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Safari - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. Gujarati Popular Science, nonfiction Magazine in PDF - safari. Let us start the magazine reviews for the year , with the January issue of Safari – a knowledge magazine in Gujarati from India. SAFARI is an innovative monthly that provides the young readers with a wealth of general knowledge. The magazine that covers a remarkable breadth of.

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all-safari-magazine-gujarati-pdf-free All Safari Magazine Gujarati Pdf Free Updated a year ago. About · 0 Discussions · 0 Change Requests. Star. Einstein and relativity (in gujarati by nagendra vijay safari magazine). Every single concepts from time travel to black hole are discribe in this. Safari Magazine | Gujarati Edition. View Current Issue. SAFARI is an innovative monthly that provides the young readers with a wealth of general knowledge.

There are also some other publications by the owners, which include: Safari has also launched a Braille edition of the magazine. Safari also owns a publishing house named 'Uranus Books' which publishes famous stories by Vijaygupta Maurya.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Retrieved Retrieved from " https: Science and technology magazine stubs Gujarati-language magazines Indian monthly magazines Indian science and technology magazines Magazines established in Science and technology in Gujarat establishments in India.

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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 9 December , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Cover page of Safari. In the face of screen reader software, braille usage has declined.

Braille was based on a tactile military code called night writing, developed by Charles Barbier in response to Napoleon's demand for a means for soldiers to communicate silently at night and without a light source. In Barbier's system, sets of 12 embossed dots encoded 36 different sounds, it was rejected by the military.

Braille identified two major defects of the code: first, by representing only sounds, the code was unable to render the orthography of the words. Braille's solution was to use 6-dot cells and to assign a specific pattern to each letter of the alphabet. At first, Braille was a one-to-one transliteration of French orthography, but soon various abbreviations and logograms were developed, creating a system much more like shorthand ; the expanded English system, called Grade-2 Braille, was completed by For blind readers, Braille is an independent writing system, rather than a code of printed orthography.

Braille is derived from the Latin alphabet, albeit indirectly. Here w was left out as not being a part of the official French alphabet at the time of Braille's life. The next ten, ending in w, are the same again, except that for this series position 6 is used without position 3. In addition, there are ten patterns.

There had been nine decades; the fifth through ninth used dashes as well as dots, but proved to be impractical and were soon abandoned. These could be replaced with what we now know as the number sign, though that only caught on for the digits; the dash occupying the top row of the original sixth decade was dropped, producing the modern fifth decade.

There have been three principles in assigning the values of a linear script to Braille : Using Louis Braille's original French letter values.

It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west.

In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste , emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose.

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Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture. Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate.

The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the midth century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the midth under British Crown rule.

A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi , was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in In , the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in , India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country.

However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.

A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush , equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River ; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus".

The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha , which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the midth century as a native name for India.

Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country. The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30, years ago.

Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan ; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during — BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India.

Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro , Harappa and Kalibangan , relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.

During the period — BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas , the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.

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Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period.

On the Deccan Plateau , archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India , a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions.

In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas ; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira. Buddhism , based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha , attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle Joke A joke is a display of humour in which words are used within a specific and well-defined narrative structure to make people laugh and is not meant to be taken seriously.

It takes the form of a story with dialogue, ends in a punch line, it is in the punch line that the audience becomes aware that the story contains a second, conflicting meaning. This can be done using a pun or other word play such as irony, a logical incompatibility, nonsense, or other means.

Linguist Robert Hetzron offers the definition: A joke is a short humorous piece of oral literature in which the funniness culminates in the final sentence, called the punchline … In fact, the main condition is that the tension should reach its highest level at the end. No continuation relieving the tension should be added; as for its being "oral," it is true that jokes may appear printed, but when further transferred, there is no obligation to reproduce the text verbatim, as in the case of poetry.

It is held that jokes benefit from brevity, containing no more detail than is needed to set the scene for the punchline at the end. In the case of riddle jokes or one-liners the setting is implicitly understood, leaving only the dialogue and punchline to be verbalised. However, subverting these and other common guidelines can be a source of humor—the shaggy dog story is in a class of its own as an anti-joke.

Jokes are a form of humour; some humorous forms which are not verbal jokes are: involuntary humour, situational humour, practical jokes and anecdotes. Jokes are passed along in written form or, more through the internet. Stand-up comics and slapstick work with comic timing and rhythm in their performance, relying as much on actions as on the verbal punchline to evoke laughter; this distinction has been formulated in the popular saying.

Any joke documented from the past has been saved through happenstance rather than design.

Safari 178

Jokes do not belong to refined culture, but rather to the leisure of all classes. As such, any printed versions were considered ephemera , i. Many of these early jokes deal with scatological and sexual topics, entertaining to all social classes but not to be valued and saved.

Various kinds of jokes have been identified in ancient pre-classical texts; the oldest identified joke is an ancient Sumerian proverb from BC containing toilet humour: "Something which has never occurred since time immemorial. Its records were dated to the Old Babylonian period and the joke may go as far back as BC; the second oldest joke found, discovered on the Westcar Papyrus and believed to be about Sneferu , was from Ancient Egypt circa BC: "How do you entertain a bored pharaoh?

You sail a boatload of young women dressed only in fishing nets down the Nile and urge the pharaoh to go catch a fish. This is a comic triple dating back to BC Adab.

The earliest extant joke book is the Philogelos , a collection of jokes written in crude ancient Greek dating to the fourth or fifth century AD. The author of the collection is obscure and a number of different authors are attributed to it, including "Hierokles and Philagros the grammatikos ", just "Hierokles", or, in the Suda , "Philistion". British classicist Mary Beard states that the Philogelos may have been intended as a jokester's handbook of quips to say on the fly, rather than a book meant to be read straight through.

Many of the jokes in this collection are familiar though the typical protagonists are less recognisable to contemporary readers: the absent-minded professor , the eunuch , people with hernias or bad breath; the Philogelos contains a joke similar to Monty Python's " Dead Parrot Sketch ".

During the 15th century, the printing revolution spread across Europe following the development of the movable type printing press; this was coupled with the growth of literacy in all social classes. Printers turned out Jestbooks along with Bibles to meet both lowbrow and highbrow interests of the populace. One early anthology of jokes was the Facetiae by the Italian Poggio Bracciolini , first published in ; the popularity of this jest book can be measured on the twenty editions of the book documented alone for the 15th century.

Another popular form was a collection of jests and funny situations attributed to a single character in a more connected, narrative form of the picaresque novel. There is a jest book ascribed to William Shakespeare , the contents of which appear to both inform and borrow from his plays. All of these early jestbooks corroborate both the rise in the literacy of the European populations and the general quest for leisure activities during the Renaissance in Europe; the practice of printers to use jokes and cartoons as page fillers was widely used in the broadsides and chapbooks of the 19th century and earlier.

With the incr Gujarat Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1, km — most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula — and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast and Diu to the south and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west, its capital city is Gandhinagar.

Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat , served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era.


Along with Bihar and Nagaland , Gujarat is one of the three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol. Present-day Gujarat is derived from Sanskrit term Gurjaradesa , meaning the land of the Gurjaras who ruled Gujarat in the 8th and 9th centuries AD. Parts of modern Rajasthan and Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries before the Mughal period.

Gujarat was one of the main central areas of the Indus Valley Civilisation, it contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was; the ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation.

The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro.

Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat; the ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt and Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of to BC. The early history of Gujarat reflects the imperial grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya , was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime, he built a dam on the Sudarshan lake.

Emperor Ashoka , the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered engraving of his edicts on the rock at Junagadh but asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. In 16th century manuscripts, there is an apocryphal story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas. The incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that the port city described is in Gujarat.

For nearly years from the start of the 1st century AD, Saka rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history; the weather-beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman I of the Saka satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered Punjab.

In Gujarat , several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps; the greatest and the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Western Satraps and conquered some parts of Gujarat in the 2nd century AD.

Vikramaditya's successor Skandagupta left an inscription on a rock at Junagadh which gives details of the governor's repairs to the embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods. The Anarta and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire.

Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into decline. Senapati Bhatarka, the Maitraka general of the Guptas, took advantage of the situation and in he set up what came to be known as the Maitraka state, he shifted his capital from Giringer near Bhavnagar , on Saurashtra's east coast.

The Maitrakas of Vallabhi became powerful with their rule prevailing over large parts of Gujarat and adjoining Malwa. Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks and was familiar with other Western centers of civilization through the end of the European Middle Ages ; the oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,year maritime history is documented in a Greek book titled The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea : Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century.

In the early 8th century, the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate established an empire in the name of the rising religion of Islam , which stretched Hobby A hobby is a regular activity done for enjoyment during one's leisure time.

Hobbies include collecting themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, or pursuing other amusements. Participation in hobbies encourages acquiring substantial skills and knowledge in that area.Com and download the Safari Language, English Kiswahili. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

It gives a good insight to some of the remarkable historical incidents. When we think we have read enough on this topic, there comes a new aspect and make the topic alive.

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