resourceone.info Laws Bd Chaurasia Upper Limb Pdf

BD CHAURASIA UPPER LIMB PDF

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This book covers a vast portion of the upper body. resourceone.info i am attaching the links of BD Chaurasia books. Upper Limb and Thorax; Head and Neck; Abdomen and Pelvis. And the Handbook of General. The first one is called BD Chaurasia human anatomy volume 1 pdf which consists of Upper Limb and Thorax. It is one of the famous and.


Bd Chaurasia Upper Limb Pdf

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BD-CHAURASIA-Anatomy-Upper Limb & Thorax (Volume 1) resourceone.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. anatony book. BD Chaurasia book download for free in pdf ebook format. Upper Limb and Thorax; Head, Neck and Brain; Lower limb, Abdomen and Pelvis.

It is one of the famous and standard book of human anatomy. If you want to study human gross anatomy region wise with clinical points then you should consider this book or try it once. There are other 2 volumes of this book as well which covers other regions of Human body. There is also a book of general anatomy by BD chaurasia which you can download here. In Medical Library.

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You can learn more about the DMCA here: Share this: Hip girdle clavicle and scapula articulate with each other at the acromioclavicular joint. At their upper ends they meet the lower end of the humerus to form the elbow joint. The bone of the 5. The forearm antebrachium extends from the elbow c 5 digits c 5 digits to the wrist. In a midflexed elbow. The human hand is a grasping tool. Elbow joint 4. The 1. The distal segment carries the five digits armpit. Wrist joint 6. During the last movement the radius rotates exquisitely adaptable to perform various complex around the ulna.

The arm upper arm or brachium extends from the 4. Shoulder girdle 1. Wrist a Carpus. Axilla or armpit b Scapula 2. Each finger is supported by scribed as supination and pronation. Scapular region. Some further details of fishes. Shoulder region 1.

Five digits. This is followed by the study of the muscles of appearance of joints permitting rotatory movements of the region.

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Pectoral region. These functions became possible skin. The habit of brachiation. Hand 1. In arboreal tree dwelling human ancestors. Hand proper b Metacarpus. Upper arm arm or brachium — Humerus Shoulder joint from shoulder to the elbow Scapulohumeral joint C. In some other and each finger at its metacarpophalangeal joint. Parts of the upper limb Parts Subdivision Bones Joints: The carpal bones form addition of the clavicle. This the forearms de. Figure species.

The primitive pentadactyl limb Movements of the hand are permitted chiefly at the wrist of amphibians. These descriptions. The forelimbs. In tetrapods terrestrial vertebrates. Carpal bones 8 Metacarpal bones 5 Phalanges 14 Phalanges 14 Fig. Parts of the upper limb. They must possess set body. It is for this ments of muscles and ligaments. While reading this the book.

Scheme of skeleton of upper limb showing lines of force transmission. The 5. The posterior border is convex backwards. The clavicle is a long bone Figs 2. It is generally said to have no medullary cavity. The lateral half of this surface has a 6. It is the first bone to start ossifying.

It is the only long bone which ossifies in mem- convex forwards.

BD Chaurasia’s Handbook of General Anatomy 4th Edition

Their features and attach. The articular surface extends to the inferior aspect. The lateral or acromial end is flattened from 32 bones. The anterior surface is 4. The Shan 2. The lateral end is flat. The inferior surface is grooved longitudinally in The lateral one-third of the shaft is flattened from above downwards. It is the only long bone which has two primary inferior surface has a rough oval impression at the centres of ossification.

It is occasionally pierced by the middle supra- clavicular nerve. Bones of the Upper Limb Out of total bones in man. The paragraphs on 2. The clavicle transmits the weight of The side to which a clavicle belongs can be deter- the limb to the sternum. The medial or sternal end is quadrangular and attachments should be revised when the dissection articulates with the clavicular notch of the of a particular region has been completed.

It is the only long bone that lies horizontally. It supports the shoulder so that the arm can swing clearly away Side Determination from the trunk. The bone has a cylindrical mined from the following characters: The anterior border is concave forwards.

The shaft is slightly curved. The superior surface is rough in its medial part. It is subcutaneous throughout. The individual bones of the upper limb will above downwards. It bears a facet that be described one by one. This part Peculiarities of the Clavicle of the bone has two surfaces. The superior surface is subcutaneous and the infe. The posterior surface is smooth.

It has two borders. The nutrient fora. Each side consists of 1. The medial two-thirds of the shaft is rounded and is said to have four surfaces. Lateral one-third of shaft a The anterior border gives origin to the deltoid Figs Morphology of the Clavicle 2. Acromial end Sternal end Fig. At the medial end the margin of the articular surface 3. The midshaft circumference and the weight of the joint capsule. In females. See morphology of shoulder girdle following description b The posterior border provides insertion to the of scapula Page Right clavicle: At the lateral end the margin of the articular surface smoother.

Inferior aspect. The two fossae are connected by the spinoglenoid notch. The dorsal surface gives attachment to the spine of the scapula which divides the surface into a smaller supraspinous fossa and a larger Fig. The scapula has two surfaces. This part of the bone is almost rod-like: It acts as a lever for Articular disc may the action of the serratus anterior in overhead abduction of the arm. The lateral border is thick. The costal surface or subscapular fossa is con- ligament cave and is directed medially and forwards.

The lateral fragment is dis- b The rough superior surface gives origin to the placed downwards by the weight of the limb.

The clavicle is commonly fractured by falling on the outstretched hand indirect violence. Except for its medial end. The superior border is thin and shorter. The margins of the groove give attachment to the clavipectoral fascia The scapula is a thin bone placed on the posterolat- Fig.

Medial two-thirds of the shaft most common site of fracture is the junction a The anterior surface gives origin to the pecto. The sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints. At the upper end it for the medial end appears during years.

The clavicle is the first bone in the body to ossify Fig. Another thick ridge adjoins the lateral border. It is marked by three longitudinal ridges. The clavicles may be congenitally absent. In this condition. The secondary centre 2. It ossifies from two primary centres and one secondary centre.

Near The two primary centres appear in the shaft be. Occasion- ally there may be a secondary centre for the acromial end. The 4. The Surfaces Interclavicular 1. It moves forwards round the chest when the arm is abducted. The inferior angle is covered by the latissimus dorsi. The Processes 1. The spine or spinous process is a triangular plate of bone with three borders and two surfaces. Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Anterior border Deltoid tuberosity 3.

The superior angle is covered by the trapezius. It extends from the superior angle to the inferior angle. The lateral or glenoid angle is broad and bears the glenoid cavity or fossa. The Angles 1. The medial border is thin. It divides the dorsal surface of the scapula into the. The crest has upper and lower lips. The costal surface is concave to fit on the convex chest wall. Side Determination 1. The coracoid process is directed forwards and slightly laterally.

The lateral thickest border runs from the glenoid cavity above to the inferior angle below. The dorsal surface is convex and is divided by the triangular spine into the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae. Its posterior border is called the crest of the spine. The lateral or glenoid angle is large and bears the glenoid cavity. The acromion has two borders. Muscles 1. The multipennate subscapularis arises from the medial two-thirds of the subscapular fossa Figs 2.

The acromial fibres are multipennate. The infraspinatus arises from the medial two-thirds of the infraspinous fossa. The deltoid arises from the lower border of the crest of the spine and from the lateral border of the acromion Fig. The supraspinatus arises from the medial two-thirds of the supraspinous fossa including the upper surface of the spine Fig.

The longhead of the biceps brachii arises from the supraglenoid tubercle. The coracobrachialis arises from the medial part of the tip of the coracoid process. The serratus anterior is inserted along the medial border of the costal surface: The pectoralis minor is inserted into the medial border and superior surface of the coracoid process.

The trapezius is inserted into the upper border of the crest of the spine and into the medial border of the acromion Figs 2. The teres minor arises from the upper two-thirds of the rough strip on the dorsal surface along the lateral border. The long head of the triceps arises from the infraglenoid tubercle.

The teres major arises from the lower one-third of the rough strip on the dorsal aspect of the lateral border.

The levator scapulae is inserted along the dorsal aspect of the medial border. The margin of the glenoid cavity gives attachment to the capsule of the shoulder joint and to the glenoidal labrum Fig. Ligaments 1. The inferior belly of the omohyoid arises from the upper border near the suprascapular notch. The margin of the facet on the medial aspect of the acromion gives attachment to the capsule of the acromioclavicular joint. The rhomboideus minor is inserted into the medial border dorsal aspect opposite the root of the spine.

The rhomboideus major is inserted into the medial border dorsal aspect between the root of the spine and the inferior angle. The other centres. The subcoracoid centre appears in the root of the coracoid process during the 10th year and fuses by the 16th to 18th years Fig. The scapula ossifies from one primary centre and seven secondary centres. The coracohumeral ligament is attached to the root of the coracoid process.

The coracoacromial ligament is attached: The suprascapular ligament bridges across the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen which transmits the suprascapular nerve. Diagram showing relation of serratus anterior to chest wall and subscapularis. The spinoglenoid ligament bridges the spinoglenoid notch. The primary centre appears near the glenoid cavity during the eighth week of development.

The first secondary centre appears in the middle of the coracoid process during the first year and fuses by the 15th year. The coracoclavicular ligament is attached to the coracoid process: Eighth week of intrauterine life Appearance—Puberty Fusion—25th year. The suprascapular vessels and nerve pass deep to it Fig. The suprascapular vessels lie above the ligament Fig. The costocoracoid ligament may be a derivative of the ventral part of the coracoid element.

The precoracoid has been partly or entirely replaced in all mammals by the clavicle. In such cases a radiograph of the opposite acromion will mostly reveal similar failure of union. The girdle of the duckbill a primitive egg-laying mammal and that of primitive reptiles are alike. In a developmental anomaly called scaphoid scapula.

The interclavicle is represented in man by the inter-clavicular ligament. In man. Both components of the ventral element articulate ventrally with the sternum. Morphology of the Shoulder Girdle The shoulder girdle of man has evolved from that of primitive animals. Paralysis of the serratus anterior causes 'winging' of the scapula. The medial border of the bone becomes unduly prominent.

If the two centres appearing for acromion fail to unite. This basic form appears to be the precursor of the various types of mammalian shoulder girdles. The fact of practical importance is concerned with the acromion. Recalling the homologous parts. The dorsal element of the girdle arch consists of the scapula.

The primary reptilian girdle is divisible into a dorsal and a ventral element. The epicoracoid of the duckbill corresponds to the occasional suprasternal ossicles of man. The ventral element of the girdle arch is more complex and is made up of a posterior part. In the duckbill. The dorsal end of the coracoid helps the scapula in forming the glenoid cavity. The upper end is rounded to form the head. The lesser tubercle is an elevation on the ante.

In ridge on the medial side. It has three borders and three dial epicondyle. The lower end of the humerus forms the condyle 4. A little above the middle it is marked by a V-shaped deltoid tuberosity.

The articular part in- aspect is marked by three impressions-upper. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of medial border. About olecranon process of the ulna when the elbow is its middle it presents a rough strip. It is extended. A nutrient foramen is 1. The middle one-third is crossed 2. The lower half of the the anterior aspect of the trochlea. The sharp lateral margin just above the lower Borders end is called the lateral supracondylar ridge. It The Shaft is subcutaneous and is easily felt on the medial side of the elbow.

The intertubercular sulcus or bicipital groove articulates with the head of the radius Fig. Its upper part is marked by an oblique ridge. The posterior surface lies between the medial larger than the glenoid cavity. It anterior part of the greater tubercle. The upper half of this. The shaft is rounded in the upper half and triangular 2.

Its upper one-third The Upper End is narrow and forms the floor of the intertubercular sulcus. The humerus is the bone of the arm. The medial epicondyle is a prominent bony projection on the medial side of the lower end. Its anterolateral part has a surfaces. The line separating the head from the rest of by the radial groove. The olecranon fossa lies just above the posterior 3. In the upper part. The lateral epicondyle is smaller than the me- in the lower half. The medial supracondylar ridge is a similar the lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus.

The radial fossa is a depression present just supracondylar ridge. Its posterior lar and non-articular parts. The trochlea is a pulley-shaped surface.

The Surfaces lower end is expanded from side to side and flattened 1. The upper part of the medial border forms the aspect of the trochlea. In the middle part. The greater tubercle is an elevation that forms which is expanded from side to side. The sulcus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna. The anteromedial surface lies between the an- terior and medial borders. The narrow line separating the upper end of the The non-articular part includes the following.

The Lower End rior aspect of the upper end. It anterior border is smooth and rounded. The capitulum is a rounded projection which 5.

The upper one-third of the anterior borderforms 4. The anterolateral surface lies between the ante. The lateral border is prominent only at the when the elbow is flexed. It has an upper end. The head is directed medially. It accommodates the medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus. The head forms about one-third of a sphere and is much 2.

The coronoid fossa is a depression just above the deltoid tuberosity. Right humerus seen from front. The multipennate subscapularis is inserted lip of the intertubercular sulcus. The pectoralis major is inserted into the lateral 1. The insertion is into the lesser tubercle Fig. The infraspinatus is inserted into the middle cular sulcus or bicipital groove.

The supraspinatus is inserted into the upper- 2. Right humerus seen from behind. The head is directed medially and backwards. The lesser tubercle projects from the front of the most impression on the greater tubercle.

The pronator teres humeral head arises from the attachment passes between the medial epicondyle and lower one-third of the medial supracondylar ridge. The brachioradialis arises from the upper two. The deltoidis inserted into the deltoid tuberosity. The capsular ligament of the elbow joint is attached thirds of the lateral supracondylar ridge.

The extensor carpi radialis longus arises from the limits of the radial and coronoid fossae. The superficial extensor muscles of the forearm week of development Table 2. Lateral head of triceps brachii arises from oblique the tendon of the longhead of the biceps. The contents of the intertubercular sulcus are: The humerus ossifies from one primary medial epicondyle. The superficial flexor muscles of the forearm arise lateral epicondyle and the capitulum. The coracobrachialis is inserted into the rough attached to the anatomical neck except on the medial side where the line of attachment dips down by about area on the middle of the medial border.

This is called the common extensor origin Fig. The brachialis arises from the lower halves of the within the joint cavity.

On the lateral side it passes between the 6. Medially the line of 5. The primary centre origin. Upper Limb 17 1. The latissimus dorsi is inserted into the floor of the condyle.

The capsular ligament of the shoulder joint is 1. The anconeus arises from the posterior surface of intertubercular sulcus. The line is interrupted at the anteromedial and anterolateral surfaces of the shaft.

This is called the common flexor centre and 7 secondary centres. The teres majoris inserted into the medial lip of the 1. Supracondylar fracture is common in young age. Fractures at this site show delayed union or non-union.

This is the growing end of the bone remember that the nutrient foramen is always Axillary directed away from the growing end.

The lower end ossifies from 4 centres which form 2 epiphyses. It is produced by a fall on the outstretched hand.

The centre for the medial epicondyle appears during years. The head of the humerus commonly dislocates inferiorly. The lower fragment is mostly displaced backwards. It has an the radial groove. The centres include: The 3 centres fuse together during the sixth year to form one epiphysis. Three nerves are directly related to the humerus and are. The upper end ossifies from 3 secondary centres: It may also lead to Volkmarm's isehaemic contracture. The common sites of fracture are the surgical neck.

This fracture may cause injury to the median nerve. The epiphyseal line encircles the bone at the level of the lowest margin of the head. The humerus has a poor blood supply at the junction of its upper and middle thirds. The radius is the lateral bone of the forearm. The head and neck are free from capsular attachment and can rotate freely within the socket.

The posterior border is the mirror image of the anterior border. The oblique part is called the anterior oblique line. It fits into a socket formed by the radial notch of the ulna and the annular ligament.

The Shaft It has three borders and three surfaces. The circumference of the head is also articular. It has a superior concave surface which articulates with the capitulum of the humerus at the elbowjoint. The tuberosity lies just below the medial part of the neck. The Upper End 1. It is oblique in the upper half of the shaft. The neck is enclosed by the narrow lower margin of the annular ligament.

The lower vertical part is crest-like Fig. The head is disc-shaped and is covered with hyaline cartilage Figs 2. Borders 1. It has a rough posterior part and a smooth anterior part. The anterior border extends from the anterior margin of the radial tuberosity to the styloid process. The medial or interosseous border is the Surfaces sharpest of the three borders. The nutrient is attached to its lower three-fourths. The upper oblique part is known as part.

The anterior surface lies between the anterior radial tuberosity above to the posterior margin of and interosseous borders. It extends from the 1. A nutrient foramen opens the ulnar notch below. The interosseous membrane in its upper part. In its lower artery is a branch of the anterior interosseous artery.

The pos terior s urface lies between the posterior and interosseous borders. Side Determination The smaller circular and upper end is concave followed by a constricted neck. The radial artery is palpated against this surface. The inferior surface bears a triangular area for the scaphoid bone. Medial or in- terosseous border is thin and sharp. This surface takes part in forming the wrist joint. The posterior surface presents four grooves for the extensor tendons. Just below the medial aspect of neck is the radial tuberosity.

The medial surface is occupied by the ulnar notch for the head of the ulna. The anterior surface is in the form of a thick prominent ridge. It has 5 surfaces Fig. The Lower End The lower end is the widest part of the bone. Anterior border 1. The lateral surface is prolonged downwards to form the styloid process.

The lateral surface lies between the anterior and posterior borders.

The wider lower end is thick with a pointed styloid process on its lateral aspect and a prominent dorsal tubercle on its posterior surface. The dorsal tubercle of Lister lies lateral to an oblique groove. The supinatoris inserted into the upper part of the lateral surface Fig. The anterior part of the tuberosity is covered by a bursa Fig. The biceps brachii is inserted into the rough posterior part of the radial tuberosity. It is 2. The extensor retinaculum is attached to the lower part of the anterior border.

The oblique cord is attached on the medial side just below the radial tuberosity. The lower end ossifies from a secondary centre which appears during the first year and fuses at 20 years. This results in gross radial deviation superficialis takes origin from the anterior of the hand. Radioulnar synostosis is also a rare condi- Fig. The radial head of the flexor digitorum anomaly. The pronator quadratus is inserted into the lower part of the anterior surface and into the triangular area on the medial side of the lower end.

Smith's fracture is the reverse of the Colles' 1.

The articular capsule of the wrist joint is ler attached to the anterior and posterior margins of the inferior articular surface. The upper end head ossifies from a secondary centre which appears during the 4th year and fuses at 18 years Table 2.

The distal fragment is displaced upwards and backwards. The shaft ossifies from a primary centre which appears during the 8th week of development.

The brachioradialis is inserted into the lowest uncommon. It normally lies distal to the ulnar styloid process. Brachialis 2. The abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis arise from the posterior surface. The interosseous membrane is attached to the lower three-fourths of the interosseous border. This fracture is caused by a fall on the outstretched hand. The radius commonly gets fractured about 2 cm above its lower end Colles's fracture.

The articular disc of the inferior radioulnar joint is attached to the lower border of the ulnar notch. The flexor pollicis longus takes origin from the Olecranon upper two-thirds of the anterior surface Fig. Congenital absence of the radius is a rare 3. The radial artery is palpated as "radial pulse" as it lies on the lower part of anterior surface of radius. The pronator teres is inserted into the middle of fracture.

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The quadrateligamentis attached to the medial part of the neck. The ulna is the medial bone of the forearm. The head can The Upper End normally be felt in a hollow behind the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. It has may dislodge the head of the radius from the grip upper end. This is known as sublux- ation of the head of the radius. Pronation and supination is impossible in these cases. The upper end presents the olecranon and coronoid processes..

Styloid process Fig. Triceps brachii -. Right radius and ulna: Posterior aspect. A sudden powerful jerk on the hand of a child homologous with the fibula of the lower limb. The anterior surface is triangular and rough. The upper part forms the point of the elbow. The upper part of its lateral surface is marked by the radial notch for the head of the radius. Its lower corner forms the ulnar tuberosity. It is limited behind by a ridge called the supinator crest. The superior surface forms the lower part of the trochlear notch.

The coronoid process projects forwards from the shaft just below the olecranon and has four surfaces: The medial surface is continuous inferiorly with the posterior surface of the shaft. The posterior surface forms a triangular subcutaneous area which is separated from the skin by a bursa. The annular ligament is attached to the anterior and posterior margins of the notch.

It has superior. The olecranon process projects upwards from the shaft. Inferiorly it is continuous with the posterior border of the shaft of the ulna. The anterior surface is articular: The lower part of the lateral surface forms a depressed area to accommodate the radial tuberosity.

It be- gins. It begins above on the medial side of the ulnar tuberosity. The trochlear notch forms an articular surface that articulates with the trochlea of the humerus to form the elbow joint.

The interosseous or lateral border is sharpest in its middle two-fourths. The posterior border is subcutaneous.

The radial notch articulates with the head of the radius to form the superior radioulnar joint. The Shaft The shaft has three borders and three surfaces Fig. The anterior border is thick and rounded. The styloid process projects downwards from the posteromedial side of the lower end of the ulna. Surfaces 1. The ulnar head of the flexor digitorum superficialis arises from a tubercle at the upper end of the medial margin of the coronoid process.

The anterior part of the surface is covered by a bursa Fig. The anterior surface lies between the anterior and interosseous borders. The Lower End The lower end is made up of the head and the styloid process. Pointed styloid process lies medial to the rounded head of ulna.

The medial surface lies between the anterior and posterior borders. The brachialis is inserted into the anterior surface of the coronoid process including the tuber-osity of the ulna Fig. A nutrient foramen is seen on the upper part of this surface. An oblique line divides it into upper and lower parts.

The lower part is further divided by a vertical line into a medial and a lateral area. It is directed upwards. The lateral border of the shaft is sharp and crest-like. The upper end is hook-like. Ulnar artery and nerve lie on the anterior aspect of head of ulna Fig. It is separated from the wrist joint by the articular disc Figs 2.

The posterior surface lies between the posterior and interosseous borders. The head articulates with the ulnar notch of the radius to form the inferior radioulnar joint.

The supinator arises from the supinator crest and from the triangular area in front of the crest. The nutrient artery is derived from the anterior interosseous artery. The triceps is inserted into the posterior part of the superior surface of the olecranon. It is subdivided into three areas by two lines.

The anconeus is inserted into the lateral as- pect of the olecranon process and the upper one-fourth of the posterior surface Fig. The oblique cord is attached to the lateral side of the tuberosity. The ulnar head of the pronator teres arises from the medial margin of the coronoid process. The lower end ossifies from a secondary centre which appears during the 5th year. The shaft and most of the upper end ossify from a primary centre which appears during the 8th week of development.

This is the growing end of the bone Table 2. The pronator quadratus takes origin from the oblique ridge on the lower part of the anterior surface. The extensor carpi ulnaris arises from the pos- terior border. Other Attachments 1. The interosseous membrane is attached to the interosseous border. The flexor carpi ulnaris ulnar head arises from the medial side of the olecranon process and from the posterior border 6 c.

The capsular ligament of the elbow joint is at- tached to the margins of the trochlear notch. The lateral part of the posterior surface gives origin from above downwards to the abductorpollicis longus. The ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist is attached to the styloid process.

It forms a scale-like epiphysis which joins the rest of the bone by 16 years. The superior part of the olecranon ossifies from a secondary centre which appears during the 10th year. The articular disc of the inferior radioulnar joint is attached by its apex to a small rough area just lateral to the styloid process.

The flexor digitorum profundus arises from: The annular ligamentof the superior radioulnar joint is attached to the two margins of radial notch of ulna. The proximal row contains from lateral epicondyles of the humerus. The distal row is convex proximally and flat distally. The distal row contains in the same order: These relations are disturbed in disloca. The epiphyseal line is the arm.

The hamate is wedge-shaped with a hook near radius and ulna are growing ends. Cross-union joint capsule. Fracture capitate. Fracture of the olecranon is common and is i the trapezium. So infection in the joint may affect the metaphy- 2. The trapezoid resembles the shoe of a baby. It is actively growing part of the bone with rich blood.

Law of Ossification 4. Importance of Capsular Attachments and Epiphy. Metaphysis is the epiphyseal end of the diaphysis. Each bone has 6 surfaces. As a corollary. At the end of the humerus. The ulna is the stabilising bone of the fore. The scaphoid. The capitate is the largest carpal bone. Madelung's deformity is dorsal subluxation 1. The shaft of the ulna may fracture either sis of the bone if it is partly or completely inside the alone or along with that of the radius.

The triquetral is pyramidal in shape and has an isolated oval facet on the distal part of the Ossification of Humerus. Side Determination The direction of the nutrient foramen in these General Points bones.

The pisiform is pea-shaped and has only one In long bones possessing epiphyses at both of their oval facet on the proximal part of its dorsal ends. So preserve pronation and supination of the hand. The carpus is made up of 8 carpal bones. Infections in this part of the bone are most 1. On this foundation the end of the bone. The olecranon shifts posteriorly and the Table 2.

Dislocation of the elbow is produced by a fall on capsular attachment and the epiphyseal line at the the outstretched hand with the elbow slightly ends of humeral. Identification 2. The proximal row is convex proximally. The lunate is half-moon-shaped or crescentic. It has These ends of long bones which unite last with the a concavoconvex articular surface distally.

This implies that. The trapezium is quadrangular in shape. The triquetral. Ossification of humerus. The pisiform. The dorsal non-articular surface is always larger lies on the distal part of the palmar surface.

The lunate. The side can be finally determined with the nerve. The trapezium. The tubercle is directed laterally. At the lowest part of Metaphysis is upper end mical neck. It bears a small facet for the 4th metacarpal bone. Relation of capsular attachment and epiphyseal lines Capsular attachment C. The hamate. The trapezoid. The dorsomedial angle is the distal-most projection from the body of the capitate. The hook projects from the distal part of the palmar surface. Both epicondyles separate epiphyseal are extracapsular line Radius Attached to the neck of The head forms the Metaphysis is upper end the radius epiphysis partly intracapsular Radius Close to the articular Horizontal line at Metaphysis is lower end margin all around the level of the completely extra- upper part of ulnar capsular notch Ulna Near the articular Scale-like epiphysis on the Metaphysis and part of upper end surface of ulna upper surface of olecranon diaphysis is related to capsular line.

Bones of the Upper Limb 27 Table 2. Epiphyseal line E. The capitate. L Result Humerus Laterally to the anato. All attachments are to these four pillars Fig. Medial intracapsular through the olecranon epicondyle owns a fossa. The pisiform gives attachment to: The tubercle of the scaphoid gives attachment to:We have updated the links. The following features of the pectoral region can be 2. Deep relations of the breast. Shashi Wadhwa, Prof. He is an Indian doctor and an educationist. May i get the book related to neuromusculoskeletal examination please please please!!!

Lymphatics from the lower and inner quadrants of the breast may communicate with the subdiaphragmatic and subperitoneal lymph plexuses after crossing the costal margin and then piercing the anterior abdominal wall through the upper part of the linea alba. In the upper part. The anconeus is inserted into the lateral as- pect of the olecranon process and the upper one-fourth of the posterior surface Fig.

The epiphyseal line encircles the bone at the level of the lowest margin of the head.