SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HUMAN NATURE PDF
SECOND EDITION Social Psychology and Human Nature Roy F. Baumeister Florida State University Brad J. Bushman University of Michigan VU University. Social Psychology and Human Nature Roy F. Baumeister, Brad J. Bushman Publisher: Michele Sordi Senior Development Editor: Jeremy Judson Managing. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Roy F. Baumeister and others published Social Psychology and Human Nature.
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Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. [PDF]EPUB Social Psychology and Human Nature, Comprehensive Edition Ebook PDF, EPUB, KINDLE By Roy F. Baumeister Social. Social psychology and human nature by Roy F Baumeister · Social psychology and human nature. by Roy F Baumeister; Brad J Bushman. Print book. English.
The tendency to define oneself by membership in a group may lead to intergroup discrimination, which involves favorable perceptions and behaviors directed towards the in-group, but negative perceptions and behaviors directed towards the out-group. Groups often moderate and improve decision making ,[ citation needed ] and are frequently relied upon for these benefits, such as in committees and juries.
A number of group biases, however, can interfere with effective decision making. For example, group polarization, formerly known as the "risky shift," occurs when people polarize their views in a more extreme direction after group discussion.
More problematic is the phenomenon of groupthink. This is a collective thinking defect that is characterized by a premature consensus or an incorrect assumption of consensus, caused by members of a group failing to promote views which are not consistent with the views of other members. Groupthink occurs in a variety of situations, including isolation of a group and the presence of a highly directive leader. Janis offered the Bay of Pigs Invasion as a historical case of groupthink.
Social facilitation, for example, is a tendency to work harder and faster in the presence of others. Social facilitation increases the dominant response 's likelihood, which tends to improve performance on simple tasks and reduce it on complex tasks.
Social loafing is common when the task is considered unimportant and individual contributions are not easy to see. An important concept in this area is deindividuation , a reduced state of self-awareness that can be caused by feelings of anonymity. Deindividuation is associated with uninhibited and sometimes dangerous behavior. It is common in crowds and mobs, but it can also be caused by a disguise, a uniform, alcohol, dark environments, or online anonymity.
Main article: Interpersonal attraction A major area in the study of people's relations to each other is interpersonal attraction. This refers to all forces that lead people to like each other, establish relationships, and in some cases fall in love. Several general principles of attraction have been discovered by social psychologists, but many still continue to experiment and do research to find out more. One of the most important factors in interpersonal attraction is how similar two particular people are.
The more similar two people are in general attitudes, backgrounds, environments, worldviews, and other traits, the more probable an attraction is possible. Later on, similarity and other compatibility factors become more important, and the type of love people experience shifts from passionate to companionate.
Robert Sternberg has suggested that there are actually three components of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment. According to social exchange theory , relationships are based on rational choice and cost-benefit analysis. If one partner's costs begin to outweigh their benefits, that person may leave the relationship, especially if there are good alternatives available.
This theory is similar to the minimax principle proposed by mathematicians and economists despite the fact that human relationships are not zero-sum games.
With time, long term relationships tend to become communal rather than simply based on exchange. Careful attention to sampling, research design, and statistical analysis is important; results are published in peer reviewed journals such as the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Social psychology studies also appear in general science journals such as Psychological Science and Science. Experimental methods involve the researcher altering a variable in the environment and measuring the effect on another variable.
An example would be allowing two groups of children to play violent or nonviolent videogames, and then observing their subsequent level of aggression during free-play period. A valid experiment is controlled and uses random assignment.
Correlational methods examine the statistical association between two naturally occurring variables. For example, one could correlate the amount of violent television children watch at home with the number of violent incidents the children participate in at school.
Note that this study would not prove that violent TV causes aggression in children: it is quite possible that aggressive children choose to watch more violent TV. Observational methods are purely descriptive and include naturalistic observation , "contrived" observation, participant observation, and archival analysis. These are less common in social psychology but are sometimes used when first investigating a phenomenon.
An example would be to unobtrusively observe children on a playground with a videocamera, perhaps and record the number and types of aggressive actions displayed. Whenever possible, social psychologists rely on controlled experimentation. Controlled experiments require the manipulation of one or more independent variables in order to examine the effect on a dependent variable. Experiments are useful in social psychology because they are high in internal validity , meaning that they are free from the influence of confounding or extraneous variables, and so are more likely to accurately indicate a causal relationship.
However, the small samples used in controlled experiments are typically low in external validity , or the degree to which the results can be generalized to the larger population.
There is usually a trade-off between experimental control internal validity and being able to generalize to the population external validity.
Because it is usually impossible to test everyone, research tends to be conducted on a sample of persons from the wider population. Social psychologists frequently use survey research when they are interested in results that are high in external validity.
Surveys use various forms of random sampling to obtain a sample of respondents that are representative of a population. This type of research is usually descriptive or correlational because there is no experimental control over variables. However, new statistical methods like structural equation modeling are being used to test for potential causal relationships in this type of data. David O. Sears , have criticized social psychological research for relying too heavily on studies conducted on university undergraduates in academic settings.
Results need to be used to evaluate the hypothesis of the research that is done. These results should either confirm or reject the original hypothesis that was predicted.
There are two different types of testing social psychologists use in order to test their results. False positive conclusions, often resulting from the pressure to publish or the author's own confirmation bias , are a hazard in the field. Many participants continued to give shocks despite pleas for mercy from the actor. The Asch conformity experiments demonstrated the power of conformity in small groups with a line length estimation task that was designed to be extremely easy.
Seventy-five percent of the participants conformed at least once during the experiment. Additional manipulations to the experiment showed participant conformity decreased when at least one other individual failed to conform, but increased when the individual began conforming or withdrew from the experiment.
It therefore looks at human behavior as influenced by other people and the social context in which this occurs. Social psychology is to do with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed and how such psychological factors, in turn, influence our interactions with others. Topics examined in social psychology include: the self concept , social cognition, attribution theory , social influence, group processes, prejudice and discrimination , interpersonal processes, aggression, attitudes and stereotypes.
History of Social Psychology Early Influences Aristotle believed that humans were naturally sociable, a necessity which allows us to live together an individual centered approach , whilst Plato felt that the state controlled the individual and encouraged social responsibility through social context a socio-centered approach. This led to the idea of a group mind, important in the study of social psychology.
It emphasized the notion that personality develops because of cultural and community influences, especially through language, which is both a social product of the community as well as a means of encouraging particular social thought in the individual.
Early Texts Texts focusing on social psychology first emerged at the start of the 20th century. The first notable book in English was published by McDougall in An Introduction to Social Psychology , which included chapters on emotion and sentiment, morality, character and religion, quite different to those incorporated in the field today.
This belief is not the principle upheld in modern social psychology, however. His book also dealt with topics still evident today, such as emotion, conformity and the effects of an audience on others. Murchison published The first handbook on social psychology was published by Murchison in A text by Klineberg looked at the interaction between social context and personality development by the s a number of texts were available on the subject.
By the study of social norms had developed, looking at how individuals behave according to the rules of society. This was conducted by Sherif Lewin et al. Later Developments Much of the key research in social psychology developed following World War II, when people became interested in the behavior of individuals when grouped together and in social situations. Key studies were carried out in several areas. Some studies focused on how attitudes are formed, changed by the social context and measured to ascertain whether change has occurred.The three main areas of social influence include: conformity , compliance , and obedience.
Obedience as a form of compliance was dramatically highlighted by the Milgram study , wherein people were ready to administer shocks to a person in distress on a researcher's command.
Human nature and culture: an evolutionary psychological perspective.
These end-of-chapter sections offer a brief reflection on what is special about human nature. Often he would manage to sort through a dozen or more reviews, boiling the chaotic mass of suggestions down into the key targets for improvement and managing the process with reason and good humor.
Homing pigeons, for example, can hear very low-pitched sound infrasound that carries great distances, even though most smaller animals detect higher-pitched sounds.