Laws Reciprocating Air Compressor Pdf


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beads can break free, enter and damage the compressor. d) Critical pipe length: resonance of intake piping will reciprocating air compressor is prevented by. steam engine, turbine etc. are used as prime movers. • In industry, reciprocating compressors are the most widely used type for both air and. Ingersoll Rand tradition begins with its first reciprocating air compressor. s. Updraft air cleaner added. x x x x x x x x x x. x x x x x x x x x x xxxxxxxxxx.

Reciprocating Air Compressor Pdf

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Compressor is a device which is used to increase the pressure of air from low pressure to high pressure by using some external energy. • For filling the air in. PDF | On Dec 14, , Nirajkumar C Mehta and others published INVESTIGATION ON RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSORS - A REVIEW. The central focus is on packaged complete unit air compressors, most commonly used in Membership of the Reciprocating Compressor and Rotary Positive.

Cost of Air Compressed air is never "free. Two facts should be mentioned: 1. Power cost is by far the largest item in over-all air cost. On-the-line continuity, or "availability" of operation, is highly important. Gas Characteristics Gas composition and characteristics can have a decided influence on compressor type.

A low gas inlet density, for example, will usually affect the centrifugal compressor to a greater degree than it will affect the positive displacement machine.

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A centrifugal machine handling low density gas will require many more stages a larger unit than when handling a high molecular weight or specific volume inlet gas. Reciprocating and other positive displacement compressors are not seriously affected by the gas, molecular weight, specific volume, or inlet density.

Process Conditions In any compression problem, for a given compression ratio, the flow rate to be handled establishes the physical size of the equipment under consideration.

If 80, CFM of gas must be compressed at near atmospheric suction conditions, a centrifugal compressor would almost certainly be used for the lower stages of compression.

In centrifugal compressors, if suction pressure is raised, the discharge pressure will exceed the design point, the horsepower will increase, and excess pressure may have to be throttled down. If the suction pressure is lowered, the centrifugal will not compress to the desired discharge pressure.

Therefore, it is most important that the suction and discharge pressures, their variation, and resulting influences be accurately evaluated. Low compression ratios with reasonable capacities favor the centrifugal compressor.

High compression ratios and higher pressures favor the reciprocating machine.

industrial applications

One could not attempt to define the borderline in pressure between reciprocating and centrifugal compressors because there are too many other factors to be considered. In some multistage process compressors, the interstage pressure is set by the process. This may be for washing out undesirable elements, adding gas, or carrying out chemical reactions that change the nature of 4O Reciprocating Compressors: Operation and Maintenance the gas between stages. It is important that such interstage pressure restrictions be considered, including the pressure drop involved.

Driver Generally speaking, if choice of driver is dictated by the available source of power, the heat balance, waste gas use, or any other factors in the plant or process, the compressor that best fits the driver should receive first consideration. In other words, the centrifugal compressor always receives first consideration if the driver must be a turbine. The reciprocating compressor should probably always receive first consideration if the driver is to be an electric motor.

This is because the majority of motor-driven centrifugal compressors require a speed-increasing gear.

The converse is true if turbines are used. Oil Contamination Oil contamination can have a bearing on compressor type selected.

The degree of importance attributed to oil contamination will also influence decisions. Partially lubricated or non-lubricated reciprocating compressor designs may be more suitable than the small centrifugal or common helical lobe units with inexpensive seal systems.

Soil and foundation conditions must be considered in compressor selection. In a few instances, this dictates the type of machine.

A centrifugal compressor operates without producing unbalanced forces.

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The foundation need only support the dead-weight load with adequate stiffness to maintain alignment. The type of reciprocating compressor most widely applied today in chemical and process plants is designed specifically for a minimum of unbalanced forces. Generally, a foundation that will support the deadweight load of the compressor and maintain alignment of compressor and driver will have adequate mass to absorb the small unbalanced forces that may be present.

The centrifugal machine will usually be favored from both the foundation and floor space standpoint if this is the only consideration.

Reciprocating Compressors and Their Applications 41 Multiple-Service Units For sound economic reasons, process plants have been installing fewer compressors to do a given job, using larger sizes and no spares. When a process requires handling of many streams, a common occurrence in some types of plants, machines can be so configured that several streams may be handled by a single driver. It is rare that more than two services are handled in a combination of centrifugal casings having a common driver.

There are problems of capacity and pressure control, as well as other factors. With reciprocating compressors, greater flexibility is possible in the number and size of streams that can be handled on a single driver. Desired capacity control is usually more easily attained as well. As many as six separate streams have been handled on large existing compressors. The arrays of airfoils are set in rows, usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary.

The rotating airfoils, also known as blades or rotors, accelerate the fluid. The stationary airfoils, also known as stators or vanes, decelerate and redirect the flow direction of the fluid, preparing it for the rotor blades of the next stage.

Beyond about 5 stages or a design pressure ratio a compressor will not function unless fitted with features such as stationary vanes with variable angles known as variable inlet guide vanes and variable stators , the ability to allow some air to escape part-way along the compressor known as interstage bleed and being split into more than one rotating assembly known as twin spools, for example.

However, they are relatively expensive, requiring a large number of components, tight tolerances and high quality materials. Axial-flow compressors are used in medium to large gas turbine engines, natural gas pumping stations, and some chemical plants. Hermetically sealed, open, or semi-hermetic[ edit ] A small hermetically sealed compressor in a common consumer refrigerator or freezer typically has a rounded steel outer shell permanently welded shut, which seals operating gases inside the system.

There is no route for gases to leak, such as around motor shaft seals. On this model, the plastic top section is part of an auto-defrost system that uses motor heat to evaporate the water. Compressors used in refrigeration systems are often described as being either hermetic, open, or semi-hermetic, to describe how the compressor and motor drive are situated in relation to the gas or vapor being compressed. Exellent work. SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search.

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Are you sure you want to Yes No. Gajanan Kumbhar , teaching at Bharati Vidyapeeth college of engg.Load factor is particularly important with air-cooled machines where sustained full-load operation results in an early build-up of deposit on valves and other parts, thereby adding to maintenance.

It is also not uncommon for cylinders ratio of the swept volume to the cylinder suction passage and pistons to loose their concentricity because of poor volume, which determines the amount of gas pushed from the lubrication, leading to operational failure and even irreparable unloaded end which enters the loaded end during the damage to the components as a result of ceasing of the parts. Metal piston rings are made either in one piece, with a gap or in several segments.

It will be brought back to its inlet temperature before induction process. Exercise 3. This may be for washing out undesirable elements, adding gas, or carrying out chemical reactions that change the nature of 4O Reciprocating Compressors: Operation and Maintenance the gas between stages.

Jigar M. Scheideman et al , Meyer 2 7 Skip to main content.