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dimentions of organizational behaviour have been included in Part 2. It contains total of six chapters. Chapter 3 – Individual dimentions of. PDF | Organizational Behaviour is the only text to use a running case study to demonstrate the application of organizational behaviour in the. this to the version number of the latest PDF version of the text on the website. Professor of Organisational Behaviour on the Faculty of the Freeman School of.

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Organisational Behaviour. An Introduction. Edited by. Christine Cross. Ronan Carbery. Copyrighted material_ This is the book An Introduction to Organizational Behavior (v. ). Understanding Organizational Behavior. . Chapter 4: Individual Attitudes and Behaviors. The study of Organizational Behaviour: Definition and Meaning, Why Study OB Organizational Behaviour Process: Communication – Importance, Types.

Though it wants the organizational objective, it will not be at the cost of individual or group objectives.

It actually integrates all these objectives by suggesting various behaviourial approaches. While pure science concentrates on fundamental researches, OB concentrates on applied researches. Many of OB researches are carried out in laboratory situations and controlled conditions. These are meant for general applications in organizational analysis. Hence you can say that OB is an art and science.

Hence it is interdisciplinary in nature. Man is a social animal and hence is subjected to various pressures from society or organization. Man is a product of socio psychological factors. His behaviour is influenced by his psychological framework, group influence, interpersonal orientation and social and cultural factors. Thus mans nature and behaviour are so complex you can make only a system approach to find solutions for his and hence for the organizations problems.

Systems approach is an integrative approach that takes into account all the variables affecting organizational functioning. What are all the disciplines that contribute to the knowledge of OB? Can you briefly tell three important characteristics of OB? People are recruited by the organization so as to achieve the objective.

This calls for a definite structure of the organization. The organization also needs technology to help in getting the job done. Thus there is an interaction of people, the external environmental influences, structure and technology.

People Organization Structure Technology External Environment Key Elements in organization behaviour The employees constitute the social system of an organization, consisting of individuals, groups and large groups and small groups.

Some may be formal while others may be informal. It must be noted that the groups are ever changing and hence are dynamic. They may also disband. The individuals in organizations are thinkers, feelers and living emotional beings. The organizations hence exist to serve these members and people do not exist to serve organizations. It hence calls for a kind of relationship to be established that should be official. You need managers, supervisors, skilled and semi-skilled workers, accountants, clerks and other workers to perform different activities and functions.

This calls for a structural relationship. The main structure relates one to power and duties. Thus the supervisor has authority over his subordinates to take decisions and extract work from them.

It has an effect on the ongoing work. No employee can achieve much with his bare hands. So you need buildings, machineries and create work processes and assemble resources. A very good technology has a positive impact on the working relationships. Moreover, the working conditions in a hotel are different from that of a car manufacturing company.

The assembly line of an auto-industry calls for a smooth and user-friendly technology. The conditions in a hospital call for another type of technology.

The greatest benefit of technology is that it enables people to turn out better quality work faster and also to increase production. Added to all these is the external environment in whose control the organization functions. An organization is part of a large system consisting of hundreds of organizations. These organizations mutually influence each other and the effect of this influence becomes the life-style of the people.

Even organizations like schools and nonprofitable organizations are affected by the external environment. In the process, the attitudes of people are affected. Further, the environment influences the working conditions with the available resources and power.

Hence environment also must be taken into account while studying the human behaviour in organizations.

The very definition of organizing is that it is a managerial process. It defines the role of each individual manager towards the attainment of organizational objectives with due regard to establishing authority and responsibility relationship among all the members of the group. It also provides for coordination in the enterprise both horizontally and vertically an inbuilt device for obtaining harmonious group action. The more the quantum of work the more are the activities and hence more number of people to perform the activities so as to achieve the organizational objectives.

If the activities are more then grouping and sub grouping of activities are called for, resulting in the formation of various departments like purchase, finance, production, marketing and personnel. Now this is is a human set-up and hence the division of labour and exercise of authority and discharge of responsibility all depend on the behaviour of individuals.

The behaviour varies from time to time and from individual to individual according to the situations and mental set-up of people in the organization. Once physical facilities are provided to support the execution of various activities of the individuals, there arises a material organization to assist the human organization for initiating action according to the assigned roles towards the attainment of organizational objectives. The next important step is the establishment of a relationship between authority and responsibility.

This crucial step calls for good analysis of people and their behaviour as a wrong authority bestowed can create havoc to the organization.

Is the manager the right choice for the particular authority to be bestowed upon? Are you sure the subordinates will care for him? So much study is required because such relationship is to be established vertically and horizontally in the organization. All personnel must perform their role efficiently and profitable to the enterprise.

The behaviour analysis is more important when you find that different departments and sub departments are going to be linked to one another. Can the different individuals recognize the authority of the same boss and different superiors in the same way? Do they like the system of communication now?

What is the background of people subjected to different levels of communication? What is the contribution of individuals and groups separately for effective and economical functioning of the organization?

The cultural and educational background of the employees play a major role when they react to some decisions of superiors. The significance of the study on OB is that the various principles of management can be deduced and implemented only after a through understanding of the behaviour of people in general and in particular situations separately.

It is from the study you can arrive at the various principles like 1 Principle of unity of objective 2 Principle of division of work 3 Principle of unity of direction 4 Principle of unity of command 5 Principle of communication and 6 Principle of coordination 7 Principle of management by exception etc.

The correct span of control or supervision is arrived at after a through analysis of human behaviour only. Brilliant set of employees can mar the progress of an organization if they are not motivated to the desired level. But whether they need motivation or not has to be understood first. The quality of output from a skilled worker, newly trained worker and a new recruit are different from each other as they all have varying efficiency.

Many a time training and motivation of employees result in unprecedented increase in productivity.

DBA1604 Organizational Behaviour.pdf

Thus you find 8 DBA Organizational Behaviour the scope and importance of OB is mainly in improving organizational efficiency, innovations and productivity.

The importance of the study stems from the fact that there are some definite causes for the human behaviour and these causes can act on an individual or on a group one at a time, two at a time or all put together like that.

Hence a study is essential to predict the behaviour, which can vary from trade to trade within the organization or vary for the same trade in different industries. Science has helped the researchers to arrive at the root cause of the behaviour and establish a relationship between the cause and its effect. Why people behave in a particular way? If the causes can be established then certain types of behaviour can be predicted, manipulated and controlled for the better performance of individuals, groups and finally for the organization as a whole.

Of course astrology, numerology, palmistry etc.

Causes of human behaviour can be classified into two characteristics : 1 Inherited characteristics : a The physical characteristics like height, weight, slim body, vision, stamina etc have some bearing on performance.

Fat people are fine men, goes the saying. Fat people are also jovial in nature. Tall people dress well and behave in a sophisticated manner. Intelligence can be enhanced by proper motivation and environment. It will be easy to convince intelligent people and their behaviour is predictable. Another important trait in intelligent and educated people is that they are stable in their approach and behaviour generally. Some of the behavioural characteristics that account for huge diversity in human behaviour are the result of their exposure to various situations and stimuliwithin the family, within the society or outside the environment.

These are characteristics acquired as a result of learning. Learning is defined as a change in behaviour as a result of interactions with the environment. The characteristics involve individuals attitudes, values and perceptions about the environment around him. This adds to the importance of environment in OB. Different values and expectations are contributed by cultures and subcultures.

They also learn the need and values of being honest and truthful again from the environment.

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The spirit of competition is there with a student brought in military school or in sports surroundings. While religious schools teach truth the convent schools lay stress on decency and mannerism. Some of the learned characteristics are perception, attitude values and personality.

Detailed study of each one of these characteristics is called for and that signals the importance of the study of OB again. Value of a person is nothing but his concept of good and bad. It is proved that value and behaviour are highly correlated.

Values of a person can indicate his behaviour pattern but cannot predict the behaviour accurately. Normally values are emotionally charged priorities and are defended by a person very passionately. The values can be common for a group also. A Body of Theory, Research and Application: Organisational behaviour consists of a body of theory, research and application which helps in understanding the human behaviour in organisation. All these techniques help the managers to solve human problems in organisations.

Beneficial to both Organisation and Individuals: Organisational behaviour creates an atmosphere whereby both organisation and individuals are benefitted by each other. A reasonable climate is created so that employees may get much needed satisfaction and the organisation may attain its objectives. Rational Thinking: Organisational behaviour provides a rational thinking about people and their behaviour. The major objective of organisational behaviour is to explain and predict human behaviour in organisations, so that result yielding situations can be created.

Nature of Organisational Behavior: Organisational behaviour in the study of human behaviour in the organisations. Whenever an individual joins an organisation he brings with him unique set of personal characteristics, experiences from other organisations and a personal background. At the first stage organisational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting. The second stage of organisational behaviour is to study the dynamics of how the incoming individuals interact with the broader organisation.

No individual can work in isolation. He comes into contact with other individuals and the organisation in a variety of ways. The individual who joins a new organisation has to come into contact with the co-workers, managers, formal policies and procedures of the organisation etc.

On the other hand, the organisation is also affected by the presence or absence of the individual. Thus, it is essential that OB must study the ways in which the individuals and organisation interact with each other. The organisational behaviour must be studied from the perspective of the organisation itself because an organisation exists before a particular individual joins in and continues to exist after he or she has left the organisation.

A platoon commander tried to attack the pillbox to stop the firing but was hit at the shoulder. To avoid demoralizing his soldiers and prevent uncertainty from taking hold, he acted as if he was not injured, stood up and was wounded a second time in the neck Denizli, Turkish soldiers who had been severely wounded in the Kunuri Battle and evacuated to American and Japanese hospitals wanted to go back to their units voluntarily instead of going back home.

People Without people who possess the ability to implement strategy and structural design, the organization cannot be effective. One of the important characteristics discussed as regards the nature of OB is normative behaviour in groups. An extremely complex relationship exists among such factors as group norms, conformity, cohesiveness, and group performance.

In military culture, collectivistic behaviour is also important in adapting the social and organizational norms.

Common goals, discipline, and compliance with regulations have indeed a great impact on adapting such norms. In such a cultural climate, the group's interest is paramount. Reacting against group values is a seldom forgiven mistake. Cohesiveness and harmony are important factors in being a member of a group, and the group protects its members as long as loyalty is in evidence. Turkish collectivism stems from a way of life strongly influenced by Islamic culture.

It positively affects identification with the troops and uniform in the military. As previously mentioned, in Chinese PoW camps during the Korean War, all of the prisoners of war were forced to wear prisoner attire instead of their own uniforms to demoralize them through indiscipline as a result of being rankless.

Principles of Management & Organisational Behaviour.pdf

The aim of this process was to force the prisoners to use brute force instead of rank power. The Chinese gave insufficient food to the prisoners, and food distribution was left to them.

The expectation was that only the stronger prisoners would eat while the weaker could not.

Yet, the Turkish prisoners still had their chain of command ; they celebrated their religious days, and shared their food equally in an orderly manner Pelser, The number of these volunteer conscripts was far more than was needed, so the soldiers were chosen by lottery. It was then mandatory for any selected enlistee to secure a medical certificate.

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Some soldiers who were not permitted to deploy because of a medical problem begged doctors to deliver a clean bill of health so that they could go to war Denizli, In that context, one episode was reported in the memoirs of a company commander, Captain Turan Ergungor. He wrote that one day an old man who had lost an arm came to see the doctor with his grandson, and told him in a strong manner: Hernia is something like circumcision.

Treat it as soon as possible, do not prevent my grandson from going to war, and do not make me ashamed! The old man's grandson subsequently deployed to Korea, completed his tour and came back home with the rank of sergeant Ergungor, In an article published in the daily newspaper of 1st US Corps about the fighting skills of Turkish troops, Lt.

Colonel Blair, US Army, wrote: They had plenty of food and ammunition. There was only one Turkish soldier for every three Chinese soldiers. But Turkish soldiers were so predominant. Only Turkish soldiers were doing this.

Fear is generated by an object, while risk applies to an action. Celal Dora issued a famous order: You would rather die than be taken prisoner. If I surrender, one who is near to me can kill me with his gun.

If he does not have a gun, it will be right for him to kill me barehanded. In light of this, in the battles of , the Turkish brigade was ordered to defend the lines it was holding while the UN Army under the command of General Van Fleet was retreating.

In the defence area, First Lieutenant Mehmet Gonenc, an artillery forward observer, was surrounded by the enemy together with his unit. He gave the coordinates of his own location in order to destroy the entire enemy around him. It is thought that this attitude stemmed from the cultural characteristics of the nation. Some examples of these sayings are: These cultural considerations steered the organizational behaviour of the Turkish military in the direction of volunteering for risk. A final word is in order with respect to intercultural relations and mutual influences.

Military culture is not only influenced by the national cultural characteristics, but it also interacts with its international environment, notably with organizations like NATO and the UN, with significant internal impact. The latter concept has two dimensions:It is also advisable to apply punishment before the undesirable behaviour has been strongly reinforced. If the causes can be established then certain types of behaviour can be predicted, manipulated and controlled for the better performance of individuals, groups and finally for the organization as a whole.

Can the different individuals recognize the authority of the same boss and different superiors in the same way? The other word in the definition says that the change occurs due to experience and not due to change in biological growth like a child growth. These include poorly trained employees, poor strategies, and managerial ineffectiveness.