GERMANY AND THE SECOND WORLD WAR PDF
Germany and Second World War - volume IV. Identifier GermanyAndSecondWorldWarVolumeIVAttackOnSovietUnion. Identifier-arkark:/ /. I Testimonies about how Ohrid saw the coming of the Germans, the Italians, the Bulgarians and the Partisans during the Second World War. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sign a treaty of cooperation on October 25; Germany invades Poland, initiating World War II in Europe.
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Histories of the Aftermath: The Legacies of the Second World War in Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War (New Haven, CT. Professor Sönke Neitzel used secret transcripts of German prisoners of war to create For many decades after the end of World War II (WWII), a broad popular . in World War II, from sources such as the Public Broadcasting. Service in . World War II were the Soviets against Germany, and the Chinese.
German forces on the Channel Islands surrender : At on 8 May, the Channel Islanders were informed by the German authorities that the war was over.
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill made a radio broadcast at during which he announced: "Hostilities will end officially at one minute after midnight tonight, but in the interests of saving lives the 'Cease fire' began yesterday to be sounded all along the front, and our dear Channel Islands are also to be freed today.
German units cease fire: Although the military commanders of most German forces obeyed the order to surrender issued by the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW —the German Armed Forces High Command , not all commanders did so. The other forces which did not surrender on 8 May surrendered piecemeal: The Second Army , under the command of General von Saucken , on the Heiligenbeil and Danzig beachheads, on the Hel Peninsula in the Vistula delta surrendered on 9 May, as did the forces on the Greek islands; and the garrisons of the last Atlantic pockets in France, in Saint-Nazaire , La Rochelle after the Allied siege , and Lorient.
Isolated pockets of resistance in Czechoslovakia were mopped up by this date.
People gathered in Whitehall to hear Winston Churchill 's victory speech, 8 May The garrison on Alderney , one of the Channel Islands occupied by the Germans , surrendered on 16 May, one week after the garrisons on Guernsey and Jersey had surrendered on 9 May and those on Sark on 10 May.
A military engagement took place in Yugoslavia today's Slovenia , on 14 and 15 May, known as the Battle of Poljana. The remaining NDH soldiers escape to the forest. A small group of German soldiers deployed on Svalbard in Operation Haudegen to establish and man a weather station there lost radio contact in May ; they surrendered to some Norwegian seal hunters on 4 September, two days after the Surrender of Japan.
On 12 May an Allied liaison team arrived in Flensburg and took quarters aboard the passenger ship Patria. The liaison officers and the Supreme Allied Headquarters soon realized that they had no need to act through the Flensburg government and that its members should be arrested. The Allies had a problem, because they realized that although the German armed forces had surrendered unconditionally, SHAEF had failed to use the document created by the " European Advisory Commission " EAC and so there had been no formal surrender by the civilian German government.
This was considered a very important issue, because just as the civilian, but not military, surrender in had been used by Hitler to create the " stab in the back " argument, the Allies did not want to give any future hostile German regime a legal argument to resurrect an old quarrel.
Truman on 10 May This was part of the post-war economic plan that advocated how the Allied occupation would include measures to prevent Germany from waging further war by eliminating its armament industry, and the removal or destruction of other key industries required for military strength. This included the removal or destruction of all industrial plants and equipment in the Ruhr.
It included the following: The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of the French Republic, hereby assume supreme authority with respect to Germany, including all the powers possessed by the German Government, the High Command and any state, municipal, or local government or authority.
A new word, genocide, entered the language to deal with the murder of 6 million of Europe's Jews by the Nazis. During the war, millions more had fled their homes or been forcibly moved to work in Germany or Japan or, in the case of the Soviet Union, because Stalin feared that they might be traitors.
Now, in , another new word appeared, the DP, or "displaced person". There were millions of them, some voluntary refugees moving westward in the face of the advancing Red Army, others deported as undesirable minorities.
The newly independent Czech state expelled nearly 3 million ethnic Germans in the years after , and Poland a further 1. Everywhere there were lost or orphaned children, , alone in Yugoslavia. Thousands of unwanted babies added to the misery.
It is impossible to know how many women in Europe were raped by the Red Army soldiers, who saw them as part of the spoils of war, but in Germany alone some 2 million women had abortions every year between and The allies did what they could to feed and house the refugees and to reunite families that had been forcibly torn apart, but the scale of the task and the obstacles were enormous. The majority of ports in Europe and many in Asia had been destroyed or badly damaged; bridges had been blown up; railway locomotives and rolling stock had vanished.
World War II
Great cities such as Warsaw, Kiev, Tokyo and Berlin were piles of rubble and ash. Factories and workshops were in ruins, fields, forests and vineyards ripped to pieces. Millions of acres in north China were flooded after the Japanese destroyed the dykes.
Many Europeans were surviving on less than 1, calories per day; in the Netherlands they were eating tulip bulbs. Britain had largely bankrupted itself fighting the war and France had been stripped bare by the Germans. They were struggling to look after their own peoples and deal with reincorporating their military into civilian society. The four horsemen of the apocalypse — pestilence, war, famine and death — so familiar during the middle ages, appeared again in the modern world. New 'superpowers' Politically, the impact of the war was also great.
The once great powers of Japan and Germany looked as though they would never rise again. In retrospect, of course, it is easy to see that their peoples, highly educated and skilled, possessed the capacity to rebuild their shattered societies.
And it may have been easier to build strong economies from scratch than the partially damaged ones of the victors.
The Impact of the War
Two powers, so great that the new term "superpower" had to be coined for them, dominated the world in The United States was both a military power and an economic one; the Soviet Union had only brute force and the intangible attraction of Marxist ideology to keep its own people down and manage its newly acquired empire in the heart of Europe. The great European empires, which had controlled so much of the world, from Africa to Asia, were on their last legs and soon to disappear in the face of their own weakness and rising nationalist movements.
We should not view the war as being responsible for all of this, however; the rise of the US and the Soviet Union and the weakening of the European empires had been happening long before The war acted as an accelerator.
It also accelerated change in other ways: in science and technology, for example. The world got atomic weapons but it also got atomic power. Under the stimulus of war, governments poured resources into developing new medicines and technologies. In many countries, social change also speeded up.
The shared suffering and sacrifice of the war years strengthened the belief in most democracies that governments had an obligation to provide basic care for all citizens. When it was elected in the summer of , for example, the Labour government in Britain moved rapidly to establish the welfare state.
The rights of women also took a huge step forward as their contribution to the war effort, and their share in the suffering, were recognised. In France and Italy, women finally got the vote. If class divisions in Europe and Asia did not disappear, the moral authority and prestige of the ruling classes had been severely undermined by their failure to prevent the war or the crimes that they had condoned before and during it.
Established political orders — fascist, conservative, even democratic — came under challenge as peoples looked for new ideas and leaders. In Germany and Japan, democracy slowly took root. In China, people turned increasingly from the corrupt and incompetent nationalists to the communists. While many Europeans, wearied by years of war and privation, gave up on politics altogether and faced the future with glum pessimism, others hoped that, at last, the time had come to build a new and better society.
In western Europe, voters turned to social democratic parties such as the Labour party in Britain.
Rebuilding the world after the second world war
In the east, the new communist regimes that were imposed by the triumphant Soviet Union were at first welcomed by many as the agents of change. The end of the war inevitably also brought a settling of scores. In many parts people took measures into their own hands.
Collaborators were beaten, lynched or shot. The invasion was successful, and led to the defeat of the German forces in France. Paris was freed on August and the Allies continued eastward while the German front collapsed. Operation Market-Garden was the combined aerial invasion of the Netherlands launched on September 17, The purpose of the invasion was to seize a series of bridges that included a bridge in Arnhem, which spanned the Rhine river.
Market was the name for the airborne invasion. The ground invasion, named Garden, reached the Rhine river, but could not take the Arnhem bridge.
Arriving Soviet troops caused uprisings against the German government in Eastern European countries, but these failed to succeed unless helped by the Soviets. Finland switched to the side of the Soviets and Allies.
American and Soviet soldiers met east of Elbe river, April On December 16, , the Germans tried one last time to take the Western Front by attacking the Allies in Ardennes, Belgium , in a battle is known as the Battle of the Bulge.
This was the last major German attack of the war, and the Germans were not successful in their attack. In Italy, the Allies pushed forward, while the Soviets attacked Berlin.
The allied western forces would eventually meet up with the Soviets at the Elbe river on April 25, Hitler committed suicide on April 30, , two days after Mussolini's death. German forces in Italy surrendered on April 29, The final battle in Europe was ended in Italy on May 11, And by April , American and Philippine forces had cleared much of the Japanese forces, but the fighting continued in some parts of the Philippines until the end of the war.
The Allies wanted Japan to surrender with no terms, but Japan refused. This resulted in the United States dropping two atomic bombs over Hiroshima August 6, and Nagasaki August 9, The surrender documents were formally signed on board the USS Missouri on September 2, , ending the war.
Germany was divided in half. The Allies began denazification, removing Nazi ideas from history,[ source? Germany lost a quarter of the land it had in , with the land given to Poland and the Soviet Union.
The Soviets also took some parts of Poland    and Finland,  as well as three Baltic countries. In , Korea was divided into North and South Korea , each claiming to be the legal representative of the Koreans, which led to the Korean War in Colonies around the world in In that the division was also an ideological one, it determined the nature of economies and societies.
Swing was the popular music of that time and place. A new Allied offensive , drove the Axis west across Libya a few months later,  just after the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa forced it to join the Allies.
Much of the revenge was to gain advantage in the postwar world. Nothing better illustrates the importance attached to film than that in , as Allied armies approached Germany, the Wehrmacht provided several thousand troops as extras for the filming of Kolberg, a film depicting the resistance of a besieged German city on the Baltic following Prussia's defeat at the battle of Jena and Auerstedt in Women who had fraternised with German soldiers had their heads shaved or worse.
In Tokyo, leading Japanese generals and politicians, and at Nuremberg, senior Nazis those that had not committed suicide or escaped , stood in the dock before allied judges. In Germany and Japan, democracy slowly took root. The capacity for destruction had been so much greater than in the earlier war that much of Europe and Asia lay in ruins. In Italy, the fascist past was neglected in favour of the earlier periods of Italian history.
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