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There are many components inside the CPU. The CPU clock keeps the working of the components synchronized. By striking each clock a. Math 5 Project. Alexander Barnett. MP3 Compression. The MP3 is a compressed file format that uses concepts of psychoacoustics and human perception. With math audio lessons True North tells you what components of Mathematics are Download the pdf of the lesson and the mp3 audio file that accompanies it.

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Kazi Anowar Hossain. Taslima Nasrin. MP3s and CDs work in a similar way. At the time of recording, a computer "listens" to the music track that's being recorded and "samples" the volumes and frequencies of the sounds: about 44, times each second, it analyzes all the sounds it can hear and converts them into a number.

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This process is carried out by an electronic circuit called an analog to digital converter, which turns sounds analog into streams of numbers digital , which are then stored in sequence in an MP3 file or on a CD.

When the file or CD is played back later, the reverse process happens: a digital to analog converter turns the numbers back into analog electrical signals that become sounds when they're fed into a loudspeaker.

The faster the computer samples the higher the sampling rate , the more information it captures each time the higher the bit depth , and more detail it captures each second the higher the bit rate , the more closely the digital file resembles the original analog sounds and the higher the quality of the recording. Screenshot: Software for "ripping" converting CDs to make MP3s typically lets you choose from a variety of different "encoding" types, including MP3.

You can usually change the bit rate as well for better or worse quality and bigger or smaller files. This program, Asunder, lets you select a bit rate from 65kbps low-quality up to kbps high quality. A higher sampling rate, bit depth, and bit rate give a better quality MP3 file. Typically, CD-quality sound involves sampling at a rate of A really high quality MP3 "ripped" generated from a CD might be produced using a bit rate of kbps , bits per second , while a lower quality one might use 64kbps 64, bits per second or even lower.

You can read a bit more about sampling in our article on analog and digital. What is compression? One big advantage of digital technology is that you can store more information in less space. If you've got some encyclopedias on CD-ROMs or DVDs , you'll know that computers are particularly good at cramming large amounts of information into pretty tiny spaces.

The Encyclopedia Britannica, whose odd volumes fill a whole shelf in your local public library, fits comfortably onto a couple of CDs or a single DVD. Tricks like this are possible because computers use a technique called compression—a way of squeezing information so it takes up much less room. Compression is the secret behind all kinds of digital technologies, including digital photos , music downloading, and a whole lot more, so it's worth going into in a bit more detail before we get back to MP3 players.

Lossy compression Old-style telegrams are a good example of compression in action. Before telephones were invented, people sent short messages to one another over telegraph wires. The telegraphs were busy and costly, so messages had to be kept short and people compressed their messages into as few words as possible.

A message like: "I think I might pay you a visit later this week. I do hope that's alright. Maybe you could reply and let me know if it's convenient? Hope OK. Let me know. The message is still completely understandable, if a little more terse. We can compress the original message because a lot of the information is "redundant": some of the words are unnecessary and don't really add all that much, so we don't lose the sense of the message when we delete them. We could compress the message even further, but if we take out more words, it'll soon stop making sense.

In other words, the more we compress a piece of information, the more we reduce its quality. Even with a small amount of compression, some information has been lost: the telegram is less polite than the original message.

And there's no way the receiver can take the 9-word message and figure out what were the other 18 words we deleted, so telegrams are an example of what we call lossy compression: the information we delete during compression is gone for good.

Image compression If you have a digital camera , you probably know about compression already. On most cameras, you can set options so the photos are taken with higher or lower resolution which just means more or less detail.

The higher the resolution, the greater the detail, and the better the photos look—but the more space they take up. Since your camera has a limited memory, you can opt to store lots of low-quality, low-resolution low-res images or fewer higher-quality, high-resolution hi-res images. The low-res images are compressed more than the high-res ones and the JPG files are correspondingly smaller.

However, if you compress photos too much, you start to lose the details very quickly. In the example shown here, I've compressed a photo of an iPod at different resolutions to show you how the details are rapidly lost but note how many bytes of disk space is saved at the same time. Photo: Lossy compression in action. There's no way of taking one of the low-res photos and going back to the hi-res original: once the information is lost, it's gone for good.

That means JPG is also a lossy compression. But note how much we can compress the original photo and still recognize what it is.

How is music stored inside an MP3 file? Normal sound files stored on a computer take up huge amounts of space. Consider: you can fit the Encyclopedia Britannica onto a couple of CDs, but one CD will normally hold only about an hour's worth maybe a dozen or so tracks of music.

That means each track on a normal CD must be taking up a huge amount of space—equivalent to one or two volumes of an encyclopedia! MP3 is a mathematical trick for taking the same musical information and squeezing it into about one twelfth as much space.

You can make MP3 files that are smaller or larger by compressing them by different amounts, but the more you compress them the worse they'll sound. Inside an MP3 file, music is stored as long strings of bits binary numbers, zeros and ones in a series of chunks called frames.

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Each frame starts with a short header a kind of table of contents , followed by the music data itself. At the start of an MP3 file there is a kind of "index card" that stores details of the track name, artist, genre, and so on.

This information is called metadata and each part of it artist, track, and so on is stored in what's called an ID3 tag. Many MP3 programs have an option that lets you "edit the ID3 tags. Artwork: A CD track takes up about 10—12 times as much room as the same track converted into MP3 format depending on the bit rate.

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Immigrant — a person who comes to one country from another in order to settle there Invincible — one, too strong to be overcome Indelible — that cannot be erased Indefatigable — one, who does not tire easily Infallible — one, who is free from all mistakes and failures Invigilator — one, who supervises in the examination hall Itinerant — one, who journeys from place to place Infirmary — a home or room used for ill or injured people Infanticide — murder of an infant Infantry — soldiers, who fight on foot Inflammable — liable to catch fire easily Interregnum — a period of interval between two reigns or governments Kennel — a place for dogs Lunatic asylum — a home for lunatics Lexicographer — one, who compiles a dictionary Loquacious — one, who talks continuously Linguist — one, who is skilled in foreign languages Lapidist — one, who cuts precious stones Misanthrope — a hater of mankind Misogamist — one, who hates marriage Mortuary — a place, where dead bodies are kept for post mortem Mercenery — working only for the sake of money Matricide — murder of mother Martyr — one, who dies for a noble cause Maiden speech — the first speech delivered by a person Mint — a place where coins are made Misogynist — a hater of womankind Morgue — a place, where dead bodies are kept for identification Mammals — animals which give milk Monogamy — the practice of marrying one at a time Missionary — a person, who is sent to propagate religion Numismatics — the study of coins Namesake — a person having same name as another Nostalgia — a strong desire to return home, home sickness Novice or Tyro — one, new to anything, inexperienced Narcotic — a medicine for producing sleep Optimist — a person who looks at the brighter side of things Orphan — one, who has lost parents Omnipresent — one, who is present everywhere Omnipotent — one, who is all powerful Omniscient — one, who knows everything Opaque — that which cannot be seen through Obituary — an account in the newspaper of the funeral of the one deceased Orphanage — a home for orphans Obstetrician — one, who is skilled in midwifery Ostler — one, who looks after horses at an inn Omnivorous — one, who eats everything Pessimist — a person who looks at the darker side of things Potable — fit to drink Post mortem — an examination of dead body Philanthropist — a lover of mankind Patricide — murder of father Philatelist — one, who collects stamps Philatelist — one, who collects stamps Polygamy — the practice of marrying more than one wife at a time Polyandry — the practice of marrying more than one husband at a time Philogynist — a lover of womankind Plebiscite — a decision made by votes of all qualified citizens Philanderer — one, who amuses himself by love making Philistine — one who does not care for art and literature Plutocracy — government by the rich Pseudonym — an imaginary name assumed by an author for disguise Posthumous — a child born after the death of his father or the book published after the death of the writer Philanderer — one, who amuses himself by love making Islamic History and Culture Second Paper.

User Feedback -Your websites have helped me more than I can say. The tedious way to do this would be to read out a long list of numbers that represent the height of the wave at every instant in time. Rhetoric — the art of elegant speech or writing When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. This information is called metadata and each part of it artist, track, and so on is stored in what's called an ID3 tag.

We can compress the original message because a lot of the information is "redundant": some of the words are unnecessary and don't really add all that much, so we don't lose the sense of the message when we delete them.

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