A TEMPESTADE WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE PDF
A Tempestade - William resourceone.info - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. A relação dialética entre a estética do real e da arte em “A Tempestade” de a estética da arte e da realidade na obra “A Tempestade” de William Shakespeare. resourceone.info A Tempestade by William Shakespeare is Performing Arts Próspero é deixado à deriva em um barco junto com sua filha Miranda. Aportam em.
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Macbeth - William Shakespeare (–) was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the . pedagogical appropriation of William Shakespeare's The Tempest, Tempestade is indeed a postcolonial appropriation of The Tempest, and. place in William Shakespeare's The Tempest, and that dominion over language is processo de colonização pode ser percebido em A Tempestade de William.
Like the other romances, the play was influenced by the then-new genre of tragicomedy , introduced by John Fletcher in the first decade of the 17th century and developed in the Beaumont and Fletcher collaborations, as well as by the explosion of development of the courtly masque form by such as Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones at the same time.
Prospero, and by extension Shakespeare, turns his absolution over to the audience. Four centuries after original productions of the play audiences are still clapping at the end of The Tempest, rewarding Prospero for recreating the European hegemony.
One need not change the text of The Tempest for feminist and anti-colonial reproductions. All that is needed is a different kind of audience, one that is aware of itself and its agency.
Ferdinand Lured by Ariel by John Everett Millais , In Shakespeare's day, much of the world was still being colonized by European merchants and settlers, and stories were coming back from the Americas, with myths about the Cannibals of the Caribbean, faraway Edens , and distant tropical Utopias.
With the character Caliban whose name is almost an anagram of Cannibal and also resembles " Cariban ", the term then used for natives in the West Indies , Shakespeare may be offering an in-depth discussion into the morality of colonialism.
Different views of this are found in the play, with examples including Gonzalo 's Utopia, Prospero 's enslavement of Caliban, and Caliban's subsequent resentment. Caliban is also shown as one of the most natural characters in the play, being very much in touch with the natural world and modern audiences have come to view him as far nobler than his two Old World friends, Stephano and Trinculo, although the original intent of the author may have been different.
There is evidence that Shakespeare drew on Montaigne 's essay Of Cannibals —which discusses the values of societies insulated from European influences—while writing The Tempest. This new way of looking at the text explored the effect of the coloniser Prospero on the colonised Ariel and Caliban. Although Ariel is often overlooked in these debates in favour of the more intriguing Caliban, he is nonetheless an essential component of them.
Fernandez Retamar sets his version of the play in Cuba , and portrays Ariel as a wealthy Cuban in comparison to the lower-class Caliban who also must choose between rebellion or negotiation.
For example, Michelle Cliff , a Jamaican author, has said that she tries to combine Caliban and Ariel within herself to create a way of writing that represents her culture better. Such use of Ariel in postcolonial thought is far from uncommon; the spirit is even the namesake of a scholarly journal covering post-colonial criticism.
Miranda is fifteen, intelligent, naive, and beautiful. The only humans she has ever encountered in her life are male.
Prospero sees himself as her primary teacher, and asks if she can remember a time before they arrived to the island—he assumes that she cannot. When Miranda has a memory of "four or five women" tending to her younger self 1.
Because of the small role women play in the story in comparison to other Shakespeare plays, The Tempest has attracted much feminist criticism. Miranda is typically viewed as being completely deprived of freedom by her father. Her only duty in his eyes is to remain chaste. Ann Thompson argues that Miranda, in a manner typical of women in a colonial atmosphere, has completely internalised the patriarchal order of things, thinking of herself as subordinate to her father.
When Miranda asks Prospero, "Sir, are you not my father? Taking up a meteorological analogy, it can be said that there was some electricity in the air, not enough, however, to start a true full-blown tempest. The art-magic of Prospero was equalled with the illusionistic effects of the theatre to produce a Tempest for the eye and for the I.
A Tempestade - William Shakespeare.pdf
The character with the most lines is Prospero, a magician who uses the knowledge of the occult as a means to get what he wants. Initially, nothing but a trunk decorates the stage see Fig. In Prospero of the spirits he called to perform his act 1 scene 2, to cite an instance, when Prospero is telling the whims.
A further implication of this presentation may be that it indicates a tendency to treat the audience as passive consumers, spoon-feeding them as if they were not capable of constructing the narrative relations by themselves. Ariel and the spirits, for example, working as stagehands subtly highlight the manipulation of props and sets.
Usually associated with the role of the director of a play, since his skills entail the creation of illusions and the command of actions, Prospero is a very ambiguous character for contemporary audiences, as actor Alec McCowen, who plays the part in the RSC production, said to the Sunday Telegraph Aug. If Prospero shows a degree of compassion for Ariel and is capable of forgiving his enemies, he is, concomitantly, put in a position of power that oppresses characters and audiences alike.
Such a structure is present, for example, in the problem with the meta-theatrical treatment, also prevailing in this production. The question raised here is that this treatment undermines the politics of colonialism and raises Prospero to an unthreatened position of the omnipotent puppet-master. This is an overstatement with a degree of accuracy, for Ariel re-characterizes the play by conferring aggressiveness and resentment to the magic.
Moreover, in the end of the first scene, when Ariel has stopped the tempest, Prospero stands in front of him, making the air spirit disappear. This can be read as a fusion of the two characters, the servant dissolving into the master.
However, his relationship with his master is not unproblematic. Christine Dymkowski , p. The Ariel is not happy to serve and eventually reveals his discontentment towards Prospero. A few moments later, when freed by Prospero, Ariel turns to him and spits at his face. This takes place immediately after Ariel has locked Caliban in the trunk, the slave having given a sorrowful cry. Peter Holland , p. The reception of this interpolation was ambivalent. One hypothesis that can be drawn from these reactions is that the spitting bothered so many people because it was not in tune with the overall thematic stance of the production, which downplayed the issues related to power relations.
The spitting introduced a problem in a production that tried to embellish such relations with magic and illusion. Consequently, the stage business was cancelled for the London season, indicating an anxiety to conform to a standard, unproblematic view of the play. It is Prospero, directly or via Ariel, who effects all the interruption in the play [ In the production, for example, during the first scene, Ariel stops the lantern and, therefore, the tempest so that the audience can hear the lines spoken by the characters on the ship.
Nature imposes its might over men, and Ariel is empowered with the ability to concede speech to the people on board. A further instance of interruption that conveys meaning is the moment the interval is given.
According to Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, the masque is the most important moment of the play. The moment that epitomizes the predicament Caliban causes Prospero is the masque. Here, according to Barker and Hulme , p. In the production there is a stark contrast between the minimalism of the sets and the ornately painted Victorian toy stage with twirling mechanical dolls used to present the masque.
Because masques are extremely iconographic exhibitions, their allegorical nature reveals many of the themes that pervade the production. At first, a more obvious implication is the fact that, in the production, the characters in the masque are presented like puppets, dolls controlled by string. As mentioned before, there is a controlling figure on top of the stage, and that is Prospero, the puppeteer, the creator of illusion and the ultimate producer of the masque.
The subject of the masque is marriage, since it is being enacted in honor of Ferdinand and Miranda. Nevertheless, Prospero does not allow space for considerations about the joys of sex.
On the contrary, as one may recall, he hastily censors the young he hastily censors the young couple, imposing chastity and purity 4, 1, The most meaningful instance of interruption comes at the end of the masque, when Caliban, Trinculo, and Stephano appear as puppets to remind Prospero of the conspiracy. Their intervention satirizes the masque, as they appear as grotesque version of the dolls.
Instead of having Prospero be reminded of the conspiracy out of the blue, the physical presence of the three characters vehemently actualize the menace they represent to the order and the hierarchy of that fictional universe. The celebration of power structure and chastity ends in the frightful appearance of a character that symbolizes sexual appetite and revolt against domination: Caliban.
As Barker and Hulme , p. In addition, it is possible to return to the previous discussion about illusionism to argue that the cardboard pop-up picture book that is used to introduce the masque demonstrates, once more, the way illusion leads to illusion in this production. From the book, to the toy stage, and then to the actual stage, images reflect each other as in a mirror, and the spectator loses track of the reality that initiates the whole process.
Ariel being so cold — lighting for Ariel is blue and for Caliban is red, accentuating their different natures, air and earth, respectively— rendering such an air of superiority, it can be argued that it is easy to empathize with Caliban.
He wears but black trousers, rolled up in the shins. In this sense, one incongruity that can be identified in the presentation of Caliban refers to his relationship with Miranda. The danger, t hus, i s to reduce human shape. By doing so, it reduces the relationship between Prospero and Caliban to a natural fact.
It does not complicate issues such as dispossession, slavery, or otherness, once it presumes that Prospero is naturally superior to Caliban, hence the latter ought to obey. The control over Caliban is exerted in many ways.
However, at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford- upon-Avon, Caliban entered from and exited through a basket, usually pushed by Ariel. Grial: Revista galega de cultura. Traxedia de W.
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