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Equivalence above word level 65 A translator shall work only into the language in exceptional cases this may include a second language of which he has native knowledge. The main problems that idiomatic and fixed expressions pose in translation relate to two main areas: These difficulties are much more pronounced in the case of idioms than they are in the case of fixed expressions. This is not always so obvious. There are various types of idioms, some more easily recognizable than others.

They also include expressions which seem ill-formed because they do not follow the grammatical rules of the language, for example trip the light fantastic, blow someone to kingdom come, put paid to, the powers that be, by and large, and the world and his friend.

Expressions which start with like simile-like structures also tend to suggest that they should not be interpreted literally. Generally speaking, the more difficult an expression is to understand and the less sense it makes in a given context, the more likely a translator will recognize it as an idiom.

Because they do not make sense if interpreted literally, the highlighted expressions in the following text are easy to recognize as idioms assuming one is not already familiar with them: I urge you all to speak your minds and not to pull any punches. Language and Society, no. There are two cases in which an idiom can be easily misinterpreted if one is not already familiar with it. Such idioms lend themselves easily to manipulation by speakers and writers who will sometimes play on both their literal and idiomatic meanings.

In this case, a translator who is not familiar with the idiom in question may easily accept the literal interpretation and miss the play on idiom. The following example illustrates how easy it is to accept a literal interpretation that seems plausible in a given context. X, January , 1. Rubber duck is the first trucker in a convoy, grandma lane is the slow lane, and pitstop refers to services or a place where one stops for a rest.

In the context of trucks, motorways, and stopping at a service station, a literal interpretation of drain the radiator seems highly plausible. A similar expression is used in French with a totally different meaning: In French, a similar expression: Instances of superficially identical or similar idioms which have different meanings in the source and target languages lay easy traps for the unwary translator who is not familiar with the source-language idiom and who may be tempted simply to impose a target-language interpretation on it.

Apart from being alert to the way speakers and writers manipulate certain features of idioms and to the possible confusion which could arise from similarities in form between source and target expressions, a translator must also consider the collocational environment which surrounds any expression whose meaning is not readily accessible.

Idiomatic and fixed expressions have individual collocational patterns. They form collocations with other items in the text as single units and enter into lexical sets which are different from those of their individual words.

Take, for instance, the idiom to have cold feet. Cold as a separate item may collocate with words like weather, winter, feel, or country. Feet on its own will perhaps collocate with socks, chilblain, smelly, etc. However, having cold feet, in its idiomatic use, has nothing necessarily to do with winter, feet, or chilblains and will therefore generally be used with a different set of collocates.

The ability to distinguish senses by collocation is an invaluable asset to a translator working from a foreign language. Using our knowledge of collocational patterns may not always tell us what an idiom means but it could easily help us in many cases to recognize an idiom, particularly one which has a literal as well as a non-literal meaning. The difficulties involved in translating an idiom are totally different from those involved in interpreting it.

Here, the question is not whether a given idiom is transparent, opaque, or misleading. An opaque expression may be easier to translate than a transparent one.

The main difficulties involved in translating idioms and fixed expressions may be summarized as follows: The way a language chooses to express, or not express, various meanings cannot be predicted and only occasionally matches the way another language chooses to express the same meanings.

One language may express a given meaning by means of a single word, another may express it by means of a transparent fixed expression, a third may express it by means of an idiom, and so on. It is therefore unrealistic to expect to find equivalent idioms and expressions in the target language as a matter of course. Like single words, idioms and fixed expressions may be culture-specific.

Formulae such as Merry Christmas and say when which relate to specific social or religious occasions provide good examples.

Basnett-McGuire Less problematic, but to some extent also culture-specific, are the sort of fixed formulae that are used in formal correspondence, such as Yours faithfully and Yours sincerely in English. These, for instance, have no equivalents in Arabic formal correspondence. The same mismatch occurs in relation to French and several other languages.

Idioms and fixed expressions which contain culture-specific items are not necessarily untranslatable. It is not the specific items an expression contains but rather the meaning it conveys and its association with culture-specific contexts which can make it untranslatable or difficult to translate.

The Murder of King Tut Both expressions convey the same meaning, namely: To sing a different tune is an English idiom which means to say or do something that signals a change in opinion because it contradicts what one has said or done before.

It has strong political connotations and can, in certain contexts, be interpreted as expressing complementary rather than contradictory points of view.

The Serbian idiom differs from the English one in that it implies forcing someone into a dangerous position. Though similar in meaning, the contexts in which the two idioms can be used are obviously different.

Unless the target-language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text. As a wealthy dilettante he was able to pursue the clues without the boring necessity of earning a living. He had sufficient influence to be able to poke his nose into the private affairs of others where less aristocratic noses might have been speedily bloodied.

Another example comes from Arab Political Humour by Kishtainy Although this book was originally written in English, the writer quotes jokes and anecdotes of Arab origin, so that English is in fact the target language here.

The following joke emerged after the defeat of the Arab forces in , which resulted in the annexation of Arab territory by Israel. What will you do if we get them back?

It means that something is impossible or at least highly unlikely to happen. The literal translation that the author gives above is just as ineffective since the non-Arab reader has no access to the idiomatic meaning. This book was translated into Arabic by Al-Yaziji in and, not surprisingly, the jokes work much better in the Arabic version. Their use in quality-press news reports is limited, but it is quite common to see idioms in English advertisements, promotional material, and in the tabloid press.

The whole passage is highly idiomatic and very informal in style. The main idioms are highlighted in bold: With loads of get up and go. The new Metro. A new range. With vivid new colours and trim. Full of fresh ideas. And wickedly stylish. Get going in the new Metro GTa. Where else would you find 73PS performance, alloy wheels and looks like that — at such a price? Fancy something really special in the sports luxury department?

With a sunroof, central locking, tinted glass and a lot more, the new Metro 1. And so is the price. Languages such as Arabic and Chinese which make a sharp distinction between written and spoken discourse and where the written mode is associated with a high level of formality, tend, on the whole, to avoid using idioms in written texts. Fernando and Flavell Idiom more than any other feature of language demands that the translator be not only accurate but highly sensitive to the rhetorical nuances of the language.

It is not only a question of whether an idiom with a similar meaning is available in the target language. The acceptability or non-acceptability of using any of the strategies described below will therefore depend on the context in which a given idiom is translated.

The first strategy described, that of finding an idiom of similar meaning and similar form in the target language, may seem to offer the ideal solution, but that is not necessarily always the case. Questions of style, register, and rhetorical effect must also be taken into consideration. This kind of match can only occasionally be achieved. The rain fell on the just and on the unjust.

La pluie tombait aussi bien sur les justes que sur les injustes. The fantastic income of the Sultan was distributed on a simple order on his part.

The rain was falling on the just as well as on the unjust. Equivalence above word level 73 Target text French, p. On the fifth day of what was going to prove to be the final confrontation, Mr. Pawley tried to force the hand of the president of the Chamber, Jim Walding, to declare a placement of the vote, with or without the participation of the conservatives.

The Fayeds have turned the pre-bid House of Fraser strategy on its head. And with this the Fayed brothers have turned the strategy of the House of Fraser previous to the offer of ownership head over heel.

Example D Source text Masters of the Universe: Perhaps Granamyr wanted to show us that things are not always what they seem. The serow, a type of wild mountain goat, is very much at home among the rocky outcrops of Sichuan. The Chinese idiom used to replace very much at home is shi fen zi zai. Dir werde ich einheizen, du Scheusal! I will make things hot for you, monster!

The above statement is addressed to an ice monster. You may or may not find the paraphrases accurate; the examples below are quoted as they appear in the original documents to illustrate the strategy of paraphrase rather than to explain the meanings of individual idioms.

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Example A Source text Austin Montego — car brochure: The suspension system has been fully uprated to take rough terrain in its stride.

The capacity of the suspension system has been raised so as to overcome the roughness of the terrain. Programmes to teach heritage languages to ethnic youngsters in upper elementary or high school are all quite laudable, but if it is merely a question of trying to reinforce or replant first language competence already lost for all practical purposes, then this is rather like shutting the stable door when the horse has bolted.

Target text French, pp. These courses, which would be given in the last classes of elementary or to the secondary certainly constitute a laudable initiative; but it is perhaps too little too late, because in a good many cases these youngsters have no more than a vague memory of their ancestral language.

We were to regret signing that undertaking, and I do not think that any public company should agree to open- ended ad hoc restraints of this kind. It was subsequently used by Norman Tebbit, as Secretary of State at the Department of Trade and Industry, to unfairly restrain a Lonrho bid while he pushed another pony past the post. Target text 1 French, p. This was used afterwards by Norman Tebbit, then minister of Commerce and Industry, in order to reject unfairly an offer from Lonrho and at the same time to favour another candidate.

Target text 2 Arabic, p. Example D Source text Language and Society, no. One frequent criticism of the Manitoba Government throughout the language controversy was that it never seemed to get a handle on the issue. Equivalence above word level 77 Back-translation: For the whole length of the linguistic controversy, the government of Manitoba was reproached frequently for not succeeding, by all appearances, in mastering the situation.

Best news of all is the decision to develop a system of five nature reserves totalling sq. In such a system representative animal and plant species within the unique ecosystem of this area will be protected. Although it looks very similar to Best news of all, it is just a paraphrase of the English expression. This may be because it has no close match in the target language, its meaning cannot be easily paraphrased, or for stylistic reasons.

It was bitter, but funny, to see that Professor Smith had doubled his own salary before recommending the offer from Fayed, and added a pre-dated bonus for good measure. One strategy which cannot be adequately illustrated, simply because it would take up a considerable amount of space, is the strategy of compensation. Briefly, this means that one may either omit or play down a feature such as idiomaticity at the point, where it occurs in the source text and introduce it elsewhere in the target text.

This strategy is not restricted to idiomaticity or fixed expressions and may be used to make up for any loss of meaning, emotional force, or stylistic effect which may not be possible to reproduce directly at a given point in the target text.

Mason Using the typical phraseology of the target language — its natural collocations, its own fixed and semi-fixed expressions, the right level of idiomaticity, and so on — will greatly enhance the readability of your translations.

But naturalness and readability are also affected by other linguistic features and these will be discussed at various points in the following chapters. Choose one English word and find its first dictionary equivalent in your target language. Make a list of some common collocations of the English word. Make an independent list of the most typical collocations of your target-language equivalent.

Compare the two lists and comment on the differences and similarities in the collocational patterning of the two items. Make a list of some common collocations of an English word of your choice.

Suggest some common collocations in your target language which convey similar meanings to those of the English collocations. Comment on any difference in meaning. Make a list of some English idioms with which you are familiar and which have close counterparts in your target language. Make a list of some common English expressions or idioms which you feel would be difficult to translate into your target language, for example because they relate to specific English habits or social occasions.

Try, to the best of your ability, to paraphrase each expression twice: Imagine that you have been asked by a client to translate the following text into your target language. Haiku aktuell download The Act Chapter 93 '. US are lasts tissues at SAF '.


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Monitoring consumption in hospital settings is useful for impact assessment of AMR leading to attribution of morbidity and mortality on health care cost and for micro—policy decision on rational use.

Monitoring consumption in community is more complex than a hospital setting, where national sales data to communities are used for estimation. A majority of developing countries do not compile national sales data to communities. Alternative ways of capturing antimicrobial use are surveys of pharmacies, sentinel in specific sites or prospective household survey.

The data sources came from wholesalers 17 countries , marketing—authorization holders 4 countries , both wholesalers and marketing—authorization holders 2 countries. Some countries provide feed mill data Table 1 [ 7 ]. In all countries, it is mandatory by Law for pharmaceutical operators to report their sales data to the national authority, except in France, Hungary, Netherlands and Spain. These data are able to be disaggregated by community and hospital uses; while all countries are reliant on sales data for antimicrobial agents used in animals.

Most European countries had achieved universal health coverage; still there are limitations in capturing antimicrobial consumption from reimbursement databases. In developing countries with limited population coverage by insurance schemes, more limitation of reimbursement data for estimate of antimicrobial consumption is expected.

This indicates that development of the surveillance system requires strengthening of antimicrobial sales data for both humans and animals.View all 7 comments.

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