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ORGANIC MUSHROOM FARMING AND MYCOREMEDIATION PDF

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Organic Mushroom Farming And Mycoremediation Pdf

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How to Use This Book This book is designed to help you build skill and con- dence, starting in part 1 with a thorough foundation in both indoor and outdoor mushroom cultivation using purchased spawn a form of mycelium that is physically plantable, being packaged in sawdust, grain, or a wooden dowel. Although my eventual goal is to help you become more self-sufcient by culturing and cultivating your own spawn as well as to teach you how to grow mushrooms perpetually on just about anything , using purchased spawn will help you develop your skills and gain experience with a va- riety of cultivation techniques before you make larger investments of time and money.

While the informa- tion in part 1 can be considered more foundational than the material in the latter parts of the book, my hope is that even more experienced growers will nd value in these chapters. Rather than simply focusing on yield as an end goal, Ive strived for a more holistic approach, one that pays careful attention to the mush- room life cycle, to ecology, to fungis relationships with the other kingdoms of life, and to developing the kind of intuition that will teach you more about cultivating mushrooms than a book or a workshop ever can.

The focus of this book is primarily edible mushrooms, but you will nd a great deal of information on medicinal, industrial, and mycoremediation applications as well. Once you develop solid cultivation skills, you can apply them to grow whatever kind of mushrooms suit your goals, or fancy. The chapters in part 2 are designed to help you apply that foundational information to incorporate mushroom cultivation into your life and landscape, in whatever way reects your goals.

It includes and composted mushroom substrate lled with worm castings, my gardens thrive and are highly productive without compromising the soil and water quality. I believe in creating perpetual and circular food systems, using sustainable techniques such as water harvesting and no-till cultivation, and using passive energy or seasonal production to minimize the energy use on my farm.

My work has also evolved into research, such as creating mushroom rescue modules discussed in chapter 12 for use in regions struggling with poverty or devastated by natural disaster, where shattered habitats and cultures struggle to recover. On a recent trip to Haiti, for example, I introduced mushrooms to a group of children I met in the village of Cange. They were intrigued when I told them that some of mushrooms I had with me tasted like chicken and that I could teach them how to cultivate these wonderful mushrooms on paper or cardboard that we collected in the street.

The idea that they would fruit in just a few weeks seemed magical to them. That trip was one of the most memorable Ive ever taken. Here, I felt, mushrooms could make a real difference as a potential food source. I later returned to help set up a commer- cial production facility and spawn production lab to keep the process perpetuating. Through such experiences, Ive found that sharing what I know about mushrooms has become an imper- ative. Mushrooms are an excellent source of protein, and they have a wide range of medicinal properties.

With an estimated 1. In these ways fungi have the potential to shape our future for millennia to come.

This book is a compilation of knowledge Ive gained from my experiences, from when I cultivated my rst mushrooms up to the present, in which I now conduct mushroom research and own my own mush- room business. As you are reading, I must warn you that you are embarking on a path that may change the way you see yourself tting into this life.

In choosing mushrooms, you have decided to cultivate Introduction at your goals is to learn the specic and subtle needs of each mushroom you grow. Treat each one as an individual, like someone you know and want to know better , understanding its individual needs and differences.

This takes time and patience and, inev- itably, some failure. Give yourself the opportunity to experiment before the stakes are too high.

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Seek hands-on workshops, attend mushroom walks, and join mushroom hunting clubs to meet like-minded people and share knowledge and experiences. Many people have commercial aspirations for mushroom cultivation, and I have tried to include as much information as possible that can be applied to small-scale and environmentally responsible com- mercial operations including a chapter on marketing your product. Again, weigh this decision carefully.

Only you can decide when, if, and at what scale its right for you. But my hope is that youll have all the tools you need to scale up if you choose to. In a study white rot fungus Thelephora sp.

Decolourization using the fungus was Pesticides : Many xenobiotic compounds have medium to long-term stability in soil, and their persistence results in significant impact on the soil ecosystem For fungal systems, bioremediation requires the soil to be aerobic with the provision of enough oxygen to enable effective colonization to occur. Very often, urban application of pesticides is carried out at an excessively high concentration, resulting in pesticide waste characterized by prolonged persistence Filamentous fungi are also more tolerant of environmental stress and can produce copious amounts of extracellular enzymes during hyphal colonization of soil, resulting in enhanced rates of bioremediation Polycyclic aromatic compound: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.

Because of their hydrophobic nature, most PAHs bind to particulates in soil and sediments, rendering them less available for biological uptake The high hydrophobicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs greatly hamper their degradation in liquid media. The use of an organic solvent can assist the degradative action of ligninolytic enzymes from white rot fungi. Anthracene was degraded to phthalic acid. A ring cleavage product of the oxidation of dibenzothiophene, 4-methoxybenzoic acid Degradation of four representatives of PAHs phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene was tested and the enzyme showed the ability to degrade them in vitro.

Agrocybe sp. Conclusion: Fungi are considered as natural decomposers which can significantly reduce and degrade persistent and highly toxic pollutant. Mycoremediation can be augmented by adding carbon sources at polluted sites and providing optimum condition to increase degradation process. Naturally present community of microbes acts in concert with the fungi to decompose the contaminants. White rot fungi are extremely effective in decomposing toxic aromatic pollutants, Heavy metals, Dyes, chemical pollutants etc.

Further studies may be helpful in understanding the mechanism and optimizing the process of degradation. Benefit is offered that land that is contaminated and unfit for agriculture could be both restored and made to yield a nutritious food crop.

References: 1. Mishra, V.

Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

Desalination and Water Treatment, , 46 , BiochemBiophys Res Commun. Malik, A.

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Environment international, , 30 2 , Harms, H. Nature Reviews Microbiology, , 9 3 , Leitao, A. International journal of environmental research and public health, , 6 4 , Urban A. Soil Biology, , 25 3 Mejstrik V, Lepsova A. In: Market B Ed. Amna, J. Vimala R, Das N. Journal of Hazardous Materials, , 1 , — Nilanjana D. Nat Prod Rad, , 4 6 , — Singh, H. Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation.

Volesky, B. Water research, , 41 18 , Gorobets, S.

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Intensification of the process of sorption of copper ions by yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of a permanent magnetic field. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, , , Zhang, D. The extremely high Al resistance of Penicillium janthineleum F- 13 is not caused by internal or external sequestration of Al. Biometals, , 15 2 , Kumar Ramasamy, R. Baldrian P. Enzyme Microbiology and Technology, , 32, 78— Borovicka J, Randa Z. Distribution of iron, cobalt, zinc and selenium in macrofungi.

MycolProg, , 6 4 Galanda, D. Mycoremediation: the study of transfer factor for plutonium and americium uptake from the ground. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, , 3 , Elekes, C. Annals Food Science and Technology, , 10 2 , Taboski, M.

234765471 Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation Introduction

Lead and cadmium uptake in the marine fungi Corollosporalaceraand Monodictys pelagic. FEMS Microbiol. Thompson-Eagle, E. Volatilization of selenium by Alternaria alternata. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, , 55 6 , Journal of Hazard. Material, , Garon, D. Enhanced degradation of fluorene in soil slurry by Absidia cylindrospora and maltosyl-cyclodextrin.

Chemosphere, , 56 2 , Ahmad, A. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, , 28 4 , Here, I felt, mushrooms could make a real difference as a potential food source. I later returned to help set up a commer- cial production facility and spawn production lab to keep the process perpetuating.

Through such experiences, Ive found that sharing what I know about mushrooms has become an imper- ative. Mushrooms are an excellent source of protein, and they have a wide range of medicinal properties.

With an estimated 1. In these ways fungi have the potential to shape our future for millennia to come. This book is a compilation of knowledge Ive gained from my experiences, from when I cultivated my rst mushrooms up to the present, in which I now conduct mushroom research and own my own mush- room business.

As you are reading, I must warn you that you are embarking on a path that may change the way you see yourself tting into this life. In choosing mushrooms, you have decided to cultivate Introduction ix at your goals is to learn the specic and subtle needs of each mushroom you grow.

Treat each one as an individual, like someone you know and want to know better , understanding its individual needs and differences.

This takes time and patience and, inev- itably, some failure. Give yourself the opportunity to experiment before the stakes are too high.

Seek hands-on workshops, attend mushroom walks, and join mushroom hunting clubs to meet like-minded people and share knowledge and experiences. Many people have commercial aspirations for mushroom cultivation, and I have tried to include as much information as possible that can be applied to small-scale and environmentally responsible com- mercial operations including a chapter on marketing your product.

Again, weigh this decision carefully. Only you can decide when, if, and at what scale its right for you. But my hope is that youll have all the tools you need to scale up if you choose to. As you proceed through the book, youll notice a focus on shiitakes and oyster mushrooms. This isnt because those are the only mushrooms worth grow- ing! I use oysters and shiitakes frequently to illustrate specic phenomena or techniques because they are two of the easiest and most satisfying mushrooms to grow, and many people are familiar with them.

If you are a beginner, they are great mushrooms to start with. But if you ip to part 4, Meet the Cultivated Mushrooms, you will also nd proles of nearly thirty mushrooms, with growing parameters and suggestions for each. While most of these mushrooms are primarily edibles, some have wonderful applica- tions for use as medicinals, in mycoremediation, or potentially in industrial capacities.

Spend some time looking through the proles and familiarize yourself with the possibilities.

Although you may want to start with oysters or shiitakes, you can then apply much of what you learn to the other mushrooms, factoring in each individual mushrooms needs. To me, this book is much more than a cultivation guide. It is about healing the people and the planet, one mushroom and one cultivator at a time, reversing destructive cycles into creative forces.

If we think with an opportunistic yet minimalistic approach, information for both urban and off-the-grid growers, on making value-added products from mushrooms including mushroom-infused beer, wine, and spir- its , and the incredible and largely untapped potential of mushrooms to provide high-quality protein for people in poverty- and disaster-stricken regions of the world. Part 2 is full of useful and largely low-tech ideas for bringing mushrooms even further into your life.

234765471 Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation Introduction

The goal here, as in part 1, is not only to help you cultivate mushrooms successfully though thats a big part of it , but to help you develop an understanding of the complex relationships mushrooms have with bacteria, plants, and animals including humans.

I believe that the more we develop that understanding, the more potential we have for successful cultivation, and the more we focus on linear goals of maximum production, the more we risk failurein more senses than one.

The chapters in part 3 cover more advanced and experimental techniques such as basic lab construc- tion, sterile culturing, and techniques for mushrooms that are extremely difcult to cultivate, like morels. While the material in part 1 and part 2 is mostly low-tech, requiring relatively small investments in infrastructure and equipment, the material in part 3 requires more rened skill and bigger decisions.

Some of it is research-in-progress, which Ive includ- ed in the hope that as you build on your experience as a mushroom cultivator, you will contribute your own experiments and experiences to the body of knowledge about mushrooms.

There is still so much to learn, and the more we understand about mush- rooms and the fungi kingdom, the more we can use that understanding to grow high-quality food and medicinals, remediate polluted land and water, and replace plastics and other industrial materials with fungus-based textiles, building materials, and other consumer goods.

Although many researchers and cultivators are protective of their knowledge, the only way we can really build a collective body of knowl- edge is through collaboration. Dont be too quick to rush to an advanced chapter or scale up your operation based on the information in this book.

The only way to improve and succeed Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation x natural cycles of mushrooms, no matter how small they are.

From old-growth forests to mulched urban sidewalks to fruiting growths on debris oating out at sea, fungi are everywhere, and theres much to be learned from them. Spend as much time as possible cultivating, collecting, and observing the. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Mushroom Growers' Handbook 1:The title concludes with a guide to specific mushrooms and methods for growing them indoors and outdoors. If he hadnt caught up with my car, he would have had no way to contact me.

Mougin, C. Degradation of four representatives of PAHs phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene was tested and the enzyme showed the ability to degrade them in vitro. The more you learn, the more your belief in their magic will grow. Many people have commercial aspirations for mushroom cultivation, and I have tried to include as much information as possible that can be applied to small-scale and environmentally responsible com- mercial operations including a chapter on marketing your product.

It includes and composted mushroom substrate lled with worm castings, my gardens thrive and are highly productive without compromising the soil and water quality.