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BMA ILLUSTRATED MEDICAL DICTIONARY PDF

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BMA - Illustrated Medical Dictionary - A Dorling Kindersley Book - dokument [*. pdf] The British Medical Association ILLUSTRATED MEDICAL. Medical Dictionary: Essential A-Z Quick Reference to Over 5, Medical Terms PDF Free. Download [Direct Link] - ma, 25 mrt GMT BMA. BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary: Essential A-Z Quick Reference to Over 5, Medical Terms PDF Free Download [Direct Link] The British Medical Association’s BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary is a guide to over illustrated medical terminologies. Today, in this article, we.


Bma Illustrated Medical Dictionary Pdf

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The BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary gives comprehensive coverage of anatomical terms, disorders, tests, It is the essential dictionary for general practitioners, students and those with an interest in the medical field. صيغة الكتاب: pdf. It's good time! Time for reviewing Bma Illustrated Medical Dictionary Pdf, as best seller book in this wolrd. Do not have it? Too bad. Currently, you can download. The British Medical Association ILLUSTRATED MEDICAL DICTIONARY Superior CORONARY ARTERY Aorta Left main coronary Any structure that encircles.

Blockage of a coronary artery as a result of athero- sclerosis can lead to myocardial infarction. See also coronary artery disease.

The abdominal cavity is bounded by the ribs and diaphragm above, and by the pelvis below, with the spine and abdominal muscles forming the back, side, and front walls. It contains the liver, stom- ach, intestines, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys. In the lower abdomen, enclosed by the pelvis, are the bladder, rectum, and, in women, the uterus and ovaries. The most common cause of an acute abdomen is peritonitis.

Other causes include appendicitis, abdominal injury, perforation of an internal organ due to disorders such as peptic ulcer or diver- ticular disease. Acute abdominal pain commonly begins as a vague pain in the centre but then becomes localized. An acute abdomen requires urgent medical investigation that may involve a laparoscopy or a laparotomy. Treat- ment depends on the underlying cause. Mild abdominal pain is common and is often due to excessive alcohol intake, eating unwisely, or an attack of diarrhoea.

Pain in the lower abdomen is common during menstruation but is occasionally due to a gynaecological disorder such as endometriosis.

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Cystitis is a common cause of pain or discom- fort in the abdomen. Bladder distension as a result of urinary obstruction may also cause abdominal pain. Abdominal colic is pain that occurs every few minutes as one of the internal organs goes into muscular spasm in an attempt to overcome an obstruction such as a stone or an area of inflamma- tion. The attacks of colic may become more severe and may be associated with vomiting see abdomen, acute.

Peptic ulcer often produces recurrent gnawing pain. Other possible causes of abdominal pain are infection, such as pyelonephritis, and ischaemia lack of blood supply , as occurs when a volvu- lus twisting of the intestine obstructs blood vessels. Tumours affecting an abdominal organ can cause pain.

Abdo- minal pain can also result from anxiety. For mild pain, a wrapped hot-water bottle is often effective. Pain due to peptic ulcer can be temporarily relieved by food or by taking antacid drugs. Abdominal pain that is not relieved by vomiting, persists for more than 6 hours, or is associated with sweating or faint- ing requires urgent medical attention.

Urgent attention is also necessary if pain is accompanied by persistent vom- iting, vomiting of blood, or passing of bloodstained or black faeces. Unex- plained weight loss or changes in bowel habits should always be investigated. Investigation of abdominal pain may include the use of imaging tests such as ultrasound scanning, and endoscopic examination in the form of gastroscopy, colonoscopy, or laparoscopy.

Abdominal swelling is a natural result of obesity and growth of the uterus during pregnancy. Wind in the stomach or intestine may cause uncom- fortable, bloating distension of the abdomen. Some women experience ab- dominal distension due to temporary water retention just before menstrua- tion. Other causes may be more serious. Diagnosis of the underlying cause may involve abdominal X-rays, ultrasound scanning, laparotomy, or laparoscopy.

In ascites, some fluid between organs may be drained for examination. The technique is also known as the Heimlich manoeuvre.

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X-rays can show whether any organ is enlarged and can detect swallowed foreign bod- ies in the digestive tract. They also show patterns of fluid and gas: Calcium, which is opaque to X-rays, is present in most kidney stones see calculus, urinary tract and in some gallstones and aortic aneurysms; these can sometimes be detected on an abdominal X-ray. It supplies the lateral rectus muscle of each eye, which is responsible for mov- ing the eyeball outwards.

The nerve originates in the pons part of the brain- stem and passes along the base of the brain, entering the back of the eye socket through a gap between the skull bones. Mus- cles that carry out this movement are called abductors. See also adduction.

ABO blood groups See blood groups. In medical practice, abortion is induced using prostaglandin drugs, often given as vaginal pessaries. Depending on the stage of pregnancy, termination may be induced by using drugs or by the surgical technique of vacuum suction curettage, under either a general or local anaesthetic, during which the fetal and placental tissues are removed.

Complications are rare. In Freudian theory, abreaction ideally occurs by way of catharsis. Abscesses may develop in any organ and in the soft tissues beneath the skin in any area. Common sites include the armpit, breast see breast abscess , groin, and gums see abscess, dental. Rarer sites include the liver see liver abscess and the brain see brain abscess.

The term is commonly applied to the uptake of the nutrients from food into blood and lymph from the digestive tract. The major site of absorption is the small intestine, which is lined with microscopic finger-like projections called villi see villus.

The villi greatly increase the surface area of the intestine, thereby increasing the rate of absorption.

It also occurs in people with carcinomas of the lung and other organs. Pseudoacanthosis nigricans is a much more common condition, usually seen in dark-complexioned people who are overweight. In this form, the skin in fold areas is both thicker and darker than the surrounding skin, and there is usually excessive sweating in affected areas. The condition may improve with weight loss.

Infectious organisms usually reach internal organs via the bloodstream, or they penetrate tissues under the skin through a wound.

Bma illustrated medical dictionary pdf

An abscess may cause pain, depending on where it occurs. Most larger absces- ses cause fever, sweating, and malaise. Those that are close to the skin often cause obvious redness and swelling. Antibiotics, antifungal drugs, or amoe- bicides are usually prescribed as appropriate. Most abscesses also need to be drained see drain, surgical , and in some cases a tube may be left in place to allow continuous drainage.

Some abscesses burst and drain spon- taneously. Occasionally, an abscess within a vital organ damages enough surrounding tissue to cause permanent loss of normal function, or even death.

Bacteria can also gain access to the pulp when a tooth is injured. The infection in the pulp then spreads into the surrounding tissue to form an abscess. Abscesses can also result from periodontal disease, in which bacteria accumulate in pockets that form between the teeth and gums.

The affected tooth aches or throbs, and biting or chewing is usually extremely painful. It is also sometimes used as a nonmedical term for a heart attack see myocardial infarction.

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These arteries, known as the left and right main coronary arteries, arise directly from the aorta. The term coronary artery is also applied to any of the arteries that branch off from the main coronary arteries, such as the left circumflex artery and the left anterior descending artery.

Blockage of a coronary artery as a result of athero- sclerosis can lead to myocardial infarction. See also coronary artery disease. The abdominal cavity is bounded by the ribs and diaphragm above, and by the pelvis below, with the spine and abdominal muscles forming the back, side, and front walls.

It contains the liver, stom- ach, intestines, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys. In the lower abdomen, enclosed by the pelvis, are the bladder, rectum, and, in women, the uterus and ovaries. The most common cause of an acute abdomen is peritonitis. Other causes include appendicitis, abdominal injury, perforation of an internal organ due to disorders such as peptic ulcer or diver- ticular disease.

Acute abdominal pain commonly begins as a vague pain in the centre but then becomes localized.

An acute abdomen requires urgent medical investigation that may involve a laparoscopy or a laparotomy. Treat- ment depends on the underlying cause. Mild abdominal pain is common and is often due to excessive alcohol intake, eating unwisely, or an attack of diarrhoea.

Pain in the lower abdomen is common during menstruation but is occasionally due to a gynaecological disorder such as endometriosis. Cystitis is a common cause of pain or discom- fort in the abdomen. Bladder distension as a result of urinary obstruction may also cause abdominal pain. Abdominal colic is pain that occurs every few minutes as one of the internal organs goes into muscular spasm in an attempt to overcome an obstruction such as a stone or an area of inflamma- tion.

The attacks of colic may become more severe and may be associated with vomiting see abdomen, acute. Peptic ulcer often produces recurrent gnawing pain.

Other possible causes of abdominal pain are infection, such as pyelonephritis, and ischaemia lack of blood supply , as occurs when a volvu- lus twisting of the intestine obstructs blood vessels. Tumours affecting an abdominal organ can cause pain.

Abdo- minal pain can also result from anxiety. For mild pain, a wrapped hot-water bottle is often effective. Pain due to peptic ulcer can be temporarily relieved by food or by taking antacid drugs.

Abdominal pain that is not relieved by vomiting, persists for more than 6 hours, or is associated with sweating or faint- ing requires urgent medical attention. Urgent attention is also necessary if pain is accompanied by persistent vom- iting, vomiting of blood, or passing of bloodstained or black faeces. Unex- plained weight loss or changes in bowel habits should always be investigated. Investigation of abdominal pain may include the use of imaging tests such as ultrasound scanning, and endoscopic examination in the form of gastroscopy, colonoscopy, or laparoscopy.

Abdominal swelling is a natural result of obesity and growth of the uterus during pregnancy.

Wind in the stomach or intestine may cause uncom- fortable, bloating distension of the abdomen. Some women experience ab- dominal distension due to temporary water retention just before menstrua- tion.

Other causes may be more serious. Diagnosis of the underlying cause may involve abdominal X-rays, ultrasound scanning, laparotomy, or laparoscopy. In ascites, some fluid between organs may be drained for examination. The technique is also known as the Heimlich manoeuvre. X-rays can show whether any organ is enlarged and can detect swallowed foreign bod- ies in the digestive tract. They also show patterns of fluid and gas: Calcium, which is opaque to X-rays, is present in most kidney stones see calculus, urinary tract and in some gallstones and aortic aneurysms; these can sometimes be detected on an abdominal X-ray.

It supplies the lateral rectus muscle of each eye, which is responsible for mov- ing the eyeball outwards. The nerve originates in the pons part of the brain- stem and passes along the base of the brain, entering the back of the eye socket through a gap between the skull bones. Mus- cles that carry out this movement are called abductors. See also adduction. ABO blood groups See blood groups. In medical practice, abortion is induced using prostaglandin drugs, often given as vaginal pessaries.

Depending on the stage of pregnancy, termination may be induced by using drugs or by the surgical technique of vacuum suction curettage, under either a general or local anaesthetic, during which the fetal and placental tissues are removed. Complications are rare.

In Freudian theory, abreaction ideally occurs by way of catharsis. Abscesses may develop in any organ and in the soft tissues beneath the skin in any area.

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Common sites include the armpit, breast see breast abscess , groin, and gums see abscess, dental. Rarer sites include the liver see liver abscess and the brain see brain abscess. The term is commonly applied to the uptake of the nutrients from food into blood and lymph from the digestive tract.

The major site of absorption is the small intestine, which is lined with microscopic finger-like projections called villi see villus. The villi greatly increase the surface area of the intestine, thereby increasing the rate of absorption. It also occurs in people with carcinomas of the lung and other organs.

Pseudoacanthosis nigricans is a much more common condition, usually seen in dark-complexioned people who are overweight. In this form, the skin in fold areas is both thicker and darker than the surrounding skin, and there is usually excessive sweating in affected areas. The condition may improve with weight loss. Infectious organisms usually reach internal organs via the bloodstream, or they penetrate tissues under the skin through a wound.

An abscess may cause pain, depending on where it occurs. Most larger absces- ses cause fever, sweating, and malaise. Those that are close to the skin often cause obvious redness and swelling.

Antibiotics, antifungal drugs, or amoe- bicides are usually prescribed as appropriate. Most abscesses also need to be drained see drain, surgical , and in some cases a tube may be left in place to allow continuous drainage.

Some abscesses burst and drain spon- taneously.

Occasionally, an abscess within a vital organ damages enough surrounding tissue to cause permanent loss of normal function, or even death. Bacteria can also gain access to the pulp when a tooth is injured.Treat- ment depends on the underlying cause. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter found at all nerve- muscle junctions and at many other sites in the nervous system. The spinal part of the nerve supplies large muscles of the neck and back, notably the sternomastoid and trapezius. The long bones of the arms and legs are affected mainly.

Fatal accidents at work have become less common with the intro- duction of effective safety measures.

It is also sometimes used as a nonmedical term for a heart attack see myocardial infarction. An abscess may cause pain, depending on where it occurs. The condition is caused by a dominant gene see genetic disorders but often arises as a new mutation.