BIPOLAR DISORDER PDF
manic-depressive illness or manic depression. People with bipolar disorder go through unusual mood changes. Sometimes they feel very happy and “up,” and. Treatment of Patients With. Bipolar Disorder. Second Edition. WORK GROUP ON BIPOLAR DISORDER. Robert M.A. Hirschfeld, M.D., Chair. Charles L. Bowden. Page 1. •. •. Page 2. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. • resourceone.info · namicommunicate · NAMI.
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You might hear these different experiences being referred to as bipolar mood states. Everyone has variations in their mood, but in bipolar disorder these. The key characteristic is that people with bipolar disorder alternate be- tween episodes of mania (extreme elevated mood) and depression (extreme sadness). bipolar disorder info sheets resourceone.info Mood swings. We all have them once in a while. Sometimes we're happy and excited about the world.
Not surprisingly, this complexity poses unique challenges to clinicians for optimal management of those with bipolar disorder.
There has been an explosion of research into the causes and treatment of this condition over the past two decades. It is a daunting task for a practising clinician to make sense of this research and to remain up to date with progress in the understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of bipolar disorder.
This book synthesizes and translates the vast array of research knowledge into information that is clinically relevant and meaningful for a clinician.
The book provides a comprehensive, yet focused, reference work on bipolar disorder for both trainees and practising psychiatrists. The two editors are leaders in the field who have published extensively on bipolar disorder.
They have assembled a team of experts from around the world: in many instances, chapters are co-authored by people from different continents, bringing a truly international perspective to this important topic. The book covers the basic science of the pathology underlying bipolar disorder but addresses the clinical aspects of the disease throughout.
Lyon Google Scholar 8. Destouet, Venice Google Scholar 9. Lorry AC De melancholia et morbis melancholis. Paris Google Scholar Vogel, Leipzig Google Scholar Griesinger W Pathologie und Therapie der psychischen Krankheiten.
Krabbe, Stuttgart Google Scholar Griesinger W Pathologie und Therapie der psychischen Krankheiten, 2nd edition. Krabbe, Stuttga Google Scholar Pichot P The birth of the bipolar disorder.
Kafemann, Danzig Google Scholar Brain 5: — CrossRef Google Scholar Hurd HM The treatment of periodic insanity. Am J Insanity — Google Scholar Angst J A brief history of bipolar disorder. J Bipolar Disord 1: 31—36 Google Scholar Kraepelin E Die klinische Stellung der Melancholie.
Kraepelin E Psychiatry. Barth, Leipzig Google Scholar Kraepelin E Die Erscheinungsformen des Irreseins.
Bipolar Disorders: A Review
Craddock N, Owen MJ Rethinking psychosis: the disadvantages of a dichotomous classification now outweigh the advantages. World Psychiatry 6: 20—27 Google Scholar Marneros A Beyond the Kraepelinian dichotomy: acute and transient psychotic disorders and the necessity for clinical differentiation. Kleist K Die Gliederung der neuropsychischen Erkrankungen.
Leonhard K Die Aufteilung der endogenen Psychosen. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin Google Scholar Eine genetische, soziologische und klinische Studie. In fact, people suffering from bipolar disorder are more likely to attempt suicide than those suffering from regular depression.
Furthermore, their suicide attempts tend to be more lethal. The risk of suicide is even higher in people with bipolar disorder who have frequent depressive episodes, mixed episodes, a history of alcohol or drug abuse, a family history of suicide, or an early onset of the disease.
You can also read Suicide Prevention.
Causes and triggers Bipolar disorder has no single cause. It appears that certain people are genetically predisposed to bipolar disorder, yet not everyone with an inherited vulnerability develops the illness, indicating that genes are not the only cause. Some brain imaging studies show physical changes in the brains of people with bipolar disorder. Other research points to neurotransmitter imbalances, abnormal thyroid function, circadian rhythm disturbances, and high levels of the stress hormone cortisol.
External environmental and psychological factors are also believed to be involved in the development of bipolar disorder. These external factors are called triggers. Triggers can set off new episodes of mania or depression or make existing symptoms worse.
However, many bipolar disorder episodes occur without an obvious trigger. Stress — Stressful life events can trigger bipolar disorder in someone with a genetic vulnerability.
These events tend to involve drastic or sudden changes—either good or bad—such as getting married, going away to college, losing a loved one, getting fired, or moving.
Drugs such as cocaine, ecstasy, and amphetamines can trigger mania, while alcohol and tranquilizers can trigger depression.
Bipolar Disorder Signs and Symptoms
Medication — Certain medications, most notably antidepressant drugs , can trigger mania. Other drugs that can cause mania include over-the-counter cold medicine, appetite suppressants, caffeine, corticosteroids, and thyroid medication.
Seasonal Changes — Episodes of mania and depression often follow a seasonal pattern. Manic episodes are more common during the summer, and depressive episodes more common during the fall, winter, and spring. Sleep Deprivation — Loss of sleep—even as little as skipping a few hours of rest—can trigger an episode of mania.
The history of bipolar disorders
Other resources Bipolar Disorder — Symptoms, causes, and treatment. National Institute of Mental Health Symptoms and causes — Different types of bipolar disorder and the symptoms of each.Financial risk If you have mania or hypomania you may struggle to manage your finances.
Your healthcare team should help you to make a recovery plan. Circulating antithyroid antibodies contribute to the decrease of glomerular filtration rate in lithium-treated patients: Treatment basics Bipolar disorder requires long-term treatment. Smartphone-based self-monitoring in bipolar disorder:
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