova la coraggiosa Pandora irresistibile. Dopo aver ceduto alla persuasione esperta e sensuale di Gabriel, Pandora accetta di diventare sua sposa. Buongiorno a tutte care romance e buon settembre. Agosto e la sua canicola se ne sono andati, le vacanze pure e si ritorna alla routine quotidiana.

E anche alla mia lavagna e alle mie pillole. Ma non preoccupatevi… le mie acide lavagne arriveranno subito dopo. Inizio a segnalarvi con centomila stelline di gradimento dei gialli.

Vogliamo iniziare con il vice questore aggiunto Rocco Schiavone di Antonio Manzini? Ho finito da poche ore il suo ultimo libro: La costola di Adamo 3. Era di maggio 5. Cinque indagini romane per Rocco Schiavone racconti 6. Doppio delitto al Grand Hotel Miramare 5. Il mistero della gazza ladra 6. Invito a Capri con delitt o. Lasciamo da parte i gialli e torniamo al romance con un libro molto bello e a cui ho dedicato un post tutto suo: Il romanzo racconta la storia di Silvia, che vive e lavora a Parigi e ha una relazione difficile con Alain, un uomo sposato che da mesi le racconta di essere sul punto di lasciare la moglie.

Dopo tante promesse, sembra che lui si sia finalmente deciso, ma la fatidica sera in cui dovrebbe trasferirsi da lei, le cose non vanno come previsto. In questa ahime breve novella, la Malpas racconta la storia di Drew, uno degli amici del Lord del Maniero ma ritroviamo anche tutti i personaggi di quella serie invecchiati di otto anni: Tiepidino anche il mio giudizio per Cosa ho fatto per amore di Susan Elizabeth Phillips Leggereditore. Quinto volume della serie Wynette Texas, che in generale a me non fa impazzire nemmeno un pochino, racconta la storia di Georgie York, un tempo la protagonista di una delle sitcom preferite dagli americani e del suo ex collega, il detestabile ma fascinoso Bramwell Shepard.

Della Phillips ho letto di meglio. Quali sono i tuoi desideri, quelli che hanno a vedere soltanto con te stessa? E Odysseus potrebbe essere veramente il suo Ulisse…. La vita offre tanti inizi, ma pochissimi si svilupperanno in una storia e ancora meno avranno un finale. Ma non si deve avere paura di ricominciare. Si deve avere paura di continuare con qualcuno che non ci vuole bene.

Con una sfacciataggine senza eguali, Magnus Wallis l'ha contattata per chiederle il permesso di esporre Il pescatore, un quadro in cui lei lo ha ritratto all'epoca del loro amore. Tuttavia, il prezzo da pagare potrebbe essere molto diverso da quello che si aspetta Quando l'artista Annabelle Lawson incontra Magnus Wallis su un treno, lo vede come il soggetto perfetto per un dipinto e, nelle settimane che seguono quella fatidica riunione, diventa il suo modello e il suo amante.

Ma poi Magnus ritorna ad aprire una galleria d'arte e chiede l'autorizzazione a mostrare il ritratto di Annabelle di lui, rischiando tutto per conquistare la fiducia e l'amore di Annabelle. Il ballo dello scandalo An Affair Most Wicked 3. Il coraggio di Lily Love According to Lily 5. Surrender to a Scoundrel. Londra, - Figlio illegittimo del Principe Reggente, e per questo da sempre vittima di indifferenza e disprezzo, l'ultimo ambiente che Aden St.

Ma il rapitore non si arrende facilmente e quando arriva a minacciare la famiglia di Vivien e la vita di Aden, lui deve restare incollato alla ragazza come un francobollo.

Confessions of a Royal Bridegroom 2. How to Plan a Wedding for a Royal Spy 4. How to Marry a Royal Highlander 4.

Three Renegades and a Baby. Scozia, - Indegno. Ma prima che il boia entri in azione, Colin riesce a fuggire col suo coraggioso compagno di cella. E forse abbastanza tanta passione per riscaldare la fredda notte delle Highland. Il gioco degli opposti What Happens Under the Mistletoe 3. The Study of Seduction 4. The Danger of Desire 5.

The Pleasures of Passion 6. A Talent for Temptation 7. The Secret of Flirting. Scrivendo romanzi pubblicati a puntate su un giornale londinese e giocando a carte, provvede a se stessa e alle donne vittime di abusi che chiedono il suo aiuto. L'insolito incontro con un affascinante sconosciuto con una benda sull'occhio, durante una festa, le fa sperare di aver trovato il compagno ideale, non sottomesso alle noiose e insulse restrizioni dell'etichetta.

Scrive con lo pseudonimo di Lady of Mystery su un giornale e gioca a carte meglio di un uomo semprepronta aduna sfida. Una sera durante una festa, viene attratta da un misterioso straniero che assomiglia ad un pirata e decide di sedurlo. Why Do Dukes Fall in Love? Menu di navigazione. Lui si offre di prepararla ad affrontare l'esigente clientela della clinica e le apre nuovi orizzonti, proiettandola in una dimensione sensoriale al limite del proibito. In un alternarsi di "lezioni" fuori orario e impeccabili rapporti professionali, si approfondisce l'educazione sessuale di Marin.

Marin Rush ha trascorso la maggior parte della sua giovinezza prendendosi cura di sua madre e di suo fratello minore e di studiare sodo per arrivare alla laura di psicologia e terapeuta sessuale. Ha bisogno di esperienze dirette sulla sua pelle… A chi chiedere aiuto allora per guadagnare esperienza pratica se non al suo sexi collega Donovan West?

Ma le pone una condizione imprescindibile: Ma quando riusciranno ad andare avanti in questa maniera? Lezioni fuori orario Off the clock 2. By the hour Ambientazione: Specialmente se pensa al passato. Specialmente se considera le vessazioni.

Cattivo, perfido, subdolo… O no? Un neurochirurgo affascinato da lei al punto da volerla proteggere addirittura da se stessa? Attenzione quindi ai distratti…. Quella notte lei aveva lasciato il marito e lui non aveva fatto nulla per trattenerla. Il dono del mare Loving a Lost Lord 2. Diventare una lady Never Less Than a Lady 3. Le avventure di una Lady Sometimes a Rogue 6.

Una moglie speciale Not Quite a Wife 7. Not Always a Saint. Quando le loro vite sono minacciate dai componenti della sua stessa famiglia, Bethia non ha altra alternativa di prendere il bambino e fuggire. Trovati in una situazione compromessa i due sono costretti a sposarsi, ma Eric deve continuare a lottare per riconquistare le terre che gli spettano di diritto fin dalla nascita e nello stesso tempo proteggere lei e il piccolo James dai pericoli che continuano a minacciarli anche nella sua stessa famiglia.

Il destino delle Highlands Highland Destiny 2.

Cami e Pax si sono conosciuti da bambini quando sono stati catturati dalla polizia segreta francese e istruiti per diventare delle future spie nella nemica Inghilterra. A questa serie appartengono anche i seguenti titoli: Una spia nel cuore My Lord and Spymaster 3. Quella rosa proibita The Forbidden Rose 4. Falco Nero The Black Hawk 5. La spia francese Rogue spy 6.

Beauty Like the Night. Clara ha rotto con Alexander.

Pretendimi Command Me 2. Conquistami Conquer me 3. Dopo anni di ricerche, un luogotenente di Cameron scova la ragazza e la rapisce, ma, mentre torna alla fortezza con lei e i suoi uomini, inaspettatamente un bambino prova a rubare loro un cavallo e viene catturato.

Nel letto di un Highlander 2. Seduction of a Highland Lass 3. Never Love a Highlander. Per anni Damon, marchese di Savage, ha cercato la sconosciuta fanciulla a cui il padre lo aveva sposato quando era solo un bambino. Tua per sempre I will. Unendosi a Lachlann, un fabbro dalle oscure origini incantato dalla sua bellezza e dal suo coraggio, decide di cercare vendetta e giustizia. I due sono soli contro il nobile, ma dalla loro hanno un'arma che potrebbe rivelarsi invincibile La fanciulla dei cigni The Swan Maiden , 3.

La fanciulla con la spada The Sword Maiden 4. Per alcuni titoli non troverete l'immagine del libro, per uno nemmeno la trama e per un altro su Amazon c'era la data di uscita il 1 gennaio Cominciamo allora e buona lettura a tutte! Maledetto bellissimo bastardo di Kendall Ryan Newton Compton - romance erotico. Tutto accade solo a un suo comando. E pezzo dopo pezzo, sta per distruggere tutti i suoi piani. Ma le sue azioni finiscono solo per avvicinarli, e malgrado tutto, tra di loro scoppia una passione intensa ed esplosiva.

Tutto quello di cui ho bisogno di K. Ellie pensa finalmente di essersi gettata alle spalle la sua storia con Jamie. Ma non questa volta. Lo lacera, lo tormenta.

Un attimo di distrazione, una frenata brusca, poi il buio. Malena si era illusa che, col tempo, lui sarebbe cambiato. Ma, ora che il suo tempo forse sta per finire, Malena ricorda i messaggi senza risposta, le parole non dette, i baci negati, i gesti scostanti e i lunghi silenzi.

E si rende conto che, per seguire lui, stava sacrificando la sua vita. Don Giovanni Covenant series 4 Alexandria ha sempre avuto paura di due cose: Ad Alex e Aiden non resta dunque che penetrare negli Inferi per parlare con lei e poi trovare il modo di tornare indietro.

Non ha idea di chi possa essere Lili, la destinataria. Il contenuto, scritto a mano in una calligrafia elegante, la sorprende: Un uomo che si firma solo con E. Flavie non ha altri indizi. Forse quelle parole, perse nel vento, hanno modificato il destino di due persone per sempre. Deve sapere se sono state divise tutti questi anni da una lettera mai arrivata. Ci sono emozioni che cambiano ogni cosa. Baci scoperti di Sara Dardikh Rizzoli - new adult.

Ma per Jennifer e Josh arriva presto il momento di svegliarsi da quel sogno.

Ma i sentimenti, se non rivelati, allontanano le persone. Riusciranno a combattere le ombre del passato per abbandonarsi finalmente all'amore? Louna, figlia di una famosa wedding planner, ha assistito a ogni sorta di matrimonio: Quando Louna incontra, proprio a un matrimonio, un ragazzo affascinante, allegro e spensierato, ma che le sembra il tipico donnaiolo, cerca di tenerlo a debita distanza.

I fan di Sarah Dessen ameranno questa storia ricca di ironia, romanticismo e con un finale lieto ma anche imperfetto Sai quanto mi piace quando implori. In effetti mi pare che tu sappia troppe cose, e le conosca fin troppo bene.

Sono l'uomo che ha rapito Livvie. Sono quello che l'ha tenuta in una stanza buia per settimane.

Ma soprattutto sono l'uomo che ama. Certo, ci sono cose che non possono essere riassunte in poche frasi, ma tuttora non riesco a giustificare il mio comportamento di allora. Dato che stai leggendo, do per scontato che io non abbia bisogno di giustificarmi. Sophia ha passato tutta la vita traslocando da un paese all'altro, da una scuola all'altra, quindi dire addio a Tokyo la sua casa negli ultimi quattro anni dovrebbe essere facile.

Un tempo era il suo migliore amico, ma il suo ritorno fa riaffiorare dei sentimenti che Sophia aveva dimenticato. Di colpo, il concetto stesso di ore e minuti diventa irrilevante. Il suo mondo si ferma. Un brutto incidente, ancora una volta, potrebbe distruggere tutta la sua vita.

Vianne sogna di diventare una botanica e di lavorare nel prestigioso Jardin des Plantes di Parigi. E poi ho trovato te di Adelia Marino Newton Compton - new adult. Quattro amici per la pelle legati indissolubilmente anche a Terry ed Eric: Figlia di tossicodipendenti, Terry ha un torbido passato a Detroit che continua a perseguitarla. Tatuato, capelli ribelli, occhi scuri come il cioccolato. Ci vediamo un giorno di questi di Federica Bosco Garzanti - new adult. A volte per far nascere un'amicizia senza fine basta un biscotto condiviso nel cortile della scuola.

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Nel frattempo il manager dei Vintage si rompe una gamba sciando, e Tom viene spedito in tour a rimpiazzarlo. Come potranno convivere un dongiovanni sempre in cerca di nuove avventure e una ragazza che non fa nulla per nascondere il proprio totale disinteresse per il genere maschile? Mai e per sempre. Bad boys 4 di Blair Holden Sperling e Kupfer - new adult. Aspettavo solo te di Jessica Newton Compton - romance contemporaneo.

Ma quando viene invitata come damigella al matrimonio della sua amica Bronte, entra in un mondo tutto nuovo. Ma la loro attrazione infuocata comincia a essere difficile da ignorare. Si finisce sempre per essere dove dobbiamo. Nel cielo, il rumore assordante di un aereo in partenza.

L'ultima volta che Anna ha raggiunto sua nonna Evelin in Inghilterra aveva soltanto sette anni. Ora, a diciott'anni, e al suo primo viaggio da sola, si sente irrequieta.

Ha organizzato questo viaggio nel minimo dettaglio. Anna si sente totalmente impreparata a tutto questo.

Un universo di emozioni sconosciute l'attende. Vetrine sfavillanti, lusso sfrenato e su tutto, lieve come una carezza, il profumo del bianchissimo fiore di mariposa. Ha solo diciannove anni, Patricio, quando posa per la prima volta i suoi occhi azzurri su una Cuba splendida di sole e di fiori tropicali, di musica e di vita.

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Addict Behav. The cigarette controversy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. This international collaboration represents the last of the eight core areas to pursue tuberculosis elimination. Its core objectives are to foster and conduct research on key unmet therapeutic and diagnostic needs in the field of tuberculosis elimination, leveraging on multidisciplinary, multisectoral approaches and supportive interventions i.

Preliminary plans propose to focus on latent tuberculosis infection, multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis rapid diagnosis, and other neglected areas pediatric tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, rehabilitation of tuberculosis sequelae, infection control, etc.

In addition, one of the best examples is the Brazilian Rede TB, which shows that the best research efforts, even in a large country as is Brazil, can collaborate to solve country-specific priorities and involve national tuberculosis programs and authorities in the plan. This new global network aims at collaborating with existing organizations, associations, institutions, and partners that are committed to fight against tuberculosis by complementing and boosting and not duplicating the existing initiatives.

The GTN is hosted by WAidid, 12 founded in July of in order to advance the scientific research in the field of infectious diseases and immunology and to disseminate information on the related pathologies.

WAidid is the response to the previous lack of a network that links associations and scientific societies focused on infections, vaccines, and immunology. WAidid, whose membership is free of charge, represents the bridge for a global multidisciplinary approach to infections including tuberculosis operating across all age groups.

The GTN is composed of three pillars: 1. Pillar 3 includes the private and pharmaceutical sectors. Several global projects have already started, including an online clinical service aimed at supporting the correct management of difficult-to-treat tuberculosis cases and of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection, as well as the rational introduction of new drugs; a project monitoring adverse events of new antituberculosis drugs; one study on tuberculosis and surgery; and one study on tuberculosis sequelae and rehabilitation.

Global tuberculosis report Geneva: World Health Organization; Towards tuberculosis elimination: an action framework for low-incidence countries.

Tuberculosis elimination: theory and practice in Europe. Eliminating tuberculosis in Latin America: making it the point.

Risk factors for tuberculosis: diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, and the use of other drugs. Stop TB Partnership [homepage on the Internet]. The role of the Brazilian Tuberculosis Research Network in national and international efforts to eliminate tuberculosis. Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in prisoners.

Outcomes from patients with presumed drug resistant tuberculosis in five reference centers in Brazil. Front Microbiol. Milan: WAidid; c [updated Aug 31; cited Aug 31]. Clin Infect Dis. Outcomes of patients with drug-resistant-tuberculosis treated with bedaquiline-containing regimens and undergoing adjunctive surgery. J Infect. Although that growth has not been uniform across the different fields of science, a persistent trend can be seen in the various databases available.

However, such growth is not free from bias—quite the opposite. Information regarding the precepts, not only good practices in clinical research but also the associated technical aspects, should first be offered in undergraduate courses and should be maintained throughout the academic life of the researcher, as continuing education. In terms of the technical aspects, the entire rationale for the design of a study should be understood, from the development of the main research question 4 to the critical analysis of the methodology used and its limitations, as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of the various statistical tests.

Graduate programs tend to focus on those aspects, because their main purpose is to prepare professors and researchers by constructing discipline-specific training centers. However, this initiative seems insufficient, given the extent of the scientific environment and the limited scope of those disciplines. Scientific journals also play a relevant, albeit less explored, role in this process, not only by creating mechanisms to identify and prevent biases associated with the scientific publishing process but also by disseminating the best practices to be followed.

In those two aspects, there is a pressing need to improve the performance of scientific journals. First, they should be able to identify biases. In general, it is well established that the peer review process, despite its various positive qualities, is unable to identify such biases.

The lack of alternative models that do not significantly delay the publishing process has perpetuated this limitation of one of the most common editorial processes. One enormous opportunity that has yet to be taken advantage of by scientific journals is the dissemination of methodological concepts. There are few scientific journals in the field of internal medicine that have sections dedicated to the discussion of the fundamentals of scientific research. The potential gains from the dissemination of this type of knowledge are quite significant, not only in terms of improving the training of researchers but also in terms of increasing the overall critical thinking capacity of readers in general, which can, over time, function as a mechanism to improve the quality of the available scientific research.

What the JBP has specifically been doing over the past four years is publishing a series of articles about continuing education in scientific methodology, 5 addressing extremely diverse topics, from how to structure a research project 4, to the proper interpretation of different types of studies.

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However, in general terms, those articles have already been being used as a point of reference for researchers in the area. The dissemination of methodological concepts addresses only one small aspect of the larger problem. Obviously, continuing education plays an important role, although other initiatives are needed in order to improve the scientific research scenario over the next few years.

Funding agencies might have to take more direct action in that sense. The use of audits, making the reporting of formal aspects regarding methodology mandatory, and requiring analysis of the results in a more conclusive fashion are actions that can be implemented and added to the current project review format without significantly increasing the bureaucracy involved in the current submission and review processes.

Any interventions in the scientific publishing process should be agreed upon by consensus among the members of academia, funding agencies, scientific journals, and even readerships. Otherwise, the organic growth in the scientific literature will not be accompanied by a similar growth in quality. Larsen PO, von Ins M. The rate of growth in scientific publication and the decline in coverage provided by Science Citation Index. The Economist [homepage on the Internet].

London: The Economist; c; [updated Oct 18; cited Oct 10]. Unreliable research. Trouble at the lab; [about 27 screens]. Sasaki K, Tan S. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. Developing research questions that make a difference.

Souza R. Types of outcomes in clinical research. What is the importance of calculating sample size? Choosing wisely between randomized controlled trials and observational designs in studies about interventions.

What does the p value really mean? Understanding diagnostic tests. Part 1. Part 2. He had a history of sickle-cell disease since he was 10 years of age. Chest CT scans revealed bilateral, well-marginated paravertebral masses in the lower half of the thorax, with heterogeneous density Figure 1. He also presented with a large splenic calcification. The main considerations in the differential diagnosis of masses in the posterior mediastinum, particularly in the paravertebral region, include neurogenic masses, lymphoma, paravertebral abscess, lateral meningocele, and EMH.

EMH is seen in a variety of hematologic disorders, particularly severe hemolytic anemia thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and spherocytosis. Extensive replacement of normal bone marrow occurs when production is insufficient to meet the demands of the body. The most common sites of EMH are the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, although it can occur in any organ. Thoracic involvement is less frequent, usually manifesting as bilateral lobulated masses in the lower paravertebral areas. The destruction of adjacent A ribs and vertebrae is not seen in EMH.

The erythropoietic masses are usually asymptomatic, although the presence of EMH within the spinal canal may be associated with spinal cord compression and neurologic deficit related to the level of involvement. The imaging manifestations of thoracic EMH can be unilateral or bilateral, sharply circumscribed, often lobulated, paraspinal soft-tissue masses, 1 most frequently seen in the distal thoracic paraspinal region. CT scans can also be helpful in detecting areas of fat attenuation within these lesions, in depicting bony changes related to hematologic disorders, such as thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia, and in demonstrating splenic infarcts with focal calcifications or a small and dense calcified spleen autosplenectomy , which can aid the differential diagnosis.

The diagnosis of EMH can be established with reasonable certainty on the basis of characteristic radiologic findings in a patient with a predisposing hematologic condition. Invasive diagnostic procedures are potentially hazardous because of the highly vascular nature of the thoracic masses and the hemorrhagic potential of this condition.

Microscopic examination shows well-formed hematopoietic tissue. In conclusion, the presence of bilateral, paravertebral masses with associated splenic calcifications are highly suggestive of EMH.

The main clinical finding in these patients is anemia. B Figure 1. Chest CT scans with lung window in A and mediastinal window in B settings showing bilateral masses in the inferior paravertebral thoracic regions. The masses were heterogeneous, with low density areas, suggesting a fatty component. The lung parenchyma showed no abnormalities. There is also a large splenic calcification not shown. Extramedullary hematopoiesis: findings on computed tomography scans of the chest in 6 patients.

J Bras Pneumol ;34 10 The results showed that the atopic patients, when compared with non-atopic patients, had similar asthma control scores Once the analysis is completed, it is expected that investigators take an additional step in the analysis process to make sure that the a priori assumptions of the statistical test selected are met in the dataset assembled for the study.

All statistical tests have underlying assumptions that need to be met so that the test provides results that are valid without unacceptable error regarding the parameter the test is calculating e.

In our example, the authors used a t-test to calculate the mean and the standard deviation of asthma control and severity asthma scores in atopic and non-atopic patients using data collected from the study population as a means to represent the truth in similar patients from the source population adolescents with asthma in the USA.

This process, called inference, is only valid if the assumptions of the statistical test are met Table 1. It is good practice, as investigators, to acknowledge that the assumptions of the statistical tests used to answer their research question have been evaluated and whether they were met or not.

If the assumptions of the tests are met, which should be reported in the results section of the study, this assures the scientific community that the results of the study have met one of the important criteria related to their validity. However, it has been suggested that the assumptions of statistical techniques are often not checked 2 or reported.

Reasons for not assessing assumptions include: 1. As educators and investigators, we all need to contribute to the overall goal of reporting high quality research conducted among the populations we serve. Testing the assumptions of statistical tests or models used to answer our research questions is a good start! Table 1. Example of assumptions of a statistical test.

Statistical test Assumption t-Test Sampling: The participants in the study are randomly sampled from the source population. Sample size: The sample size calculated for the study is achieved. Normal distribution: The scale of measurement of the outcome variable is continuous and is normally distributed or at least symmetric. Homogeneity of variances: The variance standard deviation of the data collected on the continuous variable across the two comparison groups is similar.

How to corroborate Check the protocol. Check sample size calculation in the protocol and check if sample size was reached by the number of participants included in the study. Conduct descriptive statistics on the outcome variable and create a graph showing the distribution which should follow a bell curve.

Use valid statistical methods to test for homogeneity. Asthma severity, not asthma control, is worse in atopic compared with nonatopic adolescents with asthma.Callie Park Ruth. There are more than 90 known serotypes, which differ in terms of their aggressiveness and antibiotic resistance profile.

The search for outside professors was painstaking, since less than a handful of the most famous academic stars of the time were available to move to Mantua. Buongiorno a tutte care romance e buon settembre. But Ferdinando had some luck, for Marta was at the forefront of his field, and Bartoletti proved a superb choice — he is known today as the first physician to identify lactose, to treat gout properly, and to discover and describe the affliction known as angina pectoris.

E anche alla mia lavagna e alle mie pillole. Mai e per sempre. Vaccination in the prevention of infectious respiratory diseases in adults. On the one hand, the Metamorphoses contains elements of originality appealing to writers ready to withdraw from medieval intellectual systems.

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