MCA PROJECTS PDF
Final Project for MCA student - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. This group of students who opt MCA through distance mode largely include working . Preparation of Project Schedule and Report for first and second reviews. FORMAT FOR PROJECT REPORT FOR MCA! 1. ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS: The sequence in which the project report material should be arranged and.
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Free download of Live Project Visual Basic, resourceone.info, C#, resourceone.info, SQL Server Source Code for final year college student, project submission of BE, BCA, MCA. ABOUT US. Dear Students, We are the Bangalore based online Project Ideas and Guidance provider. resourceone.info is the web's ultimate store to browse. MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATION. (MCA). PROJECT GUIDELINES. Institute of Distance and Open Learning. Gauhati University. Gopinath Bordoloi.
Application to store patient information, medical history in text data file. User of the system can store and retrieve information. Desktop Application Technology: C Programming Language Credit: Manage employee records, search employees, display employee records, edit employee records, view salary slip, edit salary slip. System user can enter the record of new books and retrieve the details of books available in the library. User can issue the books to the library members and maintain their records and can also check how many books are issued and stock available in the library.
This web based project developed for online examination. Admin user can set the examination, manage question bank from online user interface. Web Technology: Web Portal Technology: JSP, Oracle Credit: System Application Technology: C , Visual Studio. Net Credit: Mobile Banking Site for smart phone and run on mobile phone, tab browser.
Mobile Web Application Technology: Sign In. P2P programmer 2 programmer. Project 3 Online Registration Online Student Registration System Online Registration System is an web based application for on line submission of application forms, On-line Quizzes for the first semester courses, online results will display after completing the test.
Project 6 Steganography Technique to hide information within image file Steganography is the art of hiding the fact that communication is taking place, by hiding information in other information.
Dealing with resistance and conflict 7.
Project leadership b. Ethics in projects c. Multicultural projects 8. Project implementation b. Administrative closure c. Project evaluation References: 1. Project Life Cycle 1. Until the beginning of twentieth century civil engineering projects were actually treated as projects and were generally managed by creative architects and engineers.
Project management as a discipline was not accepted. It was in the s that organizations started to systematically apply project management tools and techniques to complex projects. As a discipline, Project Management developed from several fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense activity. Two forefathers of project management are commonly known: Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool; and Henri Fayol for his creation of the five management functions which form the foundation of the body of 4 knowledge associated with project and program management.
The s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline. All of us have been involved in projects, whether they be our personal projects or in business and industry. Examples of typical projects are for example: Personal projects: obtaining an MCA degree writing a report planning a party planting a garden Industrial projects: Construction of a building provide electricity to an industrial estate building a bridge designing a new airplane Projects can be of any size and duration.
They can be simple, like planning a party, or complex like launching a space shuttle. Operations, on the other hand, is work done in organizations to sustain the business. Projects are different from operations in that they end when their objectives have been reached or the project has been terminated. A project is temporary. A projects duration might be just one week or it might go on for years, but every project has an end date.
You might not know that end date when the project begins, but its there somewhere in the future. Projects are not the same as ongoing operations, although the two have a great deal in common. A project is an endeavor.
Resources, such as people and equipment, need to do work. The endeavor is undertaken by a team or an organization, and therefore projects have a sense of 5 being intentional, planned events. Successful projects do not happen spontaneously; some amount of preparation and planning happens first. Finally, every project creates a unique product or service.
This is the deliverable for the project and the reason, why that project was undertaken. The following attributes help us to define a project further: A project has a unique purpose. Every project should have a well-defined objective. For example, many people hire firms to design and build a new house, but each house, like each person, is unique. A project has a definite beginning and a definite end. For a home construction project, owners usually have a date in mind when theyd like to move into their new homes.
A project is developed using progressive elaboration or in an iterative fashion. Projects are often defined broadly when they begin, and as time passes, the specific details of the project become clearer. For example, there are many decisions that must be made in planning and building a new house. It works best to draft preliminary plans for owners to approve before more detailed plans are developed. A project requires resources, often from various areas.
Resources include people, hardware, software, or other assets. Many different types of people, skill sets, and resources are needed to build a home. A project should have a primary customer or sponsor. Most projects have many interested parties or stakeholders, but someone must take the primary role of sponsorship. The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project. A project involves uncertainty. Because every project is unique, it is sometimes difficult to define the projects objectives clearly, estimate exactly how long it will take to complete, or determine how much it will cost.
External factors also cause uncertainty, such as a supplier going out of business or a project team member needing unplanned time off. This uncertainty is one of the main reasons project management is so challenging.
Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as scope, time, and cost. These are also referred to as the Project Management Triangle, where each side represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without impacting the others. A further refinement of the constraints separates product 'quality' or 'performance' from scope, and turns quality into a fourth constraint.
The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project's end result.
These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope. The discipline of project management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team not just the project manager to organize their work to meet these constraints.
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Another approach to project management is to consider the three constraints as finance, time and human resources. If you need to finish a job in a shorter time, you can allocate more people at the problem, which in turn will raise the cost of the project, unless by doing this task quicker we will reduce costs elsewhere in the project by an equal amount. One method is to identify tasks needed to produce the deliverables documented in a work breakdown structure or WBS.
The work effort for each task is estimated and those estimates are rolled up into the final deliverable estimate. The tasks are also prioritized, dependencies between tasks are identified, and this information is documented in a project schedule. The dependencies between the tasks can affect the length of the overall project dependency constraint , as can the availability of resources resource constraint. Time is not considered a cost nor a resource since the project manager cannot 7 control the rate at which it is expended.
This makes it different from all other resources and cost categories. When hiring an independent consultant for a project, cost will typically be determined by the consultant's or firm's per diem rate multiplied by an estimated quantity for completion.
Figure 1. The overall definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish, and a specific description of what the end result should be or accomplish can be said to be the scope of the project. A major component of scope is the quality of the final product. The amount of time put into individual tasks determines the overall quality of the project.
Some tasks may require a given amount of time to complete adequately, but given more time could be completed exceptionally. Over the course of a large project, quality can have a significant impact on time and cost or vice versa. Together, these three constraints viz. In this case, the term "scope" is substituted with "spec ification " 1. The effectiveness of project management is critical in assuring the success of any substantial activity. Areas of responsibility for the person handling the project include planning, control and implementation.
A project should be initiated with a feasibility study, where a clear definition of the goals and ultimate benefits need to be determined. Senior managers' support for projects is important so as to ensure authority and direction throughout the project's progress and, also to ensure that the goals of the organization are effectively achieved in this process.
Knowledge, skills, goals and personalities are the factors that need to be considered within project management. The stages of implementation must be articulated at the project planning phase. Disaggregating the stages at its early point assists in the successful development of the project by providing a number of milestones that need to be accomplished for completion. In addition to planning, the control of the evolving project is also a prerequisite for its success.
Control requires adequate monitoring and feedback mechanisms by which senior management and project managers can compare progress against initial projections at each stage of the project.
Monitoring and feedback also enables the project manager to anticipate problems and therefore take preemptive and corrective measures for the benefit of the project. Projects normally involve the introduction of a new system of some kind and, in almost all cases, new methods and ways of doing things.
This impacts the work of others: the "users". User interaction is an important factor in the success of projects and, indeed, the degree of user involvement can influence the extent of support for the project or its implementation plan. A project manager is the one who is responsible for establishing a communication in between the project team and the user.
Thus one of the most essential quality of the project manager is that of being a good communicator, not just within the project team itself, but with the rest of the organization and outside world as well. The activities of this team may be co-ordinated by a project manager.
Project teams may consist of people from different backgrounds and different parts of the organisation. In some cases project teams may consist of people from different organisations. Project teams may be inter-disciplinary groups and are likely to lie outside the normal organisation hierarchies. The project team will be responsible for delivery of the project end product to some sponsor within or outside the organisation. The full benefit of any project will not become available until the project as been completed.
Project teams and a project management approach have become common in most organisations. The basic approaches to project management remain the same regardless of the type of project being considered.
You may find it useful to consider projects in relation to a number of major classifications: a Engineering and construction The projects are concerned with producing a clear physical output, such as roads, bridges or buildings.
The requirements of a project team are well defined in terms of skills and background, as are the main procedures that have to be undergone.
Most of the problems which may confront the project team are likely to have occurred before and therefore their solution may be based upon past experiences. The nature and constitution of a project team may vary with the subject of the project, as different skills may be required and different end-users may be involved.
Major projects involving a systems analysis approach may incorporate clearly defined procedures within an organisation. An increasing number of projects are concerned with designing organisational or environmental changes, involving developing new products and services.
One can't manage and control project activities if there is no plan. Without a plan, it is impossible to know if the correct activities are underway, if the available resources are adequate or of the project can be completed within the desired time.
The plan becomes the roadmap that the project team members use to guide them through the project activities. Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in carrying out work in all nine knowledge areas. For example, some popular timemanagement tools and techniques include Gantt charts, project network diagrams, and critical path analysis. Table 1.
However, although developing IT projects can be difficult, the reality is that a relatively small number of factors control the success or failure of every IT project, regardless of its size or complexity. The problem is not that the factors are unknown; it is that they seldom form an integral part of the IT development process. Some of the factors that influence projects and may help them succeed are - Executive Support - User involvement - Experienced project managers - Limited scope - Clear basic requirements - Formal methodology - Reliable estimates 1.
This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that produce the end result, but rather strives to maintain the progress and productive mutual interaction of various parties in such a way that overall risk of failure is reduced. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality, and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.
In whatever field, a successful project manager must be able to envisage the entire project from start to finish and to have the ability to ensure that this vision is realized.
When they are appointed, project managers should be given terms of reference that define their: Objectives; Responsibilities; Limits of authority. Although the precise responsibilities of a project manager will vary from company to company and from project to project, they should always include planning and forecasting. Three additional areas of management responsibility are: interpersonal responsibilities, which include: - leading the project team; - liaising with initiators, senior management and suppliers; - being the 'figurehead', i.
Regardless of scope or complexity, any project goes through a series of stages during its life. Project activities must be grouped into phases because by doing so, the project manager and the core team can efficiently plan and organize resources for each activity, and also objectively measure achievement of goals and justify their decisions to move ahead, correct, or terminate.
It is of great importance to organize project phases into industry-specific project cycles. Not only because each industry sector involves specific requirements, tasks, and procedures when it comes to projects, but also because different industry sectors have different needs for life cycle management methodology. And paying close attention to such details is the difference between doing things well and excelling as project managers.
Diverse project management tools and methodologies prevail in the different project cycle phases. Lets take a closer look at whats important in each one of these stages: 1. If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the businesss needs. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project.
Any deficiencies should be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them. Reviewing of the current operations. Equipment and contracting requirements including an assessment of long lead time items.
Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget. Stakeholder analysis, including users, and support personnel for the project.
Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule. Occasionally, a small prototype of the final product is built and tested. Testing is generally performed by a combination of testers and end users, and can occur after the prototype is built or concurrently. Controls should be in place that ensures that the final product will meet the specifications of the project charter.
The results of the design stage should include a product design that: - Satisfies the project sponsor the person who is providing the project budget , end user, and business requirements. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan. Monitoring and Controlling includes: Measuring the ongoing project activities where we are ; Monitoring the project variables cost, effort, scope, etc.
Project Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes: Continuing support of end users Correction of errors Updates of the software over time In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved. Over the course of any IT project, the work scope may change.
Change is normal and expected part of the process. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, client-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually developed. This is referred to as Change Management. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or, more specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the 16 finished work.
The record is made on the contract documents usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings, or more simply, as built. When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be re-assessed. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects.
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When the changes accumulate, the forecasted result may not justify the original proposed investment in the project. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.
This phase consists of: Project close: Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase. Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract including the resolution of any open items and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase.
Sample Questions 1. Why is there a new or renewed interest in the field of project management? What is a project, and what are its main attributes? How is a project different from what most people do in their day-to-day jobs? What is the triple constraint? What is project management? Briefly describe the project management framework, providing examples of stakeholders, knowledge areas, tools and techniques, and project success factors.
Discuss the relationship between project, program, and portfolio Management and their contribution to enterprise success. What are the roles of the project, program, and portfolio managers? What are suggested skills for project managers?
What additional skills do program and portfolio managers need? Software Projects 2. There are so many details that must be handled in order for a project to be successful. To be able to handle the day to day details while still keeping your eye of the strategic whole is a demanding task but one that can be learned and improved.
Before one can undertake a project to solve a problem one must first understand the problem. Not only understand the details of the problem but also understand who has the problem and the context and environment that must be taken into consideration in addressing the problem.
M.C.A (Sem - IV) Paper - Software Project Management.pdf
A key practice in getting things clear is to look at the problem from the customers and users perspectives. One way to get this perspective is to spend time with the customers and users and enter into a dialog with them.
If project managers run projects in isolation, these projects will never serve the needs of the organisation for which it is undertaken. Project managers thus should consider projects within the greater organizational context and take a holistic view of a project.
Systems thinking describes this holistic view of carrying out projects. A systems approach is an overall model for thinking about things as systems. Systems are sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose. System analysis is a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, its opportunities constraints and needs.
Once this is completed, the systems analyst then examines alternative solutions for improving the current situation, identifies an optimum, or at least satisfactory, solution or action plan, and examines that plan against the entire system.
Systems management addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and making a change to a system.
Using a systems approach is critical to successful project management. Top management and project managers must follow 19 a systems philosophy to understand how projects relate to the whole organisation. In terms of addressing its advantage on the business side, a project should supplement or serve as an answer to the business goals; whereas, the technological sphere should state the proper hardware and software issues to be resolved. As for the organizational aspect, matters involving the stakeholders should be taken into full consideration.
If the project manager would be able to point out as early as possible the aforementioned issues and integrate it to the project it would definitely aid in determining if an organization should invest and produce the project. Figure 2. Youll find below the business, organizational and technological issues of the said project. Business issues: 1. Would the website be the medium in response to the impact of the internet in a publishing company?
Would the website supplement the magazine in terms of advertising? What will the project cost the company?
What would be the impact of the website to the sales of the magazine? What would be the cost of maintaining the whole system for the website? Technological issues: 1. What operating system, server platform, scripting language and database should be used? What will be the server and desktop specifications? Does our current network setup allow employees to develop this project, or do we need an upgrade? Do we have the right internet connection to support this project?
Organizational issues: 1. Do we have the existing manpower to develop the project? What would be the impact of the website to the magazines print division? How will the website affect our print audience? The most important issues are from the business and organization spheres, since these two primarily follows the business philosophy it would definitely be pointless if a project fails to meet the endeavors either on the business or organizational 21 side its doomed to fail if that is the case.
Among the three, I guess the technological issues are the easiest to resolve. The definition of the management roles, responsibilities, relationships and accountabilities and authorities provides the basis of the governance arrangements for the project. Note that it is unlikely that an existing line management structure will be sufficient or appropriate to use as a project management organisation, except perhaps where a small task is being run within a single business unit with no external impact.
A typical organisation structure is depicted in the figure below Top Management Project manager Project team Figure 2. The Project Board must jointly: create an environment where the project can succeed in delivering the changes necessary for the benefits to be realised set the direction for the project and to approve key milestones approve the Project Initiation Document ensure the appropriate resources required by the projects within the project are made available in accordance with the latest agreed version of the Project Plan take decisions as necessary throughout the life of the project give the Project Manager the authority to lead the project on a day to day basis.
Members of the Project Board should decide how they will assure themselves that the integrity of those aspects of the project for which they are accountable is being maintained.
Stakeholder Management is a process and control that must be planned and guided by underlying Principles.Alpha testing - In house virtual user environment can be created for this type of testing. This document, that is, software requirements specifications describes the overall requirement that will be satisfied by the final product development.
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If you have thought of automation then you have to select which test cases to automate and begin writing scripts for them. They mark it as a certain type of text italicized text, for example. The function and performance allocated to software as part of Software Engineering is refunded by:. Last Name 2. Major projects involving a systems analysis approach may incorporate clearly defined procedures within an organisation. Mandatory Fields: