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ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS PDF

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PDF | 35+ minutes read | Existing textbooks and relevant monographs in the subjects of anthropology and history have presented incomplete. Ancient Civilization. • The birth of civilization. • Nomads & the birth of cities. • Agrarian societies. • “Hunters and Gatherers” migrated with herds. Group Work: Ancient Civilisations Timechart. TASK 2: Work in four groups (G1-G4 ) Study the atlas and add to the timechart the following: • G1 → Early Farming.


Ancient Civilizations Pdf

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The ancient city of Babylon, under King Nebuchadnezzar II, must have been a wonder to the traveler's eyes. "In addition to its size," wrote Herodotus, a historian . PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Samurai, martial arts, palaces of gold, and even the Sphinx. Whew! The study of ancient civilizations and people raises some profound questions. Who are.

The mere administration of the vast revenues of a Sumerian temple or an Egyptian pharaoh by a perpetual corporation of priests or officials obliged its members to devise conventional methods of recording that should be intelligible to their colleagues and successors.

Wittfogel then went on to argue that the need to control and distribute water produced centralized empires and bureaucracies that were hostile to change. Childe Writing is thus a significant. They [the ruling class] were in fact compelled to invent systems of recording and exact. Mesopotamian culture was far from static in terms of. Given this situation. Childe admitted that many subsequent urbanizations. This notion was turned into a complete theory of early civilizations by the Sinologist Karl Wittfogel.

Scholars began to qualify and modify it Adams Approaches to the History of Ancient Technologies and Sciences The attempt to understand the origins and decline of science in connection with status hierarchies in society has occasionally led Marxist-oriented historians into an alliance with another tradition that has had great importance in connection with the history of science— a tradition associated with the term positivism and the doctrines of the early 19th century French philosopher and historian of science Auguste Comte.

I will try to choose a terminal date that makes sense in terms of local historical circumstances. But how are we to mark the end the ancient period in India. In other words. Comte According to this law: Each of our leading conceptions — each branch of our knowledge — passes successively through three different historical conditions: These will be treated as interesting and important but open questions in what follows.. In each specific case. My goal will be to avoid accepting at the outset any particular model for how civilization must have arisen.

For present purposes. Since archeological evidence has yet to suggest that writing appeared anywhere else prior to around B. Within the Western historical tradition. Ancient Finally. There were undoubtedly places and times when it is appropriate to see specific sciences and specific religions in some sort of competition or conflict with one another in the ancient world.

But Comte insisted that even if one was developing scientific knowledge for purposes of application. Only by establishing what we now call an objective stance. Here it is enough to point out that. What had led the astrologers. In what follows. Just as Marxist scientists and historians of science found support for some of their key arguments in the anti-theological elements of positivism. I have argued extensively elsewhere on both theoretical and empirical grounds against the Positivist and Marxist claim that science and religion are inevitably at war with one another Olson I will always consider science and religion interactions as matters open to a wide range of interpretations rather than restricted a priori to hostile ones.

That is. Comte argued that science was pursued for two all but unrelated motives — the satisfaction of a psychological need to dispose facts in a comprehensible order regardless of any notion of utility and the prediction of phenomena in order to be able to act in and on the world. Comte wrote: The study of the laws of phenomena must be relative since it supposes a continuous progress of speculation subject to gradual improvement of observation.

There is. Gyan Prakash has. Each definition has met the needs of a particular community for a significant period of time. Nationalism and the Historiography of Science and Technology The study of ancient science and technology in some locations has not only been subject to biases induced by ideological commitments to Marxism. It is important to understand that the question of whether a Marxistoriented historiography of science or an intellectualist historiography is more nearly correct is not a well formulated or answerable question.

Ancient documents and artifacts have thus often been interpreted and possibly distorted in such a way as to make them appear more consistent with modern cosmopolitan scientific ideas and practices or technological artifacts than might seem reasonable to a less biased interpreter because the authors have wanted to glorify a tradition with which they identify. I take a position often called feminist point of view epistemology.

We know that eyes developed independently in many evolutionary contexts. I doubt seriously whether any scholar can be completely objective and unbiased no matter how hard he or she tries. Until very recently. The Structure of This Book and My Choice of Technologies and Sciences to Emphasize I am particularly interested in technologies and sciences in ancient civilizations for three fundamental reasons.

I thus welcome those scholars who openly admit their points of view. I am inclined to be skeptical of claims of great antiquity unsupported by archeological or strong textual evidence because I know that claims of antiquity have been used to give authority to knowledge claims in many cultures.

In this spirit. I should admit that. For the same reason. Serious attempts to compare the conditions of scientific knowledge production and use in different civilizations began primarily with a series of explorations of Attic Greek and Chinese science and medi-.

I find the analogy with evolution suggestive. I am inclined to favor the idea that comparable artifacts or arguments have independent origins in different cultures unless a strong case can be made for cultural borrowing because I am convinced both that responses to similar problems in similar environments are likely to be similar and because of the important role that contingency plays in history.

I am a practicing member of an organized religion. I seem to have a special affinity for the ironic. I am by temperament what Steven Jay Gould called a lumper.

Though not a theist. I am more inclined to be fascinated by the likenesses among apparently diverse things than to emphasize the differences among apparently like things. To these topics I have added one. I have neither the expertise nor the space to offer the detail achieved by Lloyd and Sivin.

Lloyd and by Lloyd and Nathan Sivin. I have chosen to emphasize the variety of ways in which technological traditions and what I identify as theoretical. In part because the earliest archeological investigations of early civilizations were carried out in connection with military occupations and by European military officers engaging in their hobbies. My goal is to extend the comparative approach initiated by Lloyd and Sivin — though not just their great emphasis on political ideology — beyond China and Greece to most of the major civilizations of the ancient world.

These interests are well served by emphasizing the techne listed by Prometheus. Lloyd and Sivin These emphases are special focal points in chapters 2. Aeschylus Historical Background Before turning to the technologies and sciences of ancient civilizations. This goal has led to the thematic structure of the book in which each chapter explores an isolated technology and science cluster across multiple civilizations rather than a broad range of sciences and technologies in each isolated civilization.

By the mid-third millennium. As time went on. As North Africa became increasingly arid between around B. Organizational leadership tended to pass from the priests to military kings and their retainers. Since the spring floods of the Tigris and Euphrates Valley were generally short lived and violent. Mesopotamia Sumerian civilization developed initially in the late fifth millennium near the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers..

In the earliest days. Akkadian invaders had assumed military and political control and had formed the formerly independent cities into an empire usually controlled by the king of Babylon.

At least during the initial period of rapid growth. Living in small villages in reed huts. Egypt Around B. By the late third millennium. During the period between about B. There was a second flowering of central authority during the Middle Kingdom c. Irrigation ditches were dug to carry water past the normal edges of the river during the dry season. The early Old Kingdom period saw Egypt divided into 42 administrative regions.

During the second half of the third millennium. There was. During the Early Dynastic period. The valley varied from less than a mile and a half in width at Aswan to about 11 miles near el-Amarna and then spread out into a marshy delta as the Nile split into many channels north of Memphis and made its way to the sea. Thebian leaders recaptured the Nile Valley and Delta. Though the annual floods of the Nile could vary tremendously in depth and extent.

Because there were major deposits of metals in what is now the desert surrounding the canyon created by the river. By around B. Other regions were covered in dense jungle that had to be cleared for agriculture.

Throughout the region. As we shall see. The early Indus civilization throughout most of the region collapsed even more rapidly than it rose. Village culture is evidenced in the large drainage basin of the Indus River and its feeders as early as the seventh millennium.

As a consequence.

There are. Egypt was usually ruled by outsiders — Persians and later. India Very little is known about the background of the Indus Valley civilization. There is writing carved in brick and stone.

After that time. These and other features make it quite probable that they developed independently of their neighbors to the west. During the period between. There is little evidence of change prior to around B. The Harappan civilization sites. Some regions undoubtedly saw Nilelike seasonal floods. These help us to estimate the population of the largest sites at between The nearly uniform town planning and the massive architecture associated with public facilities such as baths and granaries suggests the existence of a common imperial government.

This collection was written down by the priestly class with the development of writing sometime around B. China Like the Indus Valley. The western. Chandragupta Maurya unified almost all of India around B. Though there were Persian and.

This culture spread rapidly southward and eastward into the Yangtze Valley and beyond. India was not reunited for nearly years after the collapse of the Mauryan Empire. Macedonian invasions beginning in the sixth century B. In the West. Before B. Sometime during the second half of this period.

Documentary evidence from this period indicates that there was an extensive irrigation network organized by a state bureaucracy and that the Mauryan Empire had virtually all of those characteristics that Wittfogel suggested were characteristic of hydraulic civilizations — though it was late and short-lived.

Around B. The Vedas were primarily religious. Both the upland plateaus and the central plain. The eastern. This soil. One consequence of the Zhou military conquest was the partial separation of the Zhou aristocracy. Members of a noble class held most important positions. During the Zhou and Warring States periods. By sometime around B. In B. The Zhou Empire was never very stable. Regions far from the central capital were often ruled by local strongmen who had their own court-official systems and who occasionally challenged the authority of the central state..

As in Egypt. Wu Wang. Increasing agricultural yields based on more extensive irrigation produced the same kind of division of labor and growth of specialized craft production that had occurred centuries earlier in Mesopotamia.

Cities grew until they had populations that exceeded Shang China saw the development of a state structure dominated by a single king or emperor who claimed ownership of all land and surrounded himself with a class of court officials who owed their primary allegiance to him.

The Zhou conquerors established an imperial overlay on top of Shang culture and imported a religion incorporating both Heaven worship and ancestor worship. From about B.. This city was probably an administrative center dependent on the agricultural products of a large number of much smaller villages.

By B. At roughly the same time.. In order to stamp out the last vestiges of Zhou ideals. China was not united again until the rise of the Tang Dynasty in C. Eberhard Though the Han Dynasty lasted only until C. Its source of authority is described succinctly by Wolfram Eberhard in the following way: At the head of the state was the emperor. This examination system underwent significant changes over time. After the end of the Han Dynasty. Gaozu looked to land-holding families — sometimes descendants of the older Zhou nobility.

With the death of the Qin emperor in B. Qin Shi Huang. These people. Architectural features. For reasons that are not well known. Recent satellite pictures show indications that the Mayans drained some marshy regions in the Yucatan Peninsula to create agricultural plots. Greece The most advanced ancient civilization in Europe in terms of its science was undoubtedly that of Hellenic Greece between about B.

Sometime around C. Many stelae about 5. By the mid-second millennium B. Starting around the beginning of the Common Era. By When Xerxes returned he faced a totally different situation. Beginning around B. Between about B. As population densities increased. The relative isolation of population centers produced a collection of small and independent city-states usually ruled by kings who engaged in shifting alliances and who apparently engaged in frequent warfare.

With rare exceptions. Their constant interaction with peoples from other cultures led to extensive cultural borrowing in almost all facets of life. The wealthier classes wrested control from the traditional kings and created what they termed a democratic government.

In each locale. Over time. Between around and around B. This valley forms a rich and wide. The Latins settled in the southern part of this region beginning around B. A revolt led by Sparta produced the Peloponnesian Wars — B. On the one hand. This time. In fact. Rome was governed by a king. The key to Roman history lies in the fact that an aggressive and technologically advanced Etruscan culture. That leadership continued at least until Athens was overrun by Phillip. Rome Rome is located on a series of low hills in the valley of the Tiber River.

Athens became the center of an empire of Greek city-states from which she was able to exact tribute for nearly half a century and the center of a flowering of intellectual and artistic life that was unprecedented.

At this point. Starting in B. Ptolemaic Egypt had a population of about 10 million under the nominal control of a single king.

The cities of the Latin League. For nearly 50 years. A period of severe instability began around B. Rome allowed many former enemies to become Roman citizens and gave most others the right to retain their local laws subject only to an obligation to support continuing Roman military actions and to provide annual tribute. The Punic Wars that ensued ended in B. By the mid-third century B. Because Phillip of Macedon had allied himself with Carthage. Rome probably had a population of Your generals exhort you to fight for.

Rome regrouped and then began a series of wars that brought most of central and southern Italy under Roman control by B. His exhortations to the working class sounds much like the exhortations of socialist leaders in the 19th century: Wild beasts have their lairs. The plebeian class — all those citizens not in the ruling aristocracy— sought political rights and social equity using secession and the threat of secession to force successive reforms that provided the general population with a strong nominal voice in the government Rome was drawn into a series of wars with Carthage when it went to the defense of Messina.

For comparison purposes. Rome responded in an unusually lenient way that. North Africa. During much of the period from to 30 B. After some jockeying for position. Of the princeps following Augustus. You have neither. The Senate rewarded him immediately by granting him supreme power over the armies in Gaul. Augustus died in 14 C. Dudley You fight to defend the luxury of the rich.

New civil strife gradually led to the concentration of power in the hands of Julius Caesar. They call you the master of the world. The Age of Imperial Rome had begun. Three days later. Sulla had been the general of an army that had put down an Asiatic revolt and then had returned to defeat a marauding Samnite army outside of Rome..

Sulla was declared dictator for an indefinite period of time until a new constitution could be passed. After C. The pro-Senate constitution passed under Sulla in 78 B. After Octavian formally renounced his powers and announced the restoration of the Roman Republic. Shortly thereafter. Many tribal cultures use knots in rope to record quantities of many things. Although in the earliest tablets there is evidence of several different counting systems.

Tally marks and collections of dots in petroglyphic art dating from as early as Two Technologies of Computation: Mathematics and Measurement Record keeping in most cultures almost certainly began with making signs or pictures to denote quantities long before written language developed.

More than Most of these Sumerian documents. These marks. For some groups. The Chinese and Mayans usually used symbols for 1 and 5. Early Egyptians had different symbols for 1.

Numerous American tribal cultures have names for the numbers one through four and then use their word for hand to express what we would designate by the word. Several used one symbol to represent units and another to represent some multiple of a single unit. The Sumerians and the early Indus Valley civilizations used symbols for 1 and Clearly the choices of 5.

All ancient civilizations used a small number of symbols to represent numbers. Joseph Emmert. Figure 2. Strips about 18 inches long were laid next to one another with a slight overlap.

Hieroglyphic script was most often used for formal occasions and involved pictograms that were frequently complex.

Since papyrus documents were made of organic material. Some civilizations. The Egyptians wrote in two different scripts from very early on. The earliest are inventory records.

Mayan numbers were expressed in dot and bar notation. Mesopotamian records have lasted for millennia and we have tens of thousands of documents containing mathematical operations. Mathematical texts used both forms of writing. The earliest papyrus with mathematical content. Because record keeping in Mesopotamia was done on clay tablets that hardened and which were sometimes baked. Other groups continued counting on fingers until they achieved closure by completing both hands.

Though it is likely that Egyptians had developed many mathematical techniques by the time that the great pyramids were built. Egyptian records were kept in ink and written on papyrus.

The two layers were then pounded into a nearly homogeneous and seamless mat that could be joined to others by beating on overlapping edges.

No text recounting their use exists prior to the fifth century of the Common Era. Several short papyri date from around B. The vast bulk of what we know about Egyptian mathematics comes from a single papyrus. For example. Many sets of such rods made of bone. Each month. Technologies of Computation 29 from around B. The evidence for mathematics in China has a much different character.

Numbers appear on Shang oracle bones i. It includes calculations of the volume of stone blocks in a storehouse. These include the Moscow papyrus. Apparently a mathematics text for use in scribal schools.

A Treatise on Law. The latter numbers correspond to a system of calculation to be described in the next section that used counting rods. What is striking about this Egyptian evidence is that it all comes from a very small number of sources and from a short period of time.

The distinctive character of Egyptian counting systems shows that they were not borrowed directly from another contemporary civilization. Each person spends three hundred coins on clothing. Precise linear measurements are also evidenced in the 15 different sizes of kiln-dried bricks.

Before that time. Li and Du Some pottery inscriptions contain numbers that suggest that the Hindu system of numeration. Indian numbers were indicated by vertical or horizontal lines similar to the counting rod numbers from China. Its nine chapters cover field measurement. These became part of a text mathematical canon that was finalized around C. Evidence for Mayan mathematics comes largely from two codexes written with ink on treated bark.

Consequently there is a deficit of four hundred and fifty. The Zhoubi Suanjing is primarily an astronomical text. Three hundred coins are used for ceremonials and sacrifices at the ancestors shrine. The Jiuzhang Suanshu text.

Archeological evidence from the Harappan culture of ancient India implies the existence of a system of measurement based on multiples of two and five. Thus there are a thousand and fifty left. When it is 2. The choice from among possible values had to be based on the context in which the number appeared.

More theoretical mathematical texts derive from the sixth and fifth centuries B. The earliest versions of place value systems did not include a place holder like the modern zero. When the symbol for a smaller unit appeared to the right of a symbol for a larger unit.

When it is The simplest number systems from a computational point of view are regular place value systems. A rough equivalent to zero appeared in the orientation and spacing of the counting rods used by the Chinese.

Almost Technologies of Computation 31 pottery dating to the beginning of the Common Era. The Roman system. The multiple of the smaller unit which the same symbol represents displaced by one place defines the number system. When that number is When the value of a symbol depends on where it appears in the representation of a number i. A description of the procedures used for each problem follows each table. Note that none of the common shortcuts that we learn in the decimal system are used.

Step 3: Move one column left in the second number and add to the result of step 2. Division problems naturally arise when a given quantity of some commodity must be divided among several persons. Step 2: Add the value in the right-hand column of the second number to the entire first number. AND DIVISION The most basic bookkeeping functions in all cultures are related to establishing how many units of a commodity are in an inventory when some determinate amount is brought into the storehouse or disbursed from the storehouse.

The following figures illustrate how each basic kind of problem is done in the modern decimal system and how it was done in the Mesopotamian sexigesimal system. Explanation of decimal process: Step 1: Place smaller number below larger. Multiplication problems arise naturally in cases in which a given number of units of volume are filled by a certain kind of brick and one wants to know how much volume will be filled by a specified number of bricks. In spite of some claims to the contrary.

An algorithm for doing calculations using the Roman system was constructed by Charles Young. The result is the answer sought. Step 4: Repeat step 3 until all values in the second number have been used.

Write down the two numbers to be added. Only in the Chinese case was it permissible to subtract larger numbers from smaller ones. Step 5: Repeat step 4 until all symbols in the preliminary result have been used. The explanation of subtraction in all systems is similar to addition. If there are more than enough of them to produce one of the next larger unit.

Taking the results of step 3. Continue by repeating step 3 until all values in the second number have been added. Collect all symbols of the smallest unit present. If there are more than enough to make up a next larger unit. In that case. Starting at the left value in the second number. Explanation of sexagesimal process: All steps are the same as in the decimal case.

Explanation of Egyptian Process. Write down. In the Egyptian case. In grain cases. If there are not enough symbols of a given kind in the first number. Start with the first number. Explanation of Chinese process Step 1: Same as in decimal system. Move one column to the right and add that value to the result of step 2. The result of this step is the answer sought. Once these are known. Chinese counting rod calculators started from the left. In place value systems.

In the Egyptian system. So for base 10 systems. Shortcut in all systems: That number is then added to the result of the multiplication of the multiplicand by the second term of the multiplier accounting for its place value by moving one place left or right.

Technologies of Computation Figure 2. Mesopotamians and modern Westerners start from the righthand end of the multiplier. All Egyptian fractions with the. Thus the problem. Start as if one is doing the multiplication problem including place value shortcuts and keep track of the number of additions needed to reach the number to be divided.

What is 19 divided by 8? Since any multiple of a number can be reached by adding successive doublings and multiples of 10 to the original number. The answer comes out in terms of unit fractions. Add in column 1 until you reach There are several explanations for this situation. Egyptians tended to be more literal in their linguistic usages than their Mesopotamian counterparts.

There is a first part. In Mesopotamia. A second. In the Chinese counting rod system. Without backing up and starting over. In general any place value system of base. But what if the divisor is a multiple of both an odd and an even small number — say 12 — then one scribe might choose to express his answer in terms of 3rds. How could one tell if the answers were equivalent?

One way of doing division that does not come out even in the Chinese system and in the Mesopotamian sexigesimal system is simply to leave the answer as a whole number plus a fraction. The historian of Chinese mathematics.

Jean-Claude Martzloff. Technologies of Computation 39 almost certainly militated against the adoption of alternatives illustrated by trading partners. To this sum add its third part. In China as well as in India. That is how you do it. While most of the calculations done by the mathematically literate Egyptians. Find a third of this result. Gillings Efficiency at one stage in computation thus lead into what amounted to a mathematical cul de sac from which there was no effective escape.

Thus Rhind papyrus problem number 28 is stated as follows: Think of a number. Recreational problems. Pseudo-real problems that pretend to address situations of daily life. Real problems that apply to specific situations and are directly useable.

Suppose that a man with many coins enters the land of Shu [Sichuan]. Martzloff After doing this five times. On the other hand.

Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations

How many coins did he have originally. Suppose the answer is Smith Problem 9 — 3 from the Chinese Jiuzhang Suanshu states: Suppose LEG: British Museum From this practice. One special case of this proposition appears in both Mesopotamian and Chinese texts. I think. The Front is 3. The flank is 4 and the diagonal is 5. Sesostris also. LEG automultiplied. Answer 3 chi. Herodotus was probably correct in seeing the origins of geometry in practical problems of governance such as surveying and construction.

Since you do not know. What would I multiply by itself to make 9? There then follows another problem using the similar Figure 2.

Technologies of Computation 41 sider a gnomon.

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In this section of the text. If one goes south If we use the principle that corresponding parts of similar triangles are proportional. How far is the Sun from the Earth? Not only does the Pythagorean theorem figure in applications in both the Chinese and Mesopotamian traditions. The answer is 1. A bamboo sighting tube 8 chi long and with a diameter of 0. If it [the top of the reed] moves down 3 cubits.

How big is the tree? If one steps back one foot [at the base of the tree]. Van der Waerden A reed is placed vertically against a wall [of equal height]. What is the Reed? What is the diameter of the Sun?

So far. This tablet contains the successive Pythagorean triplets generated by the lowest p and q pairs that meet these criteria. More importantly.

Technology and Science in Ancient Civilizations.pdf

Technologies of Computation 43 Given the similar ways in which both the special 3. Though we have only the sequence of bs. The circumference is then estimated to be three times the diameter. There are no extended teaching texts for Mesopotamian mathematics comparable to the Rhind Papyrus or the Jiuzhang Suanshu. A broken tablet at Columbia University designated Plimpton and dating from the Old Babylonian period c.

When they wanted to make theoretical calculations simple.

Moscow papyrus problem 49 tells us that. Whether the Egyptians generally had the correct value for the area of a triangle is debated among scholars. Rhind problem 48 derives the area of an eight-sided figure constructed as in Figure 2. Let h be the length. Most historians of mathematics are inclined to read meryet as altitude Gillings In this case. But whether meryet should be interpreted as what we call altitude. The formulae for the areas of squares and rectangles are correctly given. According to George Thibaut: If we let a side now be d.

Two oddities about these texts is that baked brick was not being used in India when the texts were created. In each case. These writings. Given the interest in the dimensions and shapes of burnt brick by Harappan artisans and the wide spread assumption that mathematical knowledge must be linked to artisanal traditions shared by many historians of ancient technology.

Harappan rectangular bricks generally exhibited constant length-to-depthto-height ratios. On the face of it. Harappan civilization. The extra area exhibited by the circle in the corner squares is roughly equal to the excess area of the octagonal figure in the side squares.

Chattopadhyaya How to construct a rectangle. Except at the extremities. How to construct a square. How to construct a rectangle whose area is equal to that of a given square. How to construct a square whose area is the same as that of a given rectangle.

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To show that the square on the diagonal of a given square has twice the area of the original. How to transform a square into an isosceles trapezoid.

This implies a recognition that the area of a parallelogram is its length times height. It also presupposes a way to calculate the length of offset to create the requisite height Religious considerations thus motivated an emphasis on precision.

How to construct a square whose area is the difference between the areas of two given squares. In addition. To construct a square whose area is three times that of a given square. In the most extensively discussed altar. How to construct a square whose area is the sum of the areas of two squares of different sizes.

How to construct a triangle with an area equal to that of a given square. The only reason for demanding justifications for both members of the pair is to achieve theoretical completeness. How to construct a circle with the area of a given square. How to construct a square with the same area as a given circle. Indian authors did seek both more explicit assumptions and greater generality of expression than can be found.

Jainist priests also demonstrated considerable interest in mathematical topics. There is evidence to suggest that they might not have intended the altars to be built with bricks.

Within the contemporary commentaries samhitas on the Vedas. How to construct a rhombus equal in area to any given square. One additional consideration would support the notion that some Vedic priests might have developed an interest in mathematics for its own sake. As this text has been interpreted by Subinoy Ray Chattopadhyaya Technologies of Computation 47 All of these comments would suggest that these problems are not ones that are likely to have been inherited from Harappan artisans.

In the course of these discussions. Still the highest enumerable number has not been obtained. All of these problems are set in a context of the calculation of numbers so large that actually carrying out the calculations would have been impossible. If we think of permutations as arrangements in which ab is not the same as ba. Fill it up with white mustard seeds. For those who insist upon the practical source of ancient mathematical writing.

If we designate combinations from n taken three at a time by nC3 and agree that ab and ba are not different combinations. Joseph Hence when everything of these kinds had already been provided. Jain mathematics was openly abstract and tended to emphasize the theory of numbers. Aristotle wrote: When a variety of arts had been invented. The reader is told: Consider a trough whose diameter is that of the earth While the course textbook reading comprehension. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

The importance of critical literacy. English Teaching: need to be the sole source of information—it may not Practice and Critique, 11 1 , — Using picture books to arouse interest in the study Krebs, L. The Social Studies, 98 1 , 9— Cambridge, MA: Barefoot Books. Levstik, L. What happens in social studies classrooms? Research Liu-Perkins, C. At home in her tomb: Lady Dai and the ancient on K—12 social studies practice. Levstik ed.

New York, NY: Publishing. Major, J. The silk route: 7, miles of history. The place of picture books in middle-level class- HarperCollins. Morley, J.

Noyes, D. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press. Yep, L. The city of dragons. New York, NY: Scholastic. New London Group. A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Yolen, J. The emperor and the kite. Cleveland, OH: World Designing social futures. Kalantzis Eds. Publishing Company. Multiliteracies: Literacy learning in the design of social futures pp. London, England: Routledge. Young, E. Monkey king. Nikolajeva, M. The dynamics of picturebook communication. Ancient Egypt Nodelman, P. Ray, K. In pictures and in words: Teaching the qualities of good Aliki.

Mummies made in Egypt. New York, NY: Crowell. Bailey, L. Adventures in ancient Egypt. Toronto, Ontario: Kids Rosenblatt, L. The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory Can Press. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Bunting, E. I am the mummy Heb-Nefert. Literature as exploration 5th ed. Modern Language Association of America.

Clements, A. Temple cat. Roser, N. The power of Logan, C. The 5,year-old puzzle: Solving a mystery of ancient picturebooks: Resources that support language and learning in Egypt. Voices from the Middle, 19 1 , 24— Love, D.

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Of numbers and stars: The story of Hypatia. English Education, 35 2 , — Macaulay, D. Sipe, L. How picture books work: A semiotically framed Rumford, J. Seeker of knowledge: The man who deciphered Egyptian theory of text-picture relationships.

Education, 29 2 , 97— Sabuda, R. New York, NY: Atheneum. Sumara, D. Interrupting heteronormativity: Toward a queer curriculum theory. Curriculum Inquiry, 29 2 , — Stanley, D. Trelease, J. The read-aloud handbook 7th ed. Pepi and the secret names. Vacca, R. Content area reading: Literacy and learning Winters, K. Voices of ancient Egypt. Washington, DC: National across the curriculum 7th ed.

Vacca, J.

Ancient Greece Reading and learning to read 7th ed. Boston, MA: Aliki. The gods and goddesses of Olympus. New York, NY: Pearson. HarperCollins Publishers. Youngs, S. Comprehension strategies for read- Burleigh, R.

The Reading Teacher, 65 2 , Byrd, R. The hero and the minotaur: The fantastic adventures of — Craft, M. Cupid and Psyche. Appendix Demi. King Midas: The golden touch. New York, NY: M. McElderry Books. Suggested picture book text sets for teaching Ellis, J. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge. The librarian who measured the Earth.

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So after the analysis this line of research, interesting archaeoacoustic effects have of about thirty ancient sites the hypothesis of our research been discovered at a number of sacred sites from Malta to group was confirmed and became a thesis. Interrupting heteronormativity: Toward a queer curriculum theory. Strategies that work: Teaching compre- Our 21st century students are accustomed to living in a hension for understanding and engagement 2nd ed.