PHOTOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS PDF
This complete guide to photography for beginners will walk you though everything you need to know about photography. Get started taking better photos today!. Digital cameras employ an electronic sensor consisting of a large number of square cells or “pixels”. Photons hitting a cell create an electrical charge. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY BASICS FOR BEGINNERS by Robert Berdan rberdan @resourceone.info resourceone.info These notes are.
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FOR BETTER. PHOTOGRAPHY. • PHOTOGRAPHY IS A SCIENCE, BECAUSE. THERE ARE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF. PHYSICS THAT GOVERN SUCCESS. The dPS Ultimate Guide to Getting Started in Photography for Beginners. 2. Share this dPS Ultimate Guide with your friends. Photography For resourceone.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.
The bright snowy background caused my camera to underexpose this scene by nearly two stops, which could have been corrected by exposure compensation in camera. Learn About Focussing Regardless of what shooting mode you are using, or what ISO you define, the chances are there will be a subject of your image that you want to have in focus.
If that focus is not achieved, the image will not be what you wanted. This is best used when taking photos of stationary subjects such as portraits of people, landscapes, buildings etc. When you half-press the shutter, the focus will be acquired and locked on that point for as long as you hold the button down.
If you want to change to focus, you need to release the button, recompose and then re-half-press. AF-C — autofocus-continuous. This is best used when taking photos of action or moving subjects such as sports and wildlife. When you half-press the shutter, focus will be acquired and locked on to a given subject. When that subject moves, the focus will adjust with it, refocusing all of the time until the photograph is taken.
Ultimate Beginner’s Guide for Street Photography Series
That switch is an override for if you want to manually focus your lens. If you want to make use of the autofocus modes discussed above, ensure the lens is set to AF. When you half-press the shutter, you should see one of these squares be highlighted in red.
That is the active focus point, and it is that position within the frame that the camera is focussing on.
A viewfinder with 9 focus points is shown below: New DSLRs can come with over 50 focus points and the temptation is to leave it on fully automatic focus point selection, with the thinking that the camera will be able to select the correct focus point. However, only you know what you want to focus on, and there is no better way than ensuring the correct subject is in focus than by using one focus point, and placing that focus point over the subject.
If you select a single focus point, you should be able to change which point is active fairly easily either by using directional buttons one of the dials. If you select a focus point that is on your desired subject, you will ensure that the camera focuses where you want it to.
After a small amount of practice, you will soon get into the habit of being able to change the focus point without taking the camera away form your eye. This way, you will be able to choose what you are focussing on, ensuring that the subject you want to capture is in focus. Once you are familiar with the basic focussing modes and focus point selection, you can then explore the more advanced modes that your camera may offer.
Understand File Size and Types You will have the option to be able to change the size of the images that your camera records, and in which file type.
A raw file is uncompressed, and so contains a lot of image data that allows for a lot of flexibility during post-processing i. A jpeg is a compressed file type, that is automatically processed by the camera. Practically speaking: When starting out with your camera, using jpeg is the most straight forward. It will enable you to get the best results whilst you learn the basics or your camera before complicating matters with post-processing of raw files.
Learn about White balance If shooting in jpeg, as recommended above, you will need to make sure you set your white balance before taking a picture. The white balance can significantly impact colour tone of your photographs.
You may have noticed that sometimes your images have a blueish tone to them or, in others, everything looks very orange. This is to do with the white balance and, whilst you can make some adjustments to the image on your computer, it is much simpler if you get it right up-front. Different light sources such as the sun, light bulbs, fluorescent strips etc emit light of different wavelengths, and therefore colours, which can be described by what is known as colour temperature.
Low Resolution One advantage of low resolution images is that more images can be stored on a memory card although its neither advisable nor recommended.
The quality of the image would deteriorate if the image is shot in low resolution. Moreover, large photographs would have noticeable pixels and hence cannot be printed.
In addition, every time a jpeg file is saved, the quality of the file will suffer. If the file isnt big to begin with then there wont be too many options for editing. Taking high resolution photographs with memory cards that have huge storage capacities may be better to consider than taking photographs on low resolution to save on memory storage.
Excess Noise Noise in digital photography and grain on a film are similar to one another. An image could have these specks of what may appear as dust particles to an untrained eye. If the ISO is high there will be more noise. As the image is enlarged, more noise will appear. Images at night are susceptible to noise as its a struggle for the camera to capture detail.
Noise can be reduced by selecting the highest setting for image quality. By using the lowest ISO setting, the image would not be blurred as the camera would be mounted on a tripod. Underexposed Photographs An image that is extremely dark is underexposed as the sensor did not receive sufficient light while the shot was taken. If the LCD display shows the image as being dark, which means the image is underexposed, then the aperture could be opened to let as much light in as possible.
Overexposed Photographs If the photograph happens to be extremely bright and lacks detail then the photograph is overexposed. What this essentially means is that the sensor is exposed to light more than is required. When the day is bright, overexposure could be detrimental. Overexposure could also be detrimental when the subject is light colored. Spot metering works best to ensure that the results are accurate. An area which has plenty of gray mid-tones needs to be picked on the image as a guideline.
Owners Manual Granted, reading the owner s manual is not like reading a novel. Owner s manuals are normally written in a way that is cut and dry and there is no beating around the bush. Hence they arent userfriendly by any stretch of the imagination.
Not that its surprising that there are many authors who actually write these manuals on how these cameras ought to be used. Some authors might not have even used the cameras that they are actually writing about. Gear One tool should be right for the job. If pictures of all of the products that need to be used with your camera are be uploaded on a retail site like eBay then the product would be too high-end unless and complicated for use.
Normally a point and shoot camera would suffice. If you see too many parts on a product then it may not be the right option for you to use because it would not be all that easy to use and may even be far more expensive than what you might be willing to spend on such a camera. Reliance on the LCD or Preview Screen Everything appears sharp on a little LCD monitor on the back of a camera but that doesn't mean they will be just as sharp when you are done taking a picture.
Editing Image on Camera By all means the temptation to edit images on a camera should be resisted. More often than not, a shot could have been taken unintentionally but instead of deleting the image it should be saved on a memory card and downloaded on a computer.
The Ultimate Guide to Learning how to use Your first DSLR
Backing Up Images This may sound too obvious but nonetheless it is essential to back up images prior to erasing or deleting them as once the images are erased, they are gone forever. There are file recovery programs though that may be able to recover or salvage pictures that may have been erased or deleted but they cant be relied upon every single time.
Lack of Memory Cards There was a time when memory cards were expensive but those days are far gone. They are much more affordable now more than ever before and can hold more data for less money. Therefore, purchasing as many cards as possible is advisable and recommended.
With sufficient memory cards, high resolution pictures can be taken and the best results would be guaranteed even if the pictures were to be cropped. Lack of Batteries If there is no power then the camera is nothing but a paper weight.
There are some paper weights that are heavier and then there are some that are relatively lighter. Only those cameras that are compatible with AA batteries are the ones that are recommended. Proprietary batteries are alright also but sufficient spare batteries should be available. A card reader rather than a computer to transfer images is advisable because by using this, the battery will have a longer life. Not Researching On Hardware Prior to purchasing a camera, what needs to be ensured is whether or not the photo editing software that you will be using is compatible with the computer you have.
Many cameras these days require high-end computers so they can read and process images. A computer that is outdated would not be able to cope and may even stall.
It could very well get the job done but at a much slower pace. In short, you have to take a look at the hardware you need to get when using such a camera so you will know what you will be doing when getting an image taken the right way. Afraid of Making Mistakes As they say, failures are the pillars of success. Its an apt analogy because through mistakes, one learns and progresses and grows as a photographer. To be afraid of failing is tantamount to restricting oneself to explore and thereby not being able to create extraordinary photographs.
Picture perfect shots cannot be guaranteed every time and even expert and professional photographers havent been consistent with taking exceptional snapshots. You should not be afraid of not doing well. Rule of Thirds Not following the rule of thirds is a problem in digital photography that people constantly get into.
The underlying premise of this rule is that the eye of a human being is by nature inclined to focus on points of intersection that can be seen due to the image being split into three different sections. The rule of thirds is in essence two imaginary lines vertically and horizontally making three columns and rows and nine sections on an image.
Vital elements of composition and leading lines are put in place on or in proximity from the imaginary lines and at intersection points. With the rule of thirds in mind the composition of the photograph is best done in the camera to avoid having to crop later and retain the image as much as possible and to avoid sacrificing quality of photographs as well. They are designed for viewing at an optimum distance between 8 and To compose images, the cameras eye level viewfinder ideally ought to be used and the LCD viewfinder to set parameters and view the image that has been captured.
Even high-resolution LCD viewfinders that the digital cameras are equipped with use the image as a test sample therefore one to one resolution cannot be seen on the viewfinder.
Hence they arent suitable for focusing in detail or for framing purposes. Whats even worse, LCDs consume a lot of power and moreover if used for protracted periods of time it could lead to dead batteries rather quickly.
The ubiquitous viewfinder is incorporated on most digital cameras and there are two types available. One is a clear glass frame; the other is the beam splitter, a swinging mirror in other words. This system has one advantage as the mirror is stationary to eliminate vibration.
Its main disadvantage and indeed a flaw that could turn out to be fatal for indoor shots and for photography in poor light is that very little light reaches the eye of the photographer so much so that the photographer may find it difficult to compose and focus properly as the subject may appear dark. Thereafter the mirror swings back in so that the photographer can continue viewing the subject.
When shutter speeds are fast, the mirror will be invisible to the photographer. An inexpensive and less complicated viewing solution at eye level is the optical glass viewfinder which most digital cameras are equipped with. Made of clear glass, it may see something but it does not show what the lens sees. Instead it gravitates to the lenss top or the side. The biggest advantages are that no power is required, there arent any moving components and its brightness is unparalleled. The system isn't impacted by inaccuracy as it usually shows quite a bit less than what actually has been captured.
Still, this may lead to elements on the edges of the photograph. The cause of parallax is positioning the viewfinder 1 or 2 from the lens. Thus the angle from which the viewer sees the subject is a little different when compared with the lens. This hardly matters while shooting distant shots but for relatively closer shots the difference between the viewer s angle and the angle from which the shot is actually taken increases.
Macro shots are typically within 12 of the subject or closer; glass viewfinders are practically useless due to the parallax error being very high. The optical viewfinder is replaced by a far more advanced viewfinder which is the electronic eye level viewfinder equipped with a small high resolution color monitor that consumes minimum power and can be viewed when the camera is held at eye level. Over and above what most electronic viewfinders have to offer in terms of direct and viewing in detail which brings clarity as to whether or not a subject is in focus.
Electronic viewfinders display vital statistics with regard to the settings of the camera including f-stop, shutter speed, flash status, so on and so forth. An electronic eye level viewfinder undeniably is popular but its also unpopular in equal measure due to its disadvantage. The technology has not been tried and tested enough in still digital cameras as it has been in camcorders and therefore is in its incubation stage. Hence in terms of brightness, clarity and responsiveness, a traditional optical viewfinder is a far better option.
Chapter 7 - Post Processing and Image Editing An image editing software program is equipped with tools and features to enhance a photograph. Post processing is about adjusting pictures after they have been taken by opening photographs in an image editing software which is equipped with tools to enhance the pictures appropriately. An image editing software program sharpens the photographs automatically to add to its focus.
No matter how much the photographs are sharpened by software, if the pictures are blurred then there isnt much that software can do to remove the blur. Focus and sharpness of a picture begins from the camera. All that a software program does is to further sharpen and improve the picture. Saturation is the process of moving the colors of a photograph either more towards gray which is known as desaturation or to saturate them to make them vibrant.
Saturation if used effectively could make pictures lifelike but at the same time pictures may be lacking in their natural look. Levels control the shadows, mid tones and highlights of a picture.
Contrast or lightness or darkness are simple controls that simultaneously adjusts shadows, mid tones and highlights. With levels, each of these features can be controlled separately.
With the midtone control, an overall adjustment of an image in terms of the image being lighter or darker can be made. The shadow control increases the depth and how shadows are accentuated. Highlights can create contrasts to be higher so the photograph can be aesthetically appealing.
There arent any preset formulas or rules to use Levels. An image may have the wrong temperature which could be rectified with the hue control tool. There are categories of colors that are warm and then there are categories of colors that are cold.
Reds and yellows are warm colors while greens, blues and violets are cold colors. If a photograph of a group of people is taken and there is a blue cast due to lighting, the group would lack warmth; hence with hue control, the general color of the photograph would have to be moved towards red and yellow, thereby warming the image.
Hue adjustment is more of a matter of perception as there arent any guidelines or rules to abide by or follow. White balance of a camera effectively rectifies color issues as well. Chapter 8 - Memory Cards A memory card or a flash memory card is a small storage device where different types of data - text, pictures, audio, and video - can be stored and used on portable or remote computers.
Other memory cards that are available include the secure digital card, the compact flash card, the smart media card, the memory stick, and the multimedia card. These cards are available in various shapes and sizes and with a wide range of storage capacities that impact the price.
The CompactFlash card is approximately the size of a matchbox while the Multi Media Card and Secure Digital card each are as big or small as a postage stamp.
Beginners Guide To DSLR Photography
This is important for any camera you use. Most cards that are out there are reliable. There will be absolutely no loss of data due to power snags and there is no need to periodically refresh data either. As memory cards are solid state media with immovable parts, they will not have technical issues.
The cards that are available today are decidedly smaller and consume less power than older options and the storage capacity is much higher on average. Chapter 9 - Why Upgrade? Quality of image As the image sensors are comparatively larger on DSLRs, the sizes of the pixels on these cameras are larger as well.
DSLRs in comparison with point and shoot are far more flexible in terms of the range of premium quality lenses that are included from wide angle to super long focal lengths which can be used based on what the photographer is shooting. In addition to the lenses that are available, there is also an entire gamut of accessories, flashes, filters, etc.
Hence DSLRs are adaptable to any situation or circumstance. Point to be noted; with regard to your choice of lenses, DSLRs have an unparalleled reputation. The qualities of lenses that are used can directly influence the quality of the image.
Normally DSLRs are quite fast cameras in terms of startup, focusing and shutter lag. Manual Controls There are many point and shoot cameras which are equipped with manual mode of shooting. However, a DSLRs design is such that the user would be inclined to control settings manually.
DSLRs are equipped with auto modes as well but since the manual controls are at a photographer s fingertips, they are far more accessible than auto modes. Hence its far more convenient for a photographer to set the controls manually while shooting. In all probability there is truth in this speculation. In fact, the lenses that are bought along with the camera are compatible and universal in the sense that as long as one does not change brands, the lenses can be used on other cameras as well.
Hence the lenses can be used for a long time to come and the investment is not a waste after all. Depth of field in particular is really referring to extended manual control when you adjust the photos you shoot. DSLR has the flexibility of using varied lenses as well but what makes the camera special is its depth of field which has the ability of taking everything from the foreground and putting them in the background and in focus.
Blurred backgrounds may be created at this point to create an extra effect. There is more glass in these optics, thus making the lenses of high quality.
A lot of man hours are spent to manufacture the lenses particularly when the lenses are high end lenses. Nothing but the best quality lenses ought to be purchased. However, if the camera is a high-end model then the lens ought to be high-end as well.
Chapter 10 How to Choose a Model Increasingly, DSLR cameras are becoming within reach of novice or average photographers due to a fall in prices caused by user friendly models that are being manufactured in increasing numbers.
The big question though is how one decides which DSLR camera would be suitable. One would easily be spoiled for choices as there are many varieties of DSLRs available today. The factors that are to be taken into consideration while deciding and choosing a DSLR camera are as follows: Price Price obviously takes precedence over other factors while looking for a suitable DSLR camera.
Some models may be found for thousands of dollars each. Having a budget for a purchase is a wise decision but the budget should not be rigid as there are additional costs involved apart from the cost of the camera. It's particularly best to go with upgrading lenses than lit lenses.
All DSLRs come with a single battery but a spare battery is required for traveling purposes. The memory card that comes with most models does not have enough memory, hence the need for an upgrade of memory to at least a gigabyte on average.
A camera bag would be included with the camera but that to a great extent depends on the dealer. Some dealers give camera bags and some dont. The bag though is not of a high standard as its complimentary; to protect the DSLR camera, the best quality bag should be bought separately from the camera itself.
A UV filter is needed for each lens that is purchased. Other types of filters could be considered later on as well. Opinions vary on extended warranties whether they are good or bad but nonetheless they should be considered. What Would It Work For It is the question that would be asked by most sales persons in a camera store.
The Basics of Photography – Introduction to Photography (Tutorials)
The other variant of the same question that would invariably be asked is what type of photography does the photographer intend to get into. Once the photographer in his or her mind knows the answers to these questions it would be easier to decide on what type of accessories would be required. Some of the other questions to ask oneself are, will the camera be used as a general purpose camera to photograph life or will it be used for travel photography. Is sports photography the purpose of purchasing the camera or is macro or low light photography needed?
A realistic list should be made of the type of photography that the camera would be used for. Size DSLRs are sizable than one of those compact point and shoot cameras but there is a fair amount of size variants as well.
Carrying heavy gear for some photographers is not an issue at all but for photography on the go though, travels, bushwalking, etc. Previous Gear The best thing about DSLRs is that in most cases they can be used with the existing gear that one may already have. Hence they are compatible. A case in point is with the lenses. More often than not, the lens that is used on a film SLR could be used on a DSLR as well if both the lenses are made by the same manufacturer.
It would be wrong to be under the assumption that all lenses would be compatible, older gear in particular. Nonetheless the question should be asked just so that a considerable amount could be saved. The memory card of a point and shoot camera can be compatible with a DSLR as well.
This in all likelihood would probably not be a major issue as memory cards are quite a bit cheaper than what the price used to be but nonetheless it is a point worth considering. Resolution Photography enthusiasts and those who arent can be are curious about megapixel of a camera. The emphasis on megapixels is perhaps more than is required but nonetheless its a point to be taken into consideration as there are a wide array of megapixel ratings on DSLRs.
Megapixels have a role to play in deciding how images would be used.
If enlargements need to be printed then the more pixels the better. On the contrary, if the size of the image is going to be small then the number of pixels isn't going to be much of a concern. Sensor Size Another question in relation to resolution that needs to be considered is the size of the image sensor. More often than not, crop factor is a terminology that linked with image sensor size. Simply put, there are advantages of a lager sensor compared to a smaller one.
Future Upgrades If future upgrades are not a possibility then entry level DSLRs can be affordable but they become obsolete quickly when compared with high end models. Moreover there is the possibility of venturing to purchase a professional camera to suit the needs of a professional photographer. Your level of expertise and your desire to keep moving on in this field are critical to your decision for what type of camera you need to use.
Situation 2: Reduce the ISO by a factor of 4, i. Aperture, shutter speed and ISO are all facotrs that influence your exposure, and are all linked. They all have the net effect of reducing the amount of light by a factor of 4, countering the change in aperture. Further Reading: Read more about the Exposure Triangle. Master Metering Through out all of the above discussion, I have said that the camera calculates the exposure depending on the amount of available light, but what is it actually doing?
When taking a photograph, using any form of automatic exposure calculation e. This is known as metering, and it is the reason that if you point your camera at a bright white scene, such as after it has snowed, and take a photograph the resulting image will always appear darker than you or I see it.
Similarly, if you point your camera at a really dark scene, such as a low-lit room, and take a photograph the resulting image will always be brighter than you or I see it. The scene is always being averaged by the camera and most of the time that results in the image appearing to be correctly exposed. However, you can control what areas of the scene are being assessed by the camera in order to influence the way in which the exposure is metered.
Practically speaking: when starting out with your camera, either average or centre weighted metering are a good starting point. They will both provide a fairly consistent measure of the exposure required and, if you select one mode and stick with it, you will soon begin to understand when a scene will be under exposed i.
That is where exposure compensation comes in. It allows you to either increase or decrease the cameras default meter reading to account for the actual brightness of a scene. A spring lamb leaping in front of a snowy hillside. Left: Straight out of camera, with the snow caught as grey. The bright snowy background caused my camera to underexpose this scene by nearly two stops, which could have been corrected by exposure compensation in camera.
Learn About Focussing Regardless of what shooting mode you are using, or what ISO you define, the chances are there will be a subject of your image that you want to have in focus. If that focus is not achieved, the image will not be what you wanted. This is best used when taking photos of stationary subjects such as portraits of people, landscapes, buildings etc. When you half-press the shutter, the focus will be acquired and locked on that point for as long as you hold the button down.
If you want to change to focus, you need to release the button, recompose and then re-half-press. AF-C — autofocus-continuous. This is best used when taking photos of action or moving subjects such as sports and wildlife. When you half-press the shutter, focus will be acquired and locked on to a given subject.
When that subject moves, the focus will adjust with it, refocusing all of the time until the photograph is taken. That switch is an override for if you want to manually focus your lens.
If you want to make use of the autofocus modes discussed above, ensure the lens is set to AF. When you half-press the shutter, you should see one of these squares be highlighted in red.
That is the active focus point, and it is that position within the frame that the camera is focussing on. A viewfinder with 9 focus points is shown below: New DSLRs can come with over 50 focus points and the temptation is to leave it on fully automatic focus point selection, with the thinking that the camera will be able to select the correct focus point.Shutter speed, or exposure time, means the duration the shutter of a camera is open to expose the sensor to light. The image of the candle can be seen upside down on the wall.
DSLRs in comparison with point and shoot are far more flexible in terms of the range of premium quality lenses that are included from wide angle to super long focal lengths which can be used based on what the photographer is shooting. Check out our new post about awesome photography facts next!
In terms of light three settings can be adjusted and they are aperture, ISO speed or shutter speed as compensation for varying degrees of strengths of light. Manual controls will give you the best results. Mode Dial A mode dial, a setting which is also known as a camera dial, is nothing but a simple dial that is used on digital cameras to change the mode of the camera. This system has one advantage as the mirror is stationary to eliminate vibration. Anti-Shake Anti-shake is a new and emerging technology that has been implemented in newer cameras.
It can capture images with a speed of 4fps [Frames per second].
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